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A learned and attractive writer has amused him- 
sdf by recording the " Calamities of Authors" — 
how one expired in a garret, another breathed 
his last in a dungeon, and a third died of star- 
vation in the street. These are evils to which 
an fledi is heir. There is one, however, scarcely 
less acute, and infinitely more enduring, which 
is the especial heritage of authors — ^that, namely, 
of being compelled to write a preface to their 
works. Without these first — or rather last — 
words, a book is not a book, and yet immeasur- 
able perplexity is involved in their production. 
The preparatory process resembles most the 
preliminary essays of an untrained chonis, 
striving to bring their hundred Voices into har- 
monious accordance, whilst each effort ends in 
die production of a harsh discord. An unprac- 
tised author scarcely knows how to " ptch" the 
tone of his prefatory address. Does he deprecate 
criticism? He is accused of affectation. Does 
he defy censure? He is charged with pre- 
sumption. Does he profess readiness to submit 
himself to any fate which in their wisdom and 

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candour the critics may award? Again he is 
deemed guilty of estimating too lightly the 
authority of that fearful fraternity of literary 
law-givers. An author is fortunate if he avoid 
execution on this manifold dilemma; one mode 
of escape, and but one, presents itself. They 
who perform even an unimportant office skil- 
fully seldom fail to acquire some commen- 
dation; surely, then, he who enters the thorny 
path of authorship with the view of rendering 
to the Public a service long desired, by at- 
tempting to fill up a page of the national 
history which heretofore lias been blank, may 
reasonably anticipate, even though the execution 
of his work be not the most able, that, if he 
should not earn the mede of applause, at least 
he will be favored by an abstinence from rigid 
censure. Manchester has had no continuous 
modem historian. We know much, enough 
perhaps, of her rise and pi'ogress to a com- 
paratively recent date; but the point at which 
all historians have stayed their pen is precisely 
that as to which inquiiy is now most active. It 
is pleasing to know whence this gi*eat com- 
munity sprang, how it grew in wealth and 
population, through what trials it passed in 
remote times; but other and weightier con- 
siderations than those of mere literary or local 
curiosity are involved in an investigation of the 

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progress of our manufBtctures during the last 
half centmy, the social condition of our opera- 
tive populsUion, our existing system of local 
goYemment, and our progress in the culture of 
science and literature. Ready means of ac- 
quiring information on these topics have long 
been needed ; and surely he who has striven to 
supply them, albeit prompted to the task in part 
by the pardonable ambition of having his name 
associated with that of his native town^ may 
£sdrly claim that if he be summoned at all before 
the ^^securifera caterva''' of critics, their dread- 
ful hatcheCs may be veiled, as of old, in the 
peace-proclaimingyo^ce^, and his work be spared 
from actual annihilation. 

Beyond the utterance of this fervent wiidi. 
Utile remains to be said. The Author feels 
bound however to state, that if censure must 
faSi anywhere, he alone is liable to die burthen 
of it, inasmuch as, with scarcely an exception, 
he has encountered the most friendly aid in his 
search after information and his appeals for 
assistance. The various public authorities, and 
the representatives of local institutions, (among 
the latter of which the Statistical Society claims 
a special mention) have afforded him every 
facility; and he has been honoured with the 
countenance and co-operation, not merely of 
sevaral personal friends to whose high literary 

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attainments he could appeal without hesitation, 
but of other eminent individuals, whose names 
would give lustre even to his humble labours. 

It may not, perhaps, be improper to state, that 
this volume necessarily comprises little more than 
a sketch of the varied topics enumerated in the 
table of contents. At a ftiture day, perhaps, if 
successM in this first effort, the Author may 
attempt to convey an enlarged picture of the 
history of this conunercial metropolis, combining 
with it some notices of the rise, progress, and 
present state of those contiguous towns which, 
in a mercantile point of view, may be correctly 
designated the suburbs of Manchester. At pre- 
sent, however, he is content that in his statistical 
details he has opened valuably productive mines 
hitherto unexplored, and in his biographical 
chapter has placed upon record more authentic 
memorials of some of the illustiious of their age 
than have hitherto been given to the world, his 
endeavours in this department of his work having 
been kindly seconded by parties peculiarly com- 
petent to afford correct information. 


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CHAPTER I.— OiigM^ of the Town— Roman Station— Cftstle Field— 
Abongiiie8>-Maimex8» Costame, Dwellings— Handicrafts— Progress of Civill- 
zatioB— Roman Roads— Druidiam— Christianity— Fall of Rome— Depaitnre of 
Roman Forces— Pictish Invadon— Manchester Fortress Seized— Sir Tarquin 
the Giant— King Arthur— The Saxons— Settle in Lancashire— Aldport Town- 
Baron's Hall— Churches — Deanery of Manchester— Old Localities — Danes 
seize Manchester^Nonnan Conquest — William of Poictou — Lord of the Manor 
The Reere— The Baron~ Summoned to Parliament— The Qrallejrsand the 
Dc la Warrea— Hie Mossleys— The Collegiate Churdi, or College of the Biased 
Virgin — RefbrmatioQ— Clergy of Lancashire— Extent of Manchester— Eaily 
Trade— Right of Sanctuary removed Arom Town— College Dissolved— Progress 
at RefbnnatSan- John Bradibrd—Pendlebury— Elizabeth's Reign— Roman 
Cafholtrn — Lancashire Plots— Recusants — Imprisoned at Manchester— Bishop 
removes from Town— College Refounded— Revenues Alienated— Recusants 
Ezccoted— Martin Marprelate— Severe Penal Laws— Plague— Burying Ground 
at CoUyfaorst— Flood. Paob 1. 

CHAP, n.— sJamcs L Visits Lancashire— Warden Murrey- Puritans and 
and Papists—The Traffords— College Refounded— Warden Heyridc— Civil War 
— Fkmes terled in Lancashire— Earl of Derby ; his Treatment— Manchester 
RoyaJbCs and Republicans— Heyrick*s Petition to the Kinr-Militia caUed out— 
LonI Stnmge marches towards Manchester— Commencement of Hostilities— 
Mancfaeater Attacked— Troops Withdrawn— Town Fortified— Col. Roseworm— 
Siege— Failure— Narrative in "Parliamentary Chronicle "—Exploits of Man- 
rhwter TkxMps— Earl of Newcastle's Summons to Surrender— Duke of Man- 
diester— DeOnquents Fined— Siege of lAthom House— Plague— Roseworm's 
DIspote— The Presbyterians— Clergy of the Collegiate Church— Heyrick— 
HoQingwarth— Provincial Synod— Independents— Protectorate— Committee of 
Sequestration- Prince Charles's Expedition — Earl of Derby Beheaded— 
Renewed Rd>dlion— Restoration— R^oidngs— Popular Sports Restored— Act 
of Uniformity— Lancashire Seceders- Charles Bennet— Lord Delamere— 
James II. Expelled- Lancashire Plot— Newoombe— Chevalier St. George— 
KoQlurorfr— Dr. Byrom— Dr. Peploe— Taxes— Mode of Assessment— Ttoation 
of Townships and Parishes— Increase of Town. Paok 30. 

CHAP. III.— Rebdlion of 1745— Deacon, Townley, Byrom, Dickenson 
—Hie Clergy— The Pretender— Meetings at Jackson's Ferry— Battle of Preston 
Pans— Rebels march on Manchester— The Prince's Quarters— His Attire— 
Wtatt Visit to Ancoats HaO— Jenny Cameron— Her Story— Syddall— Recruits 

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—Forward March— Retreat— Departure fitnn Manchester— Prlaonefa— Their 
Fate— The Deacoiis— Captain Dawson— Jacobite Remains— Party Spirit^ 
Earthquakes— Census— American War— Mandiester Volunteer*— PoUce— 
Executions near Manchester — Early Trarelling — Politics — Reform— Mr. 
Tliomas Walker— French Revolutloa— Distress at Home— Voionteera— Hlfh 
Price of Food— Commotions. Paos 69. 

CHAP. IV.— Peace of Amiens— Threatened Invasions— PreparatJoaa 
for Defence— Returns of Forces and Property— Volunteer Corps— Female 
Enthusiasm— Eari of Wilton— Prince William of Gloucester— Dispute among 
Vdlunteers— Disbanded— Tr«de Riots— Canning— Miss RoUnson—Mancbester 
Meetings — Counter-movements — Blanketeers — Conspiracy— Parties Seized— 
Watch and Ward— Yeomanry— Disturbances— Peter's Field— 181 9— Hunt— 
Whitworth, Ogden, Knight, &c. — Stockport and other Meetings— Trials— 
Reform Associations— Females— Sixteenth of August— Result- National 
Ferment— The Magistracy— Addresses to Prince Regent— Radical Meetings— 
Cobbett— Himt*s Trial— Tranquillity Restored — (Seorge IV. and Queen Caroline 
—Sir W. Scott— Earl of Wilton— Distress in 1895.0— Causes— Lord Bexley— 
F. D. Astley— Mr. Price— The Wakefldds— Musical Festiral— Representation— 
Distress—Mr. T. Bume— Duke of Wellington, Lord F. Egerton, and Sir 
R. Peel*8 Visit— Reform Agitation— Meetings— Tums-ont— Mr. T. Ashton's 
Murder— Cholera— Number of Cases— Deaths and RecoTerie»— Board of Health 
—Statistics— Elections— Expenses— Voters for Manchester and Salford, and 
County. Pack 97- 


CHAP. I.— Commerce— TraiBc with Greeks— Port of Ribcfaester- Roman 
Arts and CtvOixation — Fairs— Fustians- Cottons— Woollens— Humphrey 
Chetham— French and Low Country Artizans— Increase of Population- 
liTcrpool— Goods Imported and Exported from i(l97~Price of Food— Character 
of Merdiants and Traders— Apprentices— Domestic Habits. Paob 141. 

CHAP. II.— Dearth of Yam— Increase of ManufkMtures— Water Frame 
Sphining Jenny— Carding— The Willow— Scutching Frame— Lapping Machine 
—Mule Jenny— Crompton— Thomas Highs— Arkwright—HargreaTes— Double 
Mule— Throstle— Fly Frame— Tube Frame— The Steam Engine— Successive 
Improvements — Watt — Power-loom — Bleaching — CaUoo -printing — Dyeing 
—Increased Imports and Exports from 1701— Export of Twist— Estimated Extent 
of Cotton Trade in I8I7 and in 1833— Trade with the East— Indian Bfanufiactnres 
-British Competition— Tables of Goods Exported, Desaription, Money Value- 
Number of Spindles Acnployed— Shipping — Customs Levied at liverpocd 
Lancaster and Chester— Growth of Cotton Manufltcture in 1834-5-0. 

Paok 151. 

CHAP, ni.— The Factory System— Commission of Inquiry— Evidence 
—Morality— Hours of Labour— Treatment of Children— Tables of Health, 
in Cotton, Silk, Woollen and Flax Mills, in Lancashire, Glasgow, and the Woollen 
Factories of the North— Exemption of Factory Hands from certain Maladies- 
Domestic Discomforts of Factory Operatives— A Scene— Indifference to Edu- 
cation— Earnings, in Manchester and other Towns— Young Hands— Return 
of Deserted Children— Wages of Young Women— Net Earnings of Cotton 
Workers! in Manchester, Stockport, Dukinfleld, Hyde, Oldham, &c.— Compa- 
ratrve Wages at Manchester and Glasgow of Males and Females— Improvidence 
of Working Class— Trades* Unions— Foreign Competition— Tabk of Earnings, 

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Ac in England, Ameiica, Fruioe^ Proaaia, Switzeriand, Aostxia, the Tyrol, 
Suooy, Baden— Setam of Haada Emplojed in 1836 in Cotton, SUk, Woc^en, 
Wonted and Flax Mills in each Township of the Paxish— Ages— Schooling— 
of Hands in eadi Pariah of Lancashire— Mills in Lancashire— 
r at F'*g<'M« and Water Wheels, Horse PDw^ and Hands Employed in 
1836— MlBs newly bnilt or enlarged in Lancashire daring 1835-0— Power-looms 
in the pKiab— State of Working Oasses in Manchester. Paob 184. 

CHAP. IV.— Silk Trade— Introdoction into England— Early History— 
Attmrnif^ to Rear the Silk Worm in England— Machhiery-Rise of Manchester 
IkMte— Dotics on Raw and "Hirown Silk prior and subsequent to 1834— Silk 
llBowfDg— Price- Wages— Processes — Exports since 1837— ComparatiTe 
Siteat of Tnde at Macdesffeld and Manchester- Hands Employed in Throwing 
and Wea:«ing— Supply of llirown Wk to Manchester— Silk Printing and Dyeing 
— Mftocieslidd, Oongleton, Sandbach— Summary of BiOla in each Parish of 
i (1836)— Power, Number of Milla, Hands, Ages— Prestbury, Astbury, 
-Duties and Wages paid in the Silk Trade since 1815— Compa- 
EBtire Increase of Cotton and SOk Manufttctures. Paob 214. 

CHAP, v.— Weavhig— Fly Shuttle— Number of Hand-loom Weavers— 
ndr Decline in this Vkdnity— Varieties of Manufiusture in Cotton and Woollen 
—Wages at Bolton, M anchester and Stockport— Earnings since 1794— Price of 
Kmt— Weekly Expenses of a Weaver— SUk Weaving— The Jaoquard— Wages- 
Decline in Macclesfield since 18S1— Power Loom— Number used in Silk in 
ICaodiesfeer and throughout the County— Curious Statistics of M n rsh a ll and 
Martin— Migration of Labour from the Agricultural Districts. Paob 933. 

APPENDIX TO PART II.— Bankruptcies in the Cotton Trade since 1786 
— Oootinciital Fairs. Paob 344. 


CHAP. I.— Population of each Township of the Parish in 1801, 18)1, 1831, 
1*31- Annual Value of Real Property in 1815— Extent of each Township in 
Statute Acres— Inhabited, Uninhabited, and New Buildings in each In 1831— 
Number of Persons and Families— Occupations— Similar Return for each 
Diiitrict of the Township of Manchester in 1821 and 1831— Census in 1773.4— 
ODOiparaliTe Population of Manchester and other large Towns— Population of 
Salford Hundred— Survey— Annual Value of Property in each Township of the 
parish of Manchester in I815 and 1&39— Total for the Hundred— Increase per 
eent. of Population— Mortality in County, Hundred and Town— Summary of 
Popolatioa and Value of Property in Great Britain. Paob 245. 

CHAP. 11.— The Old Town— Extension— Old Exchange— New Districts- 
Market- street Improvement— Summary of Receipts and Expenditure— Pro- 
meters of the Alteration— Mr. Fleming— Improvement Committee— Works- 
Outlay -Cost of Land— Schedule of further Alterations -Annual Value of 
Property In the Boroughs of Manchester and Salford up to l S3 3— In each 
Di5trtct ctf Manchester— Assessed Taxes paid since 182S— Postages— Returns 
tram 3ffancfacster Excise Office— From Office of Assessed Taxes, distinguishing 
the Daties paid under each head, and the Number of Payments. Paok 355. 

CHAP, in.— River and Canal Navigation in Lancashire— Connexion with 
oclier Districts • TbeBrldgcwatcrCanal— ShlpCanal-LiverpoolanaManchester 
Railway- Applicatious to Parliament— Ultimate Success— Progress of Works— 
Cofct — Description-Summary— Locomotive Engines -Experiments— Opening 

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of the Line— Hie VIsiton-Prooessioii— Aoddent to Mr. Hoekinoift— HU Death 
^Snbeeqnent TMHIc on RaUroed— Extent— Number of Peeiengrni Half, 
yenriy Retoms— Impforements on and AddMona to the RaUroad— Merchandize 
— Qoantitiea Ganrted— Negotiation with New Qoaj CompaBy— Its FiAuw— 
GaoMS— Groes Receipts and Disbnraementi of RaOwaj tnm its Openinr^ 
Declared Dividends— Corrent Expenaea— LooomotlTe Power— Bnnch Unra 
Prcdectad Railroads. Paob 975. 


CHAP. I.— Monidpal Goremment— Daj Police— Management-Nishtfy 
Watch— Its Cost— Nombers— Regulation— Fire Department— Police Commis. 
sioners— Organisation- Annual Expenditure— Assessments to Police Rate since 
1833— Amounts Collected— Other Statistics— Prisoners taken by Watchmen- 
Paved Streets- Number of Voters in each Police District, and Persons eligible 
as Commissioners— Numbers to be Elected— Highest Assessments— Boundaries 
of Police Districts— Gas Works— Mortgage Debt— Gas Rents fitnn each District 
—Payments to Improvement Committee— Arranged Abstract of all the Polioe 
Acts for Manchester— Analysis of those for Salford, Chorlton-upon-MecUodc, 
Huhne and Ardwick— Manchester Town Hall— The Poor— Local Act for their 
Regulatioo— Workhouse— Its Cost— Number of Inmates since I8li— Expense 
—Dietary— State of the House— Management— Poor's Rate— Weekly Payments 
to Poor— Distinctive Account of Assessment— Rate per Pound— Collection— 
Payments to Hundred and County Rates, to Constables' Accounts, to the Poor 
—Total for each Year since 1 8id— Relief to Irish Poor— Comparison with other 
Towns— Irish Pass Orders executed by Manchester— Irish passed from Liverpool 
to Ireland since 1834— Vagrancy— Commitments to Salford, Khrkdale, and other 
Gaols— Expenses of Vagrant Offloe— Expenditure per Head on the Poor in 
Lancashire and othei Counties, and in the Townships of Bfanchester, Salfoid, 
ChoiltOD.upon-Medlock, Ardwic^ Hnlme, Pendlettm, Broughton— Operation 
of the *' Panic** of 188S— Highway Surveyors— Expenditure— The Markets— 
Blanorial Rights— Fairs— Barracks and Extent of Accommodation. Paob 306. 

CHAP. II.— The PoUoe Court— New Bailey Prison— Number of Prisoners 
brought up ki eadi Month since 1831- Number of Charges at Bfandiester and 
at Salford PdUce Office for a series of Years— Public Houses and Beer Shops hi 
Manchester, Salford, Hnlme, Pendleton, Ardwick and Broughton- Prisoners 
Ttied and Convicted of Felony or Misdemeanour Yearly since 1794 at SaUbrd 
Sessicm- Summary Commitments for Misdemeanour ki each of the last Five 
Years— Magistrates for Salford Hundred— Salaries of Officers of Salford 
Hundred Gad— Extent of Prison— Cost per Head and Earnings of Prisoners- 
Comparison with other Gaols— *' The Silent System*'— Crime in Lancashire 
and other Counties— County Court, Manor Courts Court Leet, Court of Requests, 
Salford Hundred Court— Criminal Expenditnre. Paob 351 . 

CHAP. III.— Ecclesiastical Government— The Warden of Manchester- 
Collegiate Church— Its Internal History— Monnments-^urches and Chapels 
in Manchester and Salford— Bfinisters— Sittings in each— Revenue, Population, 
and Patronage of all Benefices ki Lancashire — Glance at Ecc les tas t kral 
Commissioners' Reports. Paob 3ds. 

CHAP I.—Snnday Sdiools— When Founded— Name of each and Number 
of Pupils— Digest of Sunday Schools in Manchester— The like for Salford— 
General Education in both Boroughs— Proportion to Population— Proprietary 

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ScfcoQi-Digert of Report of Commitfionera on Public Charities— Chetham't 
Bopitel, Grammar School, and ottMr Charities of Salford Hmidred— Summanr 
oftlM whole. PAoa 384. 

CHAP. U.~lto7al Manchester Institotion— Natural History Society— 
MschaalcB^ Tnstttwtkm—AtheMemn^gxchange — Portico ~ Union Clnb— 
ChBBterof Oanamerce— Sabscrlptiai Library— Assembly Rooms— Concert 
HaO-lheatres— Savings* Bank— Commercial Gerks' Society. Paob 400. 

CHAP. III.— Medical Schools} their Rise, Progress, and Present Condition 
—MMical Charities; their Officers, Expenditmre, and Patients Treated— County 
I>*iDarks Report— Manchester Humane Society— District Prorident Society- 
Oaf and Dumb S<*ool-Blind Asylum— Ladies* Jubilee Charity. Paob 421. 


Agricuttnre Round Manchester— Cultivation of Chat Moss— The Lancashire 
Cbsl Field. Paob 488. 


BIOGRAPHY— Introduction. 

CHAP. I —West— Hugh Oldham — Bradford — Dee— Booker— Byrom— 
Ovtei—PacivBl—Bridgewater— White— Banitt—niomas Henry— Note to 
*e Memoir of Dee. Paob 459. 

CHAP. II. — Dr. Henry— Dalton— Peel— Fletcher— liverseege— Swain— 
H«frey— Ahsswortto— De Quincey. Paos 495. 

Origin of tbe Self.acting Mule. 

Ancient Coins. 


nan of ttie Boroughs of Manchester and Salford— *' Twelve Miles Round 
''•ocfaesler **— Table of Dirtances of Market Towns. 

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Page 305, line 15.— Instead of "for years," read "for three years." 

Pa^ sod, line 20.— Mr. Rose's salary has since been increased. 

Page .145, line 13.— For "^42,0^9 8 24 in 183(5, read "je42,699 8 2i iu 1826.' 

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Lancashire has not inaptly been styled the workshop 
of England. Thb honorable distinction, though little 
flattmng to the vanity of some> is one which has been 
slowly earned by the inhabitants of the extended circuit 
to which it is applied, and more especially by that section 
oi the population whose history is about to be traced. 

Manchester, the manufacturing metropolis of the north, 
was orig^ally a dense forest, the domain of birds and 
beasts. Gradually, Celtic emigrants from the continent 
spread northward, and, covering districts now familiarly 
known to us, reached at leng^ the banks of the river 
Medlock, and planted a station there about the time 
(pareis componere magna) of Darius' great expedition to 
Greece and the establishment of the Consulate at Rome. 
These early occupants of the forest were in course of time 
supplanted by or mingled with the Brigantes of York and 
Durham, who felt or fancied a necessity to dischai^ their 
overgrown population, and sent them to seek their fortune 
among the wilds of Lancashire and Westmoreland. The 
nnwarlike trader of our day will have difficulty in pic- 
turing^ to himself these early tenants of the ** country of 
waters," who led a roaming life among the densely-wooded 
plains of Lancashire; spuming all control, and despising 
every exercise save that of the chase or the battle-field. 
The threatenings of unquiet neighbours rendered neces- 
sary the adoption of some means of defence, and tlience 
arose those numerous places of refuge of which the en- 


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campment in Castle Field was one. This station, con- 
structed of stone taken from a large quarry at Collyhurst, 
was styled (according to Whitaker — but each author has 
his favorite title,) Manceniop, or the Place of Tents. It 
was erected in the midst of extensive woods> some twelve 
acres of which were cleared for the purpose, and was 
bounded and secured to the south by the Medlock, to the 
west by a precipitous bank, and to the east and north 
by a deep fosse, cut through the rock at a great expen- 
diture of labour. Though formed by rude and unscientific 
workmen, the encampment was well calculated for the 
object for which it was chiefly designed, — namely, as a 
place to which cattle might be driven in times of danger, 
and whither the young, the in6rm, or the aged might also 
resort for safety. A hollow way conducted from the fort 
to a ford of the riveir. 

This seedling of the existing town had been planted 
little more than a century, when, about the year of our 
Lord 72, the successful Roman invaders attacked the 
Brigantes of Yorkshire and Durham, freed the Sistuntii 
from their yoke, and in its place imposed their own 
authority upon the thinly-scattered people of this province. 
Julius Agricola was the leader of these forces, which 
entered the country from the south, and forded the river 
at Stretford in their advance upon Mancenion, the occu- 
pants of which attempted to retard their progress by an 
irregular system of bush-warfare. The Roman general 
continued to advance, until, partly by force of arms, partly 
by soft words, he obtained possession of this strong-hold, 
and received some of the chiefs as hostages for the good 
faith of the conquered people, who, thenceforward, were 
compelled to abandon the fort and take up their quarters 
without the northern barrier. Lancashire being thus 
subdued, the soldiers of the imperial city, casting aside 
the sword and the buckler, entered with their usual 

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altcrity upon the erection of defences necessary to 
rmder more secure the newly-acquired province, which 
afterwards was marked out as one of the six divisions of 
Britain. A small section of the Roman array, a cohort 
raised in Friezland, and thence deriving its name, 
retained possession of the fort of Mancenion for a 
long series of years, which glided away in com- 
parative quiet and inactivity, varied only by the 
regular ronnd of military duties. Once conquered, the 
people of Lancashire submitted patiently to the mild 
iovereignty of their masters, whose presence was a protec- 
tion from those intestine feuds which had too frequently 
arisen between the people of the contiguous provinces. 

To Britain, indeed, the Roman invasion was the source 
of mighty advantages. Probably with a view to the 
more periect and easy subjection of the province, Agricola 
encouraged the people to abandon their wandering course 
of life, and to plant colonies in the most agreeable and 
fertile districts of the country. Thus, under protec- 
tion of the military stations in Lancashire, arose War- 
ringtoii, Colne, Lancaster, Ribchester. Aldport, the 
original of Manchester, had a similar origin about the era 
of the reign of Titus. The people were generally con- 
stituted in clans, and planted themselves round the tented 
habitadon of the chief, whose dwelling usually stood 
con^icuous above the rest. Their huts were, of course, 
rudely formed, and their only decoration was the trophies 
of the chase or the spoils of war. In person our wild 
ancestors resembled their degenerate offspring even as 
little as in their pursuits. They wore their hair long, and 
turned over to the back; their beard was suffered to grow 
in wild luxuriance upon the upper lip; in battle their 
bodies were naked, painted with images of birds and 
beasts and creeping things; and they wore a girdle round 
the loins. In peace they were covered with the skins of 

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wild animals. The chieflain was somewhat more seemly ; 
he was habited in " brags" or breeches ; a waistcoat and 
"sack;" ¥rith a bonnet; such shoes as those days could 
produce; and his mark of superiority was a ring round 
the neck. In seasons of war the leaders were clad in 
helmets and coats of mail, and fought in chariots, which 
were armed with scythes and directed frequently by a 
charioteer : the commonalty fought on foot, their weapons 
consisting of a battle-axe, a bow, a sword, a dagger, and 
a shield. 

During the continuance of the Romans amongst us, a 
period of 300 years, the germs of future civilization were 
widely diffused. The necessary art of pottery, the handi- 
crafls of the carpenter and the turner, were practised; cast 
iron money was coined; tin was worked up in various ways; 
hand-mills for grinding corn were introduced; the art of 
brewing cider and perry was practised by the natires; 
and the mysteries of the table were also imparted by their 
imperial masters. One common bakehouse served the 
whole community, and a water corn-mill was erected at or 
near the spot now called Knott Mill, on the river bank. Im- 
provements in house-building were adopted, windows being 
glazed with papyrus, and the roofs thatched with straw ; 
not until the sixth century were the houses built of brick 
or stone. The habits and manners of the people must 
have undergone a vast amelioration, by the eradication of 
those unnatural propensities which are the growth of savage 
life. Most of all, however, Britain is indebted to the 
Romans for an improvement in the woollen manufacture, 
a branch of trade which is said to have been introduced 
from Gaul before their invasion, but to which imi)ortance 
was (irst attached by them. A considerable amount of 
foreign commerce is believed to have been carried on by 
the Britons with the Phenicians and Ihe Greeks of Mar- 
seilles, centuries before the birth of Christ, its chief /(M?ta 

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betog the Isle of Wight, then united to the mainland at low 
water. But Lancashire also partook of it ; Ribchester was 
the outlet for the northern parts of the island. It is not pro- 
bable that Manchester had any great share in this almost 
antediluvian traffic, although an immediate connexion be- 
tween that and the other Lancashire settlement was main- 
tained by means of the great highways which the Roma us 
constructed. It has been truly observed that there exist no 
stronger evidences than these roads afford of the native 
grandenr and consummate wisdom of the universal 
conquerors. These great causeways, whilst they afforded 
an iolet to order and general improvement, tended to main- 
tain and secure the all-grasping despotism of Rome, and 
to hold together her overgrown empire. Of these roads, 
which were planned by Agricola, Lancashire had four; 
two running from east to west, and two from nortli to 
south. One of them commenced in Manchester and ter- 
BUiiated at York, running by the present site of the 
Infirmary to Ardwick, across Ancoats Lane, towards 
Bradford, over the heath to Hollinwood, Austerlands, Sad- 
dleworth, to ancient Cambodunum, in the parish of Hud- 
dersfidd (a distance of upwards of twenty miles), whence it 
bfanches to York. Another connected the Camp at Man- 
diester with Condate, running near Combrook, by Stret- 
fbrd. Cross-street, Altrincham, Dunham Park, to the ex- 
isting road to Knutsford, Mere Town, and thence inclining 
by Northwich to Kinderton, a distance of twenty-two miles. 
lliis road was continued through Chester into Shropshire. 
A third to Coccium, or Blackrod, branched from the last 
named to Throstle Nest; thence fording the Irwell at 
Trafford,* and crossing the old Warrington road, it passed 

« Tb« Uuotty of Uie Trmffords in of Saxnn nriglo, and one of the roost aodent 
to Um kingdom, haviof ctiOtioucd in an ooioterrupted nial« line to tbe present 
po— rfMjf. Wbeo Kxag Canute passed throofb the county of CbeKter, be was 
followc4 in hia train by the beada of many Lancashire and Cheshire familien, 
•muoM the former of whom wm Baoapbos de Traford, or, as expresaed In 
pooodny Book, Trayfoid. 

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Hope Hall, and was continued by Westwood to the staiioD 
near the river Douglas at Blackrod^ the metropolis of 
Lancashire before the Brigantian inyasion. The fourth 
road, to Ribchester, ran by Deansgate to the Collegiate 
Church, along Hunt's Bank, cutting through the rocks ; 
by Stony Knolls, over Kersall Moor, through Prestwich, 
RadcHfie, Cockey Moor, Darwen (eastward of Blackburn], 
to Ribchester, which then was the port of X^ancashire, the 
Ribble being navigable to that point, although the ravages 
of an earthquake, as it is conjectured, have since choked 
the channel. Besides these principal roads, another con- 
nected Manchester with Yorkshire, running by Moston, 
Chadderton, Royton, Rochdale, Littleborough, Blackstone 
Edge, Halifax, &c.; and another also communicated with 
Buxton, where, even in those distant days, there was a 
bath (close to the modem St Ann's well) celebrated for its 
medicinal qualities. This road skirted Garratt Hall to 
Longsight and ^High-street,'' fording the Mersey to Stock- 
port, where it ran over the Castle Hill, and along the 
high ridge of the existing Market Place. There were 
inferior stations connected with the Manchester Camp at 
Singleton Brook, Prestwich (" Lowcester*'), Broughton 
Hall CHUl Wood"), the "Castle Hill" on Kersall 
Heights, near the Grand Stand — at Littleborough, 
and Stockport, in all amounting to six, which were 
formed for the protection of the cattle in these dis- 
tricts. From one of the principal roads also a branch 
extended to Warrington, where was planted at the ford 
of the river, leading into Latchford, a station which 
formed one of the many defences of Lancashire, and 
which presents one of the most striking natural positions 
for a fort to be found in England. These stations were 
rendered more secure by being linked together through 
the medium of watch-towers planted on the highest points 
of the country, such as Rivington Pike, Pendle Hill, 

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CasUeshaw, Ixmgridge Fell, &c. The fords of the rirers' 
also were provided with defences at Stretford, Didsbury, 
HoUins Green, Barlow, Warrington, Stockport, &c. How 
secure most have been the anthority of the Romans, aided 
by sach works as these ; and how silently, yet how securely, 
the correspondence thus opened with remote districts must 
have tended to snbdue the wild habits and dispositions of 
the natives of Lancashire ! But there was another far 
more potent engine at work to produce this happy change. 
Before the foot of a foreigner was planted upon their 
shores, the Britons were enslaved by the gross abomina- 
tions of Dmidism, which might possibly be mitigated, but 
coold be little improved, by the polytheistic supersti- 
tions of Rome. It was, indeed, a beneficial influence 
which directed them, in however slight a degree, from the 
dark and desolating rites enacted in subterranean 
caverns, to the more harmless mummeries of the Romish 
altars; but the work was complete when, from causes 
variously assigned, the light of Christianity was made to 
penetrate into these benighted regions. The glorious 
dengn was accomplished in the middle of the first century, 
and in the next Lancashire participated its advantages, 
Eboracum being assigned as the station for a missionary, 
whose pious zeal would no doubt mark out a wide field of 
exertion. "Edwin, king of this country, (says Holling- 
worth) one much loved and honoured by his people, with 
his daughter Zanfled, were converted to Christianity by 
Paalinns, and together with many thousand people, were 
baptized." " But this blessed light of Christian religion 
was extinguished within two years after the death of 
Edwin, and the baptized Christians revolted again to 
Paganisme. Afterwards came Aidanus, a Scotchman, 
(King Oswald having sent for him out of Scotland) 
and lighted the candle againe, and God so blessed his 
bbours that in seven whole dayes he baptized more than 

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fifteen thousand. It may be hoped that our ancestors of 
this town did severale of them at least receive Christianity 
at that time, seeing King Oswald did so much reside at and 
delight in Winwicke not farre off J* 

But new prospects opened upon the people of Britain. 
The proud and unwieldy empire of Rome was hastening 
to decay, and in the hope of warding off the destiny 
which awaited her, it was found necessary to contract her 
limits, and to recal her soldiers to Italy for the purposes 
of self-defence against those ''iron swarms" which poured 
from the north, to blast the Italian shore and sweep the 

Of liberty and wisdom down Uit folf 
Of •U^erouiiog nigbt. 

In this crisis the force stationed in Britain, and of course 
that small portion of it which had so long retained pos- 
session of the encampment here, returned to Italy in 
obedience to a pressing mandate. The capital had become 
imminently endangered in the reign of Valentinian the 
younger; and at that period, therefore, the last remams 
of the Roman soldiery, as well as such of the British 
youth as were capable of efficient military service, were 
finally draughted from the island.* They carried with 
them, no doubt, the regrets of many of those among 
whom they had lived, and to whom they had been the 
means of protection against internal division, as well as 
.against those inroads which followed close upon their 
retiring footsteps. The diminution of the imperial forces 
in Britain had already induced partial incursions from the 
Pictish and Scottish borderers, whose ravages were after- 

* In mndera days Tvioas memortala of ttie Roman dominion have been 
discovered In this quarter of the ooontrf . The most interesting of these was 
an andent altar dag op In CasUe Field so long ago as i6is, and deposited in 
Hnlme Hall. Ancient coins In abnndance and some urns have also been 
fbond. The moond in Brooghton, on which stands the castellated residence 
of Mr. Pltxgerald, has incorreetlf been asaocUted with the Roman namei 
there is reason to believe that no claasle recoUeetions property belong to It 

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vards so widely and severeFy felt The first formidable 
iBvasiou of these tribes is supposed to have occurred about 
the year 446. With its advantages the partial civilization 
effected by the Romans had carried this evil, that the 
sabjugation to which the Britons tamely submitted for so 
many centuries had unfitted them for warlike pumuits, 
and exposed them a comparatively easy conquest to their 
teiTtble assailants. Diffident, therefore, of their own 
QQtried strength, they made submissive and repeated 
applications for the return of the Roman soldiery to 
protect them against those barbarians who, they said, 
drove them into the sea, whilst the sea thrust them back 
upon the barbarians; but the appeal was rneffectual, and, 
writhing under the scourge of one despotism, they had 
recourse to the desperate remedy of calling in the Saxons 
to expel the Picts and Scots. The succour from tliis 
quarter was prompt and effectual : the Saxons did expel 
the invaders, but no sooner had they done so than they set 
up a claun to, and forcibly established themselves in pos- 
sesraon of the lands and fastnesses which they had been 
the means of re-conquering. The fort at Manchester was 
among those of which they thus retained occupation. 
The Britons, therefore, finding at last that their depend- 
ance must be upon themselves, prepared for a desperate 
struggle with their late perfidious allies. The instigator 
and chieftain of this renowned warfare was Prince Arthur — 
a name high in the rolls of fame — who performed many 
of bis most brilUant achievements in Lancashire, and 
fought several desperate battles on the banks of the river 
Douglas — two near Wigan, where, in modem times, 
masses of human bones aud the remains of horses have 
been discovered. Four great battles were thus won in 
Lancai^iire, the fruit of which was that the Angles were 
driven northward. It is recorded that Manchester had 
been infested by the presence of a ferocious giant. Sir 

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Torquil or Tarquin, who kept no less than sixty-foor 
brave knights in bondage in the Castle of Manchester 
until they were liberated by one of Arthur's knights. Sir 
Launcelot de Lake. The graphic description of this 
monster by Mr. Hollingworth partakes strongly of the 
nature of poetical fiction. '• It is sayd that Sir Tarquine, a 
stout enemie of King Arthur, kept the castle, and neere to 
the ford in Medlock, about Mabhoase, hung a bason, 
on which bason whosoever did strike. Sir Tarquine or 
some of his company would come forth and fight with him, 
and that Sir Launcelot du Lake, a knight of King Arthur's 
Round Table, did beate upon the bason, fought with 
Tarquine, killed him, and possessed himself of the castle 
and loosed the prisoners. Whosoever thinketh it worth 
his paines to reade more of it may reade the history of 
King Arthur. It is certaine that about a.d. 520 there was 
such a prince as King Arthur — it is not incredible thai he 
or the knight might contest about this castle when he was 
in this county, and (as Ninius sayth) hee put the Saxons 
to flight in a memorable battell neere Wigan about twelve 
miles of." * 

At Arthur's death, however, the miseries of the country 
were renewed; endless swarms of Germans poured in, 
until at length this county was almost covered by them. 
The northern provinces, however, were the last to submit, 
Uiien, "the glory of Lancashire," having kept the invaders 
at bay until he fell by the hand of an assassin, in or about 
the year 593. Then, two hundred and twenty-six years 
after the evacuation of the fortress by the Romans, 
and one hundred and seventy -four from their final 
abandonment of the island, the people of this district 
submitted to the Saxon power under Edwin, with the 
proud satisfaction of having struggled to the last and 

* The terror of this Sir T^aine wm carried so hx that tMOpIe aetoally 
believed a report which wu current aboot him, that he eat a child for Us 
hreakftot erery momiog I 

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succmnbed to one of the greatest of the Saxon chieftains : 
Lancadiire was then apportioned to one of the Heptarchy 
— the dde of amelioration gradually set in again, and the 
spirit of enterprize, which had been partially smothered 
amid the ruins of civil war, in some degree revived. 
The county received large colonies of the Saxons, who 
penetrated the forests, and planted castles or stations at 
Rochdale, Bury, Middleton, Wigan, Standish» and in 
iBore distant quarters. 

From the Saxons also the new town of Manchester is 
said to have had its origin, on or near the site of the sum- 
mer camp of the Romans, (a supposed station, no traces of 
which have yet been found, and the existence of which 
is qaestioned) and in contiguity with the present Market 
Place. The Aldport or Old Town had become much 
dilapidated by incessant warfare and the lapse of time. 
Lancashire generally was assuming a new aspect. In this 
district Salford, Cheetham, Ardwick and Chorlton Row 
Here first recovered from the forest, and in the early part 
of the seventh century the more remote townships of 
Rusholme, Stretford, Chorlton, Withington, Gorton and 
Droylsden, were disencumbered of their ancient oaks. 
The lands conquered by Edwin were apportioned among 
his followers, and Manchester became the residence of a 
Lord or Thegn, who erected his '* Baron's Hall " on the 
present site of the College. This chieftain held a greater 
and lesser leet, where offenders were fined or punished 
by the pillory, the cucking-stool, or even the gallows; 
and to encourage a settlement in the new borough, certain 
privileges were granted to the burgesses, among which 
was that of allowing burgage tenants, on paying twelve 
pence a-year to the Thegn, to have all causes (but not 
felonious charges) tried by their own Reeve in his court. 

In the meantime Christianity had advanced throughout 
the county, and in Manchester no less than two churqlv^ 

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existed at a very early period : the first, that of St Michae), 
in Aidporty of which mentioa is made in Domesday Book; 
and the second that of St Mary, which had a more recent 
date. Manchester was constituted a parish as early 
as the year 446, and indaded Ashton: its boundaries 
were Eccles and Flixton, on the west; Prestwich, on the 
north; the Mersey and Tame rivers, on the south; and 
the Saddleworth hills, on the east; covering a space of filly 
or sixty miles in circumference. The southern parts of 
Lancashire were then embraced in the diocese of York, 
whence they were transferred to that of Litchfield, and so 
continued till 1541, when the whole county was reunited 
and appended to the province of York. In the seventh 
century Manchester and Warrington were made deaneries, 
and invested with great powers over their respective 
districts, a Rector being then the highest ecclesiastical 
functionary. In the deanery of Manchester were included 
Eccles, Middleton, Rochdale, Bury, Prestwich, Blackburn, 
and Whalley. 

The church of St Mary, erected near the end of the 
existing St Mary's -gate, afforded an evidence of the 
increase of Manchester during the tranquil era of the Saxon 
supremacy. The town, in fact, had continued to advance 
until it spread from Aldport along Deansgate, which 
formed the communicating link, towards Aca's Field (now 
St Ann's-square) and the Market-place, (the modem 
Smithy-door) to which there was a passage by Toll-lane, 
so called from being the point for taking toll. Deansgate 
was so named from being the residence of the Dean, and 
consisted chiefly of Church lands: the site of the "Par- 
sonage" is still well known ; in process of time the Par- 
sonage-house was converted into a bake-shop. In the 
vicinity of the Baron's Hall there existed a mill for the 
accommodation of the inhabitants, of which more here- 
after. It stood at the foot of Old Millgate. In these 

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early thnes the popular festiyal of. a "wake" was periodi- 
cally held, AcaVfield and Knott-mill being the scenes of 
Tejoicing. They were appointed to commemorate the 
erection of the churches, the first of which was built of oak. 
It seems, too, that our forefathers were as prone to sin as 
oorseWes, and, accordingly, the means for their castigatiuu 
were close at hand: the cucking or ducking stool being 
planted in Pool-fold, and the pillory near the Market- 

Britain being doomed once more to pass through the 
fiery ordeal *of a foreign invasion more dreadful than those 
already encountered, the ravages of the Danes fell 
heavily upon the land, aud not more lightly, it would seem, 
on Lancashire than on other parts. "They held the 
coantry about 60 yeares," says HoUingworth. " Certainly, 
at that time, Manchester was either totally or in a great 
measure rained, as Chester allso and other cities, where 
their destroying feete trampled downe the beauty of the 
land." The Danes seized " Manigceastre" a.d. 870, after 
an obstinate resistance on the part of the Anglo-Saxon 
popolation, to aid which they cut a trench (so says a 
manuscript authority) from Ashton Moss to Ouse Moss, its 
traces being visible in Denton, Gorton, Birch, &c. After 
the expulsion of these northmeu from Lancashire by 
Edward the Elder, m 930, that "noble Prince," in the 
twentieth year of his reign, "repayred the city of Man- 
chester, that sore was defaced with the warre of the Dhnes." 

The next era, from which, indeed, may be dated the 
iBodem history of Manchester, occurs at the period of the 
Norman conquest, when William, in satisfying the claims 
of his hungry followers, handed over the simple citizens of 
this place to William of Poictou, who received at the 
hands of his royal master the hundreds of Amonndemess, 
Lonstlale and Fumess, and the whole tract of country 
between the Mersey and the Ribble, as well as various 

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manors in other counties. He again made re-grants : there 
were five holders, or milites^ under him in the hundred of 
Salford, and Manchester itself was embraced in a lot of 
three hides and half a carucate which fell to Nigel, a 
Norman Knight *' This Roger, of Poytiers, (says Holling- 
worth) was tlie first Lord of the Manor of Lancaster, but 
hee, by his perfidious disloyalty, lost it shortly afterwards, 
and the Lordship of Manchester devolved to the Gredley's, 
wch came in with the Conqueror," — a family, it seems, 
holding lands in Blackburn hundred, and allied by mar- 
riage to that of Nigel. The third Baron of IManchester, 
Robert de Grelley, was one of those " iron barons" who 
assembled at Runnymede and extorted from the faithless 
King John the great charter of British liberty. Among 
other notable services rendered to the town, he obtaiaed 
from Henry IH. permission to hold a fair in Aca'»- 
field during two days, a privilege in acknowledgment for 
which he undertook to pay five marks and a palfrey 
annually. Subsequently, the duration of the fair was 
extended by royal license to three days. In the year 1301 
Thomas de Grelley granted the " Great Charter of Man- 
chester." It is to be found among the muniments of the 
town; a copy of it is also preserved in "Aikin's Des- 
cription of Forty Miles Round Manchester," and a trans- 
lation made in the year 1657, by order of William Byron, 
Boroughreeve, has been published in most of the histories 
of the town which have since made their appearance.''^ It 
is witnessed by Sir John Byron, Sir Richard Byron, 
Henry of Trafford, Richard of Hillton, Adam of Prestwich, 
Roger of Pilkington, GeoflTrey of Chaderton, Richard of 
Moston, John of Prestwich, and others ; and it is in sub- 
stance nothing more than a collection of bye-laws for the 
better regulation of the borough and^of the courts of 

* The charter itself, which it in exceUerit prewnratioD, lies In the Borongh- 
iceve's chest, wiUtin the protcctliic coyer of • tohtcco-box I 

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kmgkmoott aad portmoott which the lord was authorised to 
hold. Most of its provisions are now obsolete, the burg- 
rteve having ceased to be the effective head officer of the 
CovaiB, and the Courts themselves having dwindled down 
into the Courts Leet and Courts Baron, now held twice in 
the year for the appointment of officers and the regulation 
of the markets. An attempt has recently been made to 
take advantage of one of the clauses in this charter, for 
the purpose of altering the mode of electing the Borough- 
reeve ; the grant being that ** the burgesses ought and may 
chnse a Reeve of themselves, whom they will, and to 
remove the Reeve;'* but the effort must prove unsuc- 
cessful, inasmuch as the terms of the charter are fully 
complied with in the present mode of election by the 
Court Leet 

The history of Manchester is for some succeeding years 
little more than a blank, and it may therefore be conjec- 
tured that the town was progressing favourably, since it is 
generally found that those times which present fewest inci- 
dents worthy of commemoration, are the richest in actual 
comfort and prosperity to the people. The Baron of 
Manchester was summoned to Parliament in 1307 and the 
three stirring years which succeeded. He appears to have 
been a favourite with the reigning Monarch, Edward I., 
who invested him with the tide of Knight of the Bath, 
according to the ceremonial of those days, bathing 
being one of its qecessary forms. F(om the Grelleys the 
Barony descended, by marriage, to the family of De la 
Warre, and John, the first of the line, was called to Parlia- 
ment in the ninth year of Edward II. reign. He and 
his successors of the same title distinguished themselves 
in the battle of Cressey ; during the succeeding wars of the 
Roses,* in the battle of Bosworth Field, where, by his 

♦ Mmaj of the Laacaabire fentry were deeply inTolved In the " Wars of the 
' Hie Staoley family was gitaUy acfrandiaed by the soccess of Henry 

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prowess, one of them won a portion of the confiscated 
estates of the Duke of Norfolk; and most of all, in the 
Great Reformation, the Baroa of Manchester being one 
of those who drew up a formal intimation to the Pope, 
that his continued resistance to Henry's wishes in regard 
to the divorce would lead to the extinction of his supre- 
macy in England. William West, the eventual successor 
of this intrepid Baron, was withheld from his rank by 
the legislature, in consequence of a conspiracy to 
poison his uncle; but he was nevertheless called up to 
Parliament by writ of summons, in the reign of Elizabeth. 

This Baron claiming to nominate the Boroughreeve 
whilst his title was in abeyance, the inhabitants elected 
one of their own, and a collision was approach! ne:, when 
the Baron sold his manorial rights for the small sum of 
£ 3,000 to John de Lacye, a cloth-maker in London. A 
second sale, after the lapse of seventeen years, vested the 
manorial rights in the family of ''Mossley of the Hough," 
(familiarly known as Hough's End) where they owned an 
ancient hall, still in existence. In the year 1399, Thomas 
West, Rector of Manchester, succeeded to the baronial 
rights; and, like his predecessors, was summoned to Par- 
liament His increased worldly greatness and honour, 
however, did not in the least abate, but rather encouraged, 
his sacerdotal zeal. He was the founder of the Collegiate 
Church, which he offered to erect at his own expense, and 
to endow with a portion of his own estates, if the gentry 
and inhabitants of the town would consent to an assign- 
ment of the rectorial estates to the new edifice. This 
liberal offer being accepted, a new structure was reared on 
the site of the present erection. 

John Huntingdon, D.D., Rector of Ashton-under-Lyne, 
was the first Warden of the Church, and associated with 

VI I^ and ttie lord of thote dvyn recetved from the hands of his patron sereral 
pnasors In this vicinity, beloociog to the Pilkiofton family ; bat he had much 
diAcolty In retaining uem. 

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faim were eight felloVs, four clerks, and six choristers, who 
were conjointly styled ''the Gaild or Company of the 
Blessed Virgin in Manchester." This simple building, in 
whi^ oar fathers met to worship, gave place to a 
modem one of stone, and succeeding years have pro- 
duced the various additions to it which are distinguished 
by the names of their respective founders. The gentry 
and (Himitive merchants of Manchester had their share 
in providing the materiel for that magnificent temple, the 
pride of many generations, and the history of which 
b doeely intertwined not only with the annab of the town, 
but with the most interesting epochs in our national records. 
Daring the Wardenship of George West, between the 
years 1516 and 1535, it is stated that "the town was in« 
creasing in opulence and wealth." The Reformation was 
in its infancy, and the flame of religious dissension burnt 
fiercely* George CoUyer, the successor of West in the 
Wardenship, refused to acknowledge Henry VIII. as the 
head of the Church, and his spirit seems to have perva<ied 
a large proportion of the lower order, since it has been 
well observed, that "as most of the great families in the 
vicinity of the town continued long to be rigid Catholics, 
their example and influence would have great weight with 
the populace." In 1536 a law was passed against the 
^wd^" but the enactment was little respected in this 
coonty, which had always been famed for the love of such 
sports. The economists of our day will wonder to hear 
that the expense of these wakes, which, before the passing 
of the nnpopular act, were held in the Churches, and 
afterwards in the Church-yards, was defrayed by the 
Churchwardens, who made special collections from house 
to house for that object The priests of Lancashire seem 
to have ofi*ered violent opposition to Henry's measures, 
and we read of two or three being hanged as examples to 

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their brethren.^ In the reign of Edward III. a bridge 
over the Irwell was planted on the spot occupied by 
the existing one; and, according to the usage of those 
times, a chapel or oratory was built in its centre^ that 
prayers might be offered up for its founder. 

There exist but scanty materials for calculating the 
extent, three hundred years ago, of a community which has 
since grown into such astounding importance; but it may 
be conjectured that the town had already attained a great 
increase since the time when the baronial hall was the 
centre of fashion and gaiety — a sort of mimic court, to 
which the youth of the surrounding country resorted to 
seek tuition in the chivalric exercises of the day, and 
whence the poor inhabitants of the town itself received 
their chief subsistence. Mention has already been made 
of the privileges granted by the early Barons to the town's 
people, which, i\o doubt, tended to increase their numbers, 
though not by a very rapid augmentation. So late as the 
year 1366, the Sheriff of Lancashire being required to 
cause the return of representatives to Parliament, from 
boroughs of sufficient importance to be burdened with 
that unnecessary and expensive obligation (as it was then 
considered), reports that the cities or boroughs in the 
county, "by reason of their inability, low condition, or 
poverty," could not undertake it But thirty years seem to 
have produced a vast change. For a short time, Man- 
chester enjoyed the privilege of sanctuary. Hollingworth 
states that by statute 32 Henry VIII. this was "one of the 
seven of all the cathedrals, collegiate, parish churches, hos- 
pitalls, or chappells, wch were allowed and taken to bee 

* Perhaps Uie Insorrection which broke oat in the tweotj-eichth jev of 
Mm7*8 reipi. and which it kDown as the " Pilfrimafc of Grace/* orifinated 
partly in the attacliment of the people to their ancieot games ami ceremonials. 
The Earl of Derby, beinf required to take op arms against them, attacked them 
wiUt forces raised in Lancashire and Cheshire, and *' they were brought to 
peace and qalet, though they were a yery great oamlxr out of Comherland, 
WfiCmorlaiMl aod the north parts of Lancashire.*' 

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plaees of privilege and tuition for ternie of life for all ahd 
siognlar offenders and malefactors, except wilful! murther, 
rape, boi^lary, robbery by the highway or in houses, felo- 
nious burning of houses, and their abettors. But within a 
yeare or two the sanctuary being found prejudicial to the 
wealth, credit, greate occupyings, and good order of the 
sayde towne, (in wch towne, sayth the statute, it is expedient 
that honest, true, and credible persons, and not any manner 
of light person or persons, should inhabit) by occasioning 
idlenesse, unlawfull games, unthriflinesse, and other enor- 
myties in the labourers, servants, and others of the sayde 
towne; and because divers thefts, and robberies, and 
fidonies were comited, and the towne not walled nor had 
any Maior> Sherifie, Bayliffe, or other head officer then 
the steward of &e Lord of the Manor^ nor any prison or 
goal, the sayde Act of Parliament was annulled and the 
sanctuary remoued to West Chester, wch had no such 
trade of merchandise, and had a strong goale, a Maior, 
Bayliffes, ^c'* The statute here referred to, (33 Henry 
Vlll.) by which thb change was effected, describes in minute 
tarns the kind of trade that had grown up in the town. 
It recites, among other considerations, that the town was 
^wdl inhabited, distinguished for its trade, both in linens 
and woollens," that "the inhabitants have obtained riches 
and wealthy livings, and have employed many artificers and 
po<^ iblks," causing by their strict and true dealing "the 
resort of many strangers from Ireland and elsewhere, with 
linen, yam, wool, and other necessary wares for making of 
cloth, to be sold there." As a further argument for the 
transfer the Act sets forth the necessity for the linen and 
yam to lie out night and day " for the space of one half 
year," "to be whited before it can be made into cloth, and 
the woollen cloth then made must hang upon the tenter to be 
dried before it can be dressed up." The Act states further, 
that "many strangers inhabiting in other townships have 

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used cttftomanly to resort to the said town with a great 
number of cottons to be uttered and sold to the inhabitants/' 
"whereby many poor people have been well set to work, as 
well with dressing and greazing of the said cotton, as with 
putting to size the same/' &c^ all which processes and their 
consequent advantages are justly considered to be jeoparded 
by the resort of ''light and evil-disposed persons'' to the 
town, which the privilege of sanctuary greatly encouraged; 
the Act, therefore, authorised its removal to Chester, in 
accordance, as it would seem, with the wish of the indus- 
triously-disposed citizens of Manchester. 

The town in that age was, according to Camden, 
"of greate account for certaine woollen clothes there 
wrought and in greate request, comonly called Manchester 
cottons," and an Act was consequently passed in the 5th. 
and 6th. Edward VI., for regulating the weight and 
dimensions of "Lancashire and Cheshire cottons." It 
may fairly be inferred, then, that Manchester had even 
now attained to considerable eminence in those pursuits 
which have eventually caused her to be regarded almost as 
the centre of English commerce; and although the civil 
dissensions of England, in this and the succeeding century, 
operated injuriously upon her, they were merely like a 
passing cloud, darkening for a moment but not per- 
manently obscuring her rising greatness. 

The good and evil influences of the ecclesiastical 
Reformation, to which the base appetites of Henry VIII. 
had providentially been made to contribute, were largely 
felt in this town and throughout the county. In the first 
year of Edward VI. the Collecre was dissolved, and the 
College-house, being taken into the King's possession, even- 
tually fell into the hands of the Derby family. This 
decisive blow would no doubt be highly gratifying to one 
portion of the conmiunity, and equally disheartening to 
another; upon the whole, although a vast mass of the 

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ignorant (and in those days they were indeed ignorant) still 
clang to the ancient Church, the doctrines of the Reformar 
tion made good progress. In the year 1550 John Brad- 
ibrd» who had abandoned the field of war for that of 
dirinity, in which latter pursuit he was particularly 
patronised by Ridley, made a circuit through this district 
of Lancashire, preaching the Reformation in Manchester, 
EccJes, Prestwich, Middleton, Radcliffe, Ashton, Stock- 
port, Mottram, Wilmslow, Bolton, Bury, Wigan, Live^ 
pool, and the "city of West Chester." In the year 1555, 
he was pitted against Dt, Pendlebury> an individual who 
was maintained out of the revenues of the dissolved 
College; and had recanted in Manchester in Edward's 
rctgn, bat on Mary's accession relapsed into Popery. 
These champions appear to have held a zealous if not a 
learned disputation here, on the respective merits of the old 
and the new system. They afterwards figured on a wider 
scene. Pendlebury, who was "a fat, bigg man,'' **over- 
selfe-confidently" declared, " I will see the utmost droppe 
of this grease of mine molten away, and the last gobbet of 
this flesh consumed to ashes," before he would abandon the 
reformed doctrine to which he was now allied. The fervour 
of his newly-awakened affections, however, had time to 
cool; and when, in Mary's brief day, the alternative of 
death or recantation was presented, the weakness of the 
flesh gained the victory, and he once more preached the 
doctrines of Rome. Not so with his antagonist Bradford. 
The terrors of excommunication were hurled against him 
in Tain; he was taken, imprisoned, and doomed to the 
fiiggot; stHl his spirit quailed not, but fearlessly he met 
the torturing death by which Mary and her abettors strove 
to extirpate the " damnable heresy." Prior to his martyr- 
dom, Bradford wrote to his mother in Manchester a 
beautiful valedictory episUe, which still exists.^ It was at 

* R oMf be feaDd in the College Ltbrarf, In a small black-letter volame 
•atttted •* LeUen of MaUter iotm Bradford, a Ia]rttiraU Minister and a sfngular 

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first decreed that the scene of his mioisteriDgs should be 
that of his sufferings also, and that he should be burnt in 
Manchester, but the project was abandoned. He was 
held the most pious of all the Martyrs. — Another person 
who figured in Manchester in this reign was one Elias (or 
Ellys) who arrogated the character of a prophet, and 
obtained some credit here, contrary to the standard maxim; 
but venturing to London he was thrown into gaol as an 
itnposter, and died after an imprisonment of about three 

It is useless to advert further to the miseries of those 
distracted times: suffice it to 8ay> that on the death of 
Mary, the " scourge of Protestantism,'^ the joy diffused 
among the disciples of the new creed in Manchester was 
enhanced by the fact that many Protestants who had been 
incarcerated in the College were released from confine- 

Soon after her accession. Queen Elizabeth erected 
a Commissioners' Court of forty-four to complete the 
Reformation, under whose direction the College of Man- 
chester, which hitherto had been only a local institution, 
had its sphere of operation extended, by being constituted 
the College of Lancashire to train youths for the ministry 
and otherwise aid the extension of Protestantism. Still, 
however, the Roman Catholics were a very numerous body, 
and it is believed that among the influences which induced 
a more general adherence to Popery in this county than 
in others, was the abolition of the g^mes, which, as already 
stated, were eagerly pursued by the humbler classes of 
the northern districts.^ In Manchester, the Earls of 

pyllar of Christe't Cborcii: by wboM frwte ttmudles »Dd dillfenoe io preachiof 
and pUudtiDf tiie STOcerity of the Goq;>el« by wbose most fodly and innocent 
lyfe, and by wboM lonf and payneftal Imprisonments for tbe maintenance of 
tbe trutb, the kyngdom of Ood was not a litUe adoanced: who also at last most 
TaliaUy and cberefoUy gaue his blood for the same. The 4 day of July. In the 
yere of oar Lord 15&S.** 

* So lately as 179s the aothorities put forth a notice prohibitinf tbe throwins: 
at cocks on Shrove Tuesday, a sport which no doubt had been hftoded down 
from, the earliest times. 

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Derby* and Hiiiitiiigdon,tbe Bishop of Chester, and others 
of the Commissioners appointed to forward the Reforma- 
tion, issued a special order for suppressing ''pipers, 
minstrels, bear and bull baiting*' on the Sunday, as well 
as ** superfluous and superstitious ringing,'' drunkenness, 
&c. On the other hand^ those who did embrace the 
refcmned doctrine seized upon its principles with unbridled 
aTidity, and the consequence was that the Manchester 
"puritans" became a powerful phalanx. 

Throughout the whole of Elizabeth's reign, but especially 
daring the years of the Scottish Queen's imprisonment, 
religious rancour prevailed to an unnatural and baneful 
d^:ree in Lancashire. Whilst the Queen was bent upon 
purifying the land from Poper}% the faithful disciples 
of Rome Were not m^ely resolved to retain the ground 
they stiH held, but if possible to regain that which 
they had lost Plots ahd rumours of plots against the 
Queen and the Commonwealth Were constantly afloat, 
and they ^ain, by a not unnatural re-action, led to 
farther r^trictions on the part of the Government In 
the year 1580, a new commission was issued to proceed 
"more fetrictly" against the Papists. Heavy fines were 
levied under its authority against recusants (non-payers 
being imprisoned in Hdton Castle, Cheshire); English 
parents were commanded to recal their children from 
foreign Seminaries; and Dr. ChaddertOn^ Warden of 
Ifanchester, was t^uired to make a list of all recusants 
ibr the Commissioners. The two celebrated Jesuits, 
Parsons and Campion, made Lancashire their abdde for 
some time ; and if confessions upon the rack be of any 
value, it seems that the late Warden of Christ's College, 
in Manchester, as well as other inhabitants of the town, 
received and harboured them. Even plans to assassinate 

« At Uiis time ttie Earl of Dcrbj Ureil at Aldpoit Lodge (in Deansnte), to 
vlikli a paifc was attached. 

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the English Queen found abettors and instruments; 
Chamock, a gentleman of Lancashire, haring engaged 
with others, in 1586, to go up to London and murder her 
Majesty. Many of the leading families of the county 
countenanced these machinations against their Sovereign. 
Sir Thomas and Sir Edward Stanley, sons of the Earl of 
Derby, and Sir Thomas Gerard, appear to have taken a 
very prominent share in them. The Queen's heart, how- 
ever, was not to be subdued by terror; on the contrary, 
opposition nerved her for additional severities, of which a 
full share fell to the lot of Lancashire. The recusants 
were removed from Cheshire hither, and were lodged in the 
Salford Bridge Chapel, (now converted into a prison) 
in Radclifie Hall, (a house situate in Pool Fold, since 
occupied by the Patten family, and in more modem days 
converted into the " Sun Inn,**; and in the New.Fleet, on 
Hunt's Bank. This structure, which was the chief reci- 
pient of recusants, has very lately been taken down 
to advance the improvements now making in that quarter 
of the town. It was the regular prison for the hundred 
of Salford, but though its interior was crowded with 
victims, the desired success did not attend this system 
of religious warfare. Among the suffering recusants 
were — Sir J. Southew6rth, J. Townley, Esq., Rev. James 
Bell, of Warrington, Lady Egerton, of Ridley, James 
Leybourne, Esq., John Finch, Esq., Donna Alana, &c. 

A double measure of severity was meted to the recu- 
sants, in their being compelled to defray from their own 
estates the expenses of the prisons in which they were 
conGned ; and it is recorded of Mr. Worsley, governor of 
the Fleet, that he managed to reap a golden harvest out 
of the pockets of his prisoners during the disturbed times. 
For their services in the crisis, the Earl of Derby and the 
Bishop of Chester (the latter of whom then lived in 
Manchester, but removed to Chester shortly afterwards, in 

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consequence of some disagreement between his servants 
and the town's people,) received the thanks of the Queen. 

In the year 1574 the "Common of CoUyhurst was 
^closed and lett to such as chose to give for it iiiis. the 
aker by yeares, and twenty shillings fine aforehand.'^ In 
1578 the College of Manchester was re-founded. For 
several years the ministers of tliis Church had been in bad 
odour with the people, who frequently attacked them 
under the persuasion that they were leagued with those 
minions of the Court, many of whom professed a horror 
of Popery only that they might share her spoils. Thus 
advantage had been taken of the state of the times to 
injure the revenues of the College, by granting long leases 
of lands at unreasonable rates ; and it is stated lliat the 
TrafTords then obtained a ninety-years grant of the tithes 
of Stretford, Trafford and half of Chorlton, as well as the 
power, ever since enjoyed, of appointing the Collegiate 
Clerk. At length, an appeal was made to the Lord 
Treasurer and Walsingham which proved eflfectual, 
although the Queen was not held wholly guiltless ftf 
participadng the profits of these proceedings. At the date 
of the new charter granted to the Collegiate Church, the 
population of Manchester was calculated at 10,000 souls. 
A register had been commenced in 1573, and it is believed 
that the recent growth of the town was attributable in a 
considerable degree to the migrations from the Low 
Countries, consequent on the Duke of Alva's atrocities; 
England being the favourite resort of the emigrants, and 
Manchester a district selected for their manufacturing 
pursuits. Thus it is that the miseries and impoverishment 
of one country tend to the happiness and aggrandisement 
of another.* 

In 1584 the Queen ordered that certain Papists of Lan- 
cashire, already named, should be tried at the assize for 

* la dM year 1578 we find an extraordinary demand by the Chorchwardens 
d atam pooiBda from ttit inliaMtaiitB ** tor deitroyiog of crowei.'' 


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recusancy. They were found guilty of the imputed 
offence, and on the 20th. April Bell and Finch were 
executed at Lancaster, Leyboume at Manchester, and 
their heads were exposed on the summit of the Collegiate 
Church. But even these extreme remedies failing, 
Elizabeth had recourse to the expedient of enjoining more 
active preaching on the part of the clergy, who some time 
before, in compliance with the wishes of the Bishop, had 
commenced a " public exercise" every second Thursday in 
the month, at which " all parsons, vicars, curates, readers 
and schoolmasters within the Deanery" were required to 
attend. The pulpit of the Collegiate Church was the 
arena from which were uttered some of the fiercest Philip- 
pics and most ]y)tent arguments against Popery that 
distinguished even those days of mental fecundity. 

The entire country continued in a most unsettled state. 
In the year 1588 a great panic was caused by a rumour 
that a large army of Papists had actually marched as far as 
Swinton Moor, to attack the town. The report was a mere 
phantom of the brain, but it tends to shew the constant 
fever of alarm and disquiet in which men's minds were 
kept In the preparations to oppose the great Spanish 
armada, this county was required to furnish its quota, 
which consisted of 2376 armed men, 2495 unarmed, and 
600 unarmed labourers: of these Manchester sent forth 
" Corseletts, vi; Pyks, vi; Curriers, ii; and Morrians, ii." 
Notwithstanding severe remedies had already been applied, 
(not less than 800 recusants having been brought to trial in 
this county alone) Elizabeth still felt herself in a dangerous 
and precarious situation. She had now not only the Papists 
to contend against, but that other more active, more 
intelligent, and equally uncompromising sect, the Puritans, 
who, instead of the secret weapons of assassination and 
conspiracy, called out the auxiliary energies of the press, 
pouring orer the land the publications of the Martin 



Marprdate school. One of these presses was seized in 
Newton-lane, and all authors who could be found were 

Thus encompassed on every side, the Queen, in the year 
1593, passed an Act more severe than any of its fore- 
runners, its provisions being levelled equally at Papists 
and Puritans. ''Had it not (says Hume) been imposed by 
the Queen's authority, it was certainly in that respect much 
contrary to the private sentiments and inclinations of the 
majority in the House of Commons." It subjected re- 
cusants above sixteen years of age who neglected attendance 
on divine worship to the successive penalties of imprison- 
mant, banishment, and death as felons, without benefit of 
clergy. The terrible operation of this enactment throughout 
the kingdom is matter of history. There is every reason 
to suppose that Lancashire participated to the full the 
severities which it sanctioned; but so far from having 
subdued the temper or reduced the numbers either of the 
Papist or of the Puritanical party, it appears only to have 
embittered the temper of the latter, and to have instigated 
them to retaliate, as they did, in the reign of Charles the 
First The political troubles of Manchester were enhanced 
by vintations of a trying character. In 156§ there was 
"a sore sicknesse^ in and about the town, "of which very 
many died:" 1586 was remarkable for a great dearth in the 
county, which the Bishop of Chester and-others attempted 
to remedy by fixing a standard price of bread. Two years 
afterwards Hollingworth states that "there died of the 
parishioBers in one monthe of Aprill neere 70 persons:" 
the same authority records that in 1594 "the sicknesse" 
prevailed at Failsworth; and in the next year he writes 
that "the Lord visited the town (as 40 years before and 
40 years after) with a sore pestilence : there died about 
1000 persons." An instance of extraordin&ry ministerial 
dUigence at this time is mentioned of a clergyman who 

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continued to preach in the town during the worst ravages 
of the plague, "so long as he durst, by reason of the 
unrulinesse of infected persons and want of government; 
and then he went and preached in a field neere to Shooters' 
Brooke, the townespeople being on one syde him and the 
countrey people on another/' Of this visitation memorials 
exist in the still-remembered "plague stones" at Stretford 
and elsewhere, to which the inhabitants carried money, 
to be deposited, in payment for the provision brought 
by the farming population. The deaths were increased 
from 188 to 1078, in consequonce of which Sir R. 
Mossley appropriated lands at Collyhurst for the inter- 
ment of those dying by the plague, and as the site of 
lazar-houses in case of a future visitation."^ On a former 
occasion the ground now connected with Didsbury chapel 
had been similarly consecrated as the last resting-place of 
those whom the pestilence destroyed. In 1631 ther6 
seems to have been a partial return of the epidemic : 
to apply once more the simple language of Hbllingworth, 
" the Lord sent his destroying angell into an inne in Man- 
chester, on which died Richard Merriott and bis wife, the 
Mr. and Dame of the house, and all that were in it, or 
went into it for certaine weekes together, till at the last they 
burned or buried all the goods in the house ; and yet in midst 
of iudgmeni did remember mercy, for no person else was 
that yeare touched with the infection. — In 1616 the towne 
was visited by an extraordinary greate flood, called, from 
the day, ' Lambard's flood,' in which the waters suddenly 
rose — yards plumme above the ordinary course, so that 
men stood upon Salford Bridge and laded up water with a 
little piggin. It is an easy matter with God (adds the his- 
torian) to drowne a towne, yea a world." In 1633 a more 
extraordinary phenomenon than this occurred. The moss 

* It is oDderstood Uiat when Uie cholera receotlj rmged here, an attempt was 
manAo once more to render the property at CoUjrhuft araUable. 

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fChat MosSy it is presamed,) ** rose up out of its place, 
moved a great distance, carrying trees^ stone-troughs, &c. 
before it, and committing apparently much devastation : . 
it filled the brookes and rivers, slew the fish, blacku'd the 
water, made some fruitful land barren." 

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From the accession of James the First may be dated 
the active development of that religio-political spirit 
which eventually led to results so important to this nation. 
Giiled with considerable powers, and prompted by the 
best inclinations, one of the first acts of James was to 
annul many of those exclusive privileges, granted by his 
predecessor, which had fettered the enterpnze of his 
people and interfered injuriously with the trade of Man- 
chester and other towns. But in this as in every change 
to which he and his successors consented, he stands liable 
to the charge of having done just enough to excite hope 
and too little to satisfy reasonable desires. In dealing 
with religious matters he was even less fortunate: he 
presided over a well-meant, but foolish and unprofitable, 
disputation at Hampton Court, between the Bishops and 
the non-conformists, the only result of which was to raise 
expectations which could never be gratified, and conse- 
quently to render more bitter the hostility of the sectarians. 
This conference was attended by Dr. Chadderton, D.D., 
a Manchester man of some celebrity. 

In 1618 the King visited Lancashire, and made a short 
sojourn at Hoghtou Tower; during which time, learning 
no doubt the injurious effect of the severe restrictions 
upon popular sports, he took occasion to modify them, 
but without much apparent benefit on the one hand, whilst 
on the other he greatly offended the Puritans. An 
amusing anecdote is recorded of Dr. R. Murrey, who was 

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installed Warden of Manchester about this period, tlirough 
the mediation of some friendly Scottish Lords at Court. 
In addition to being a ''great pluralist/' he appears to 
haYe had mental disqualifications for his high office, which, 
however, he did not often exhibit in Manchester, having 
only preached twice in the town during his Wardenship ; 
first fh)m Genesis, and afterwards, by a bound, from a text 
in Revelations, which caused it to be remarked that in his 
preachings he had " begun and ended the Bible/' This 
great pluralist, discoursing on one occasion before royalty, 
odected as his text the words " I am not ashamed of tlie 
Gospel,'' whereby he gave the learned monarch an oppor- 
tunity of rebuking him, when he came to kiss his 
Maje^y's hand. '* Thou art not ashamed of the Gospel 

of Christ," said the monarch, ♦' but by the Gospel of 

Christ may be ashamed of thee." The retort was more 
just than dignified. 

The eventful reign of Charles L, a period fraught 
with some cheering and many painful recollections, 
at length commenced. The nation had arrived at 
that condition when a collision between the opposing 
parties in the state could scarcely have been averted, save 
by some miraculous intervention. It is not surprising, 
when a Queen like Elizabeth had been baffied in all her 
endeavours to keep down, in its infancy, the spirit of 
hostility to the national institutions as they then existed iu 
Church and State, that a King like Charles I. should 
fail *in a similar endeavour, when time had strength- 
«ied and embittered long-existing animosities. The 
Puritans, and not the Papists, were now the objects of 
jealousy. This party, under whose banners were ranged 
many of the beneficed clergy, raged so fiercely in Man- 
cberter that, in 1632, a paper inciting the people to open 
rebellion, in consequence of the unfriendly spirit mani- 
feated by Government towards the Puritans, was posted 

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on the Collegiate Church doors. It was entitled ''A little 
melancholic treason extracted from a distracted and simple 
soul/' and was of course forthwith pulled down and 
transmitted to the Privy Council. The ancient family of 
the Traffords joined, with apparent cordiality, the advocates 
of the Reformation in the reign of Henry VI 11., and 
subsequently continued strenuously to uphold the new 
ecclesiastical arrangements until the reign of Charles; 
when, in 1632, Sir Cecil Trafford relapsed to the Catholic 
Church, in whose bosom his successors have ever since 
continued. In 1635 the King re-founded the College in 
Manchester, enjoining particularly, in the charter, that 
the Warden and Fellows should thenceforward reside in 
the town. Prior to this event the clergy had been divided 
among themselves, at a time when Puritanism was making 
rapid progress, and when, consequently, union and ac- 
tivity were on their parts especially desirable. Richard 
Heyrick, the then Warden, was more jealous of Popery 
than of Puritanism, and appears to have taken frequent 
occasion to denounce the former from the pulpit Man- 
chester, he said, had become the ''Goshen of this 
Egypt:** "great men (referring to Sir Cecil Trafford) 
have followers of their vices as of their persons; and 
when they please to be idolaters, their children, and 
servants, and tenants, their poor kindred, and idolizing 
neighbours, will to the mass with them.** The Papists 
were closely organized in Lancashire; the clergy knew it; 
and die denunciations of their creed from the Protectant 
pulpits were proportionately loud and frequent There 
was, too, a continued apprehension of those secret plots, 
so rife in the reign of Mary, suspicion of which had been 
revived by the gunpowder treason in the time of James. 
The anniversary of his deliverance was still strictly 
observed by the people, whilst to the clergy it gave 
opportunity for extraordinary fulminations. On one of 

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these occasions Heyrick, taking as his text the striking 
words of St Paul, ** Brethren stand fast,'' glanced briefly 
hot forcibly at the machinations of Fawkes and his asso- 
ciate conspirators: — ^The knife was at the throat, the 
dagger at the breast, the powder in the barrel, the match 
burning in the hand, and there was the villain ready to 
give fire, — but God delivered us : they perished in their 
treason, and let their memories perish with them." 

llie events of the fifteen years which elapsed from the 
aceefldon of Charles to the outbreak of the great rebellion 
are familiar as household terms. It will suffice here to 
state, that Lancashire equally with other counties, and 
Manchester as one of the chief towns, suffered under the 
oppressive measures to which favoured councillors advised 
the King; that in the Dutchy was planted a branch of 
the iniquitous Star Chamber ; and that the bitterness of 
spirit every where engendered b v these proceedings suffered 
no mitigation amongst us. Party politics ran '^ mountains 
high," and made the subsequent conflict more of a local 
than a general struggle. In the preparations for the ill- 
ftiled Scottish expeditions of the King, Sir Cecil Trafford 
was appointed to levy troops in Lancashire; and wheu, in 
July, 1640, Charles experienced some reverses and re- 
treated, an order for public fasting and humiliation was 
issoed in Manchester. The religious devotions at the 
Collegiate Church terminated on the occasion with an 
eloquent discourse by the Warden, Heyrick, who, preacli- 
in^ from the text, "* Pray for the peace of Jerusalem," 
feelingly dwelt upon the evils of social conflict " War 
(he said) is only sweet to them that are ignorant of it. 
Got kingdom hath enjoyed a longer time of peace than 
some kingdoms have; our age hath not been roused with 
the barking of uncouth wolves; the midnight drum hath 
not firig^teoed our sleep; the sounding trumpet hath not 
deaft oar ears; our beacons have not been fired, our ships 

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arrested or our walls manned ; our towns have not been 
ransacked, our houses ruined, our women ravished, or 
our infants dashed against the stones; we have not sowed 
and the stranger reaped ; we have not bailt and the enemy 
possessed; we have not been confounded with strange 
languages; but peace hath been within our walls and 
plenteousness within our dwellings — Peace, the daughter 
of the Gospel of Peace — Plenty, the daughter of Peace — 
Peace, the glory of Heaven, the joy of the whole world. 
Pray, then, for the peace of Jerusalem ! " 

Day by day shewed the impossibility of settling the 
multiplied causes of dispute between the King and his 
subjects by any means less dreadful than the sword. For 
this fearful alternative, therefore, each party prepared: 
arms were quietly collected in various parts of the country; 
and in Manchester the Earl of Derby allowed a room of 
the College for their reception. From the moment 
that the King quitted London for York, this nobleman 
took a leading part in the preparations for war. He 
appears to have been a man of great popularity, which 
his extraordinary vigour and energy enabled him to wield 
with such effect as to make him an object of jealousy to 
all the minions of the King. Thus his very offers of 
service subjected him to frequent unworthy slights. He 
spoke with great confidence of the loyalty of the nden of 
the North, pledging himself to raise a force of 10,000 men 
ui Lancashire alone. The King therefore determined to 
raise the royal standard at Warrington, and " his Lordship 
upon this resolve was despatched to Lancashire, to prepare 
for his Majesty^ reception and to dispose the country to 
be ready for his service. Immediately on his return to 
Lancashire, he mustered the county in three places— on 
the heaths by Bury, by Ormskirk and by Preston, where 
at the least twenty thousand men appeared to him in each 
field, most whereof were well armed with pike, musket, or 

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other weapons, his Lordship intending to have done the 
same in Cheshire, and North Wales, where he was Lieu- 
tenant; but these things which by his Lordship were really 
intended for his Majesty's service, were by the envy, 
jealousy or prejudice of some at Court insinuated to 
serve other purposes; suggesting that the Earl was a 
popular man — that he was no favourer of the Court, but 
rather a male-content; that those noised musters which 
he had made were preindications of his ambitious designs ; 
that it was dangerous trusting him with great power in his 
hands who too well knew his near alliance to the Crown ; 
that his ancester, the Lord Stanley, though he appeared 
with Richard III, and gave his son George, Lord Strange, 
a pledge of his loyalty, yet turned the battle against 
him, .and put the crown upon the head of Henry VII; 
that his uncle Ferdinand had declared too boldly his 
pretensions to the crown; that his lady was a Hugonot, 
bred up in the religion and principles of the Dutch, and 
that for those and otlier good reasons it was not safe for 
his Majesty to put himself too far into his hands, or trust 
him with too great a power, lliese invidious and inj urious 
insinuations, notwithstanding the King's good iiftli nations 
towards him, so far prevailed and puzzled his council, that 
they persuaded the easy, good-natured King to change his 
resolution and to set up the royal standard at Nottingham, 
to divest the Earl of Derby of the Lieutenancy of Cheshire 
and >Vales, and to join the Lord Rivers, newly made an 
Earl, in commission with him in Lancashire. This sud- 
den and unexpected turn in his Majesty's council being 
siifnified to his Lordship from York, though at present 
it gave him some trouble and anxiety of mind, yet agree- 
able to his great temper he speedily recovered himself, 
and with great equanimity spoke to this effect: 'Let my 
master be happy, though I be miserable, and if they 
consult well for him, I shall not be much concerned what 

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becomes of me. My wife, my children^ my family and 
country are very dear unto me, but if my Prince and my 
religion be safe, 1 shall bless even my enemies who do 
well for them, though in my ruin/ Then, with the 
advice of his friends, whose council he always used in 
cases of difficulty, he despatched a gentleman to York, 
with letters to his Majesty, signifying that he had read 
the express of his Majesty's good pleasure, as he ought 
to do, with submission and due obedience; that though 
his enemies would not give him leave to serve his Majesty, 
they should never so far provoke him as to desert him ; 
that if he might not, according to his birth and quality, 
be permitted to fight for him, h^ would never draw his 
sword against him; that he did submissively resign the 
Lieutenancies of Cheshire and North Wales to his Majesty's 
disposal, but besought him to take away that of Lanca- 
shire also, rather than subject him to the reproach and 
suspicion of a partner in that government These letters, 
being received and perused by his Majesty and council, 
had only this effect, that the Lord Rivers was removed, 
and the {)arl left in the single command of Lancashure. 
But the unkind and impolitic usage of this Noble Lord 
(though by him suffered with great resolution) was by the 
country, who had the greatest veneration for his family, 
highly resented, and proved of the greatest prejudice to his 
Majesty's affairs. Many gentlemen in the north, who 
were formerly well inclined to his Majesty's cause, seeing 
the contempt and ill-usage of the Earl of Derby, either sat 
still, or revolted to the Parliament with all their depen- 
dencies; suspecting, as it indeed fell out, that the Earl of 
Derby being laid aside the country would never follow 
any other commander, and that the King's interest would 
dwindle and be soon lost: and these divisions and dis- 
appointments, his Lordship tells us, made the ill-afi^cted 
in Lancashire grow proud, and the meaner sort thought it 

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a fine thing to set np against the great ones; and the 
Parliament being quickly advertised of the unhappy 
drcomstances and managemeflt of the King's affairs, 
immediately offered his Lordship what power and com- 
mand he would accept in their service ; which his Lordship 
rejex:ted with scorn and indignation. Yet the same bait 
took with many others that formerly had no inclination to 
the puritanical faction; as Assheton of Middleton, Holland 
of Heaton, Holcroft of Holcrofl, Heywood of Heywood, 
Birch of Birch, and several others, who, supposing on this 
slight of the Earl of Derby that the whole country would 
be at their devoUon, took commissions from the Parlia- 
ment, and with all speed garrisoned and fortified them- 
selves in Manchester, the Parliament encouraging and 
assisting them with money and ammunition. 

When the civil war actually commenced. Sir John 
Girlington was High Sheriff, and James Lord Strange 
Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire and of Cheshire. Sir 
W. Fitton was appointed Collector of the Royal subsidies, 
whilst Lord Wharton was selected as Lord Lieutenant for 
the Parliament and Commander of the Lancashire Militia, 
to organize which force the Parliament nominated as a 
Committee — Sir T. Stanley, Mr. R. Assheton of Mid- 
dleton, Mr. P. Egerton of Shaw, Mr. J. Moore, Mr. Rigby, 
and Mr. Hyde, of Denton. In Manchester the royalists 
were limited in number, but among them were some of 
the principal families — the Mossleys of Hough End, the 
Prestwiches of Hulme, the Stanleys of Broughton, &c. 
The Warden, Heyrick, busied himself in a praiseworthy 
(if sincere) attempt to avert by negotiation the impending 
conflict, and for tliis purpose drew up a mediatory petition 
to the King, which was signed by sixty-four knights and 
esquires, fifly-five divines, seven hundred and forty 
gentlemen, and seven thousand freeholders in these 
districts. It was presented by Mr. James Bradshawe, of 

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Bradshawe, to the King at York ; bat his Majesty did not 
reply on the moment His answer was given in June, 
1^2, to the High Sheriff,* to whom at the same time the 
commission of array was issued. The Sheriflf called a 
meeting of the county at Preston Moor, where many 
thousand persons of the two parties assembled, and a 
rather stormy discussion was the result Failing in this, 
the Sheriff seized the magazine at Preston; and Lord 
Strange (who with Lord Mollineux. had attended the 
meeting) took the same step at Lirerpool; whereupon 
Mr. Rigby, hastening to Manchester, called a meeting of 
the inhabitants, who were in great trepidation at a rumour 
that the King was uniting himself to the Papists, and 
a petition to Parliament was adopted praying the removal 
of the magazHie from the town. At a second meeting, 
the Parliamentary Deputy Lieutenants resolved to call out 
the militia, and raise a regiment of foot to be commanded 
by Holland of Denton.^ Hearing of these proceedings. 
Lord Strange collected an armed force whicb greatly 
terrified the pacific citizens of Manchester: all the shops 
were closed — the people of the surroundiiig hamlets 
flocked into the town — the nei^c levies were actively trained, 
and the streets blockaded. His Lordship advanced, but 
halted at Bury to treat with parties sent from the 
Parliamentary Commissioners, to whom he proposed to 
place the disputed depot under the custody of two honour- 
able persons. This offer was refused, and '^no other 

• At ooe of tbese prelimioarf meetlo^ the rate of pajr for the toldien wu 
determioed; Dunelj— 

FOOT. «. d, BOESB. «. d, DBAGOONBRE. C. d. 

Captain.. 10 Captain l6 Captain 12 o 

Lieoteoaot.... 4 Lieatenant .... 9 o Lieateoant.... 6 o 

Ancient 3 Coronet 6 Coronet 4 

Serjeant l Corporal 4 • Sergeant 3 o 

Drummer l 8 Trumpeter.... 6 O Corporal S o 

Corporal 1 Private S Dragoonecre... 1 6 

Private O 9 KetUeOrnm... S o 

To every Commissary sa. 
It was also agreed to impose a rate opon the county for defraying: the expenses 
of 400 bone and sooo foot, with ammaoition, bagface wagtoos, &c. &c. 

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suspicion (says Dr. Hibbert) can tIia*efore remain, but 
that the inhabitants of Manchester, after having declared 
openly for the Parliament, had begun to entertain ulterior 
designs not very creditable to their allegiance as subjects." 
This negotiation failing. Lord Strange dismissed the mass 
of his followers (a step in which he was imitated by his 
opponents) and retired to Wigan, where he met the Royal 
Commissioners, to whom he made his report, and his 
Majesty ordered, by proclamation at the Market Cross of 
Manchester, that a part of the munitions of war should go 
to Rochdale, a part to Bury, and the remainder still 
be deposited in the town. Lord Strange afterwards 
re-assembled his troops at Bury, and whilst he was lying 
there some of the inhabitants of Manchester, more 
looderate and conciliatory than the rest, invited him to a 
civic feast in their town. He came on the 15th. July, 
attended by the Sheriff and some of his followers, who by 
their indiscretion involved themselves in a broil with the 
people which ended in a fight, and some lives were lost 
News of this squabble was conveyed with all haste to 
London, and being swelled into the dimensions of a drawn 
battle by the Parliamentarians, it was published as 
The beginning of 
Civil warres 




News from 

The civil war takes its date from this obscure occurrence. 
The King in the next month raised his standard at Not- 
tingham, to the disappointment of his adherents in Lan- 
cashire, Warrington having, as already stated, first been 
selected to enjoy that questionable honor. The change 

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appears to have been productive of some detriment to the 
King's service, as it b stated that ** the country did not 
come in as was expected;" whereupon " the King began 
now to reflect on the ill usage of the Earl of Derby, and, 
by an express under his own hand, desired him to raise 
what forces he could in Lancashire, and come with them 
to him. To this his Lordship answered that the rebels 
had seized Manchester, that many of the county had 
joined them, and others had declared for a loose and 
undntiful neutrality ; that the face of things was greatly 
altered by his Majesty's march another way, and that he 
could not now flatter his Majesty with the access of such 
aids as he might have done a few months past" The 
Earl, however, raised and armed three regiments of foot 
and three troops of horse, which were about to march to 
join the rojal army at Shrewsbury, when "his Majesty, 
guessing the dangerous consequence that might ensue by 
leaving a nursery of rebellion behind him at Manchester, 
ordered those forces to attack that place, and requested 
the Earl, then with his Majesty, to give direction to Col. 
Gilbert Gerrard, an old soldier, to draw before the town. 
The Colonel obeyed his order, but the waters being then 
so swelled, he found it difficult to fix commodious posts 
for his horse and foot, which occasioned some delay in the 
intended attack of the town, and therefore the Earl him- 
self was, by his Majesty's special command, sent thither 
from Shrewsbury to give a speedy onset, and, whether he 
carried the town or not, to march up to the camp. The 
Earl had not been four hours before the town ere he sum- 
moned them to submit to the King's clemency, and to 
give up the place upon honorable terms; but they, with 
great obstinacy, refused all oflers of mercy; on which his 
Lordship gave orders for a storm upon the town the next 
morning at four o'clock, but about twelve his Lordship 
received letters from his Majesty, intimating that the Earl 

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of Essex was at the head of the rebels, and now marching 
from London towards him with a fonmdable army ; that 
be stood in need of those forces under his Lordship; and 
that, if the town was not carried, he should not hazard 
any of them by an assault; that, if he carried the battle 
against Essex, those small garrisons would fall of them- 
selves, and that his Lordship should, on the receipt of 
(hose letters, forthwith advance to him with what fOTces 
he had/' His Lordship " made no doubt to have gained 
the place by an easy assault, and thought it would highly 
reflect upon his honor to quit it re-mfecia;'* but he sub- 
mitted at once to the instructions of the King, and marched 
to Shrewsbury, where he was again subjected to an 
indignity, his enemies having so far wrought upon ''his 
Majesty's too easy and credulous temper by secret, unjust 
and malicious whispers," as to induce him to take from 
the Earl the coounand of his own troops, under the plea 
that his presence in Lancashire was necessary to prevent 
the growth of disaffection and check the progress of the 
rebels. Encouraged by this unworthy treatment of so 
zealous a nobleman, the Parliamentary party in Man- 
chester caused a communication to be made from head 
quarters in London to the Earl, importing "that he could 
not but be very sensible of the indignity put upon him at 
Court by the King's evil councillors; that those, his 
enemies, were the enemies of the nation; that they struck 
at rdigion and all good men, and would permit none but 
Papists, or people Popishly affected, to be near his Majesty ; 
that it was the whole intent of the Parliament to remove 
men of such desperate principle^ from his person, and to 
secure the true Protestant religion ; that if his Lordship 
would engage in the good cause [of the Psurliament] he 
should have command equal to his own greatness or any 
of his ancestors." To Uie bearer of this proposal his 
Lordship indignantly replied, "Pray tell the gentlemen 

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at Manchester, and let them tell the gentlemeu at London, 
when they hear 1 turn traytur I shall harkeu to their 
propositions; till then, if I receive any other papers of 
this nature, it shall be at the peril of him that brings 
them." The cruel treatment afterwards experienced by 
the Earl of Derby, at the hands of the Republicans, was 
no doubt in some degree attributable to the animosity 
excited in their breasts by his contumelious rejection of 
their offered alliance. 

In September, Lord Strange was impeached by the 
Lower House for his participation in the Manchester 
affair, and Sirs J. Girlington, G. Middleton and E. 
Fitton were summoned to its bar. Lord Wharton 
marched the Parliamentary levies into the town, which 
Lord Strange was once more threatening to attack, and 
as, the internal peace of the whole country being now 
irreparably violated, every hour was fraught with danger 
and alarm, the inhabitanU came to the resolution of 
having the town scientifically fortified. For this purpose 
Colonel Roseworm, a native of Germany, (a second 
Dalgetty) was engaged to exercise his military genius in 
the service of Manchester. The enormous sum of thirty 
pounds was subscribed by as many inhabitauts, and the 
German mercenary, though violently opposed by the 
Royalists, set about his task with all the ardour of an 
enthusiast in the butchering art The works of mud and 
clay and rusty chains were yet incomplete, when news 
arrived that Lord Strange was approaching with four 
thousand foot, two hundred dragoons, one hundred 
horse, and seven pieces of ordnance. His Lordship, 
accompanied by Lord Mollineux, was yet at War- 
rington, twenty miles off, but the very mention of a 
soldier seems to have been enough to strike terror into 
the souls of our forefathers: bells were rung; the town's 
forces under the command of Captain Radclifie, of Pool 

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Fold, and a hoDdred and fifty auxiliaries furnished by 
the Asshetons of Middleton, under command of Captain 
Bradshawe, were called out; ammunition was collected 
from Ashton-under-Lyne, Ancoats-hall, and other places 
in which there chanced to be a deposit; — in short, the men 
of Manchester were growing almost valorous again, when * 
the besieging forces were retarded by the breaking of a 
carriage-wheel ! But the respite was only from Saturday 
to Sunday, for on this latter day, at nine o'clock a.m.. 
Lord Strange actually approached, firing the houses on 
his route. Dividing his force, his Lordship marched 
along the south side of the town, near Sir Edward 
Mottley's '' Lodge," whilst the second division skirted the 
opposite bank of the river by Salford, which was said to 
have been ^made a stalking horse'' by the besiegers. On 
Monday about noon, some attempt at compromise having 
failed, the attack was renewed. The principal efibrt of 
the besiegers was made on the side of Deansgate, which 
did not then extend beyond Back King-street. This was 
opposed by Bradshawe, whilst a second assault was simul- 
taneoudy made by Lord Strange on Salford Bridge, (then 
the only way across the river) which was resisted by the 
German Colonel, who prided himself on having kept his 
asnilants at bay, albeit he had to detach twenty of his 
men to the aid of Bradshawe, The town's people seem to 
have fought right valorously : they were for the most part 
Puritans; and, doing every thing in the name of the Lord^ 
their zeal rendered them insensible to danger. The 
besie^bs were driven back, with little slaughter on either 
side, but two houses on and near the bridge (that of Sir 
E. Mossley being one) were burnt down. On the following 
day Lord Strange beat a parley ; and having proposed an 
accommodation, the inhabitants claimed an interval to 
consider his terms, which was granted, until his Lordship 
discovered that the delay was only desired to afford time for 

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4p 44 

a hundred and fifty auxiliaries from Bolton, commanded by 
Colonel Holland, to march into town. He thereupon beat 
to arms, advanced against the " trotters" of Bolton, drove 
them like sheep back to their homes, and on the next 
day his first ofiers, and a subsequent one to withdraw on 
* having a hundred muskets delivered up, having been re- 
jected, he made a second furious charge upon the defenders 
of Salford Bridge, but was repulsed by the troops stationed 
in the church-yard, who from their situation were almost 
free from danger themselves, whilst they had complete 
conunand of their opponents. In this affair Captain 
Standish was shot Roseworm, in his account of the 
action, says ''The enemy* plaid at us with his great pieces, 
which being a strange noise and terror to my raw men, 
sixteen of them took their heels; the rest, some for fear of 
my drawn sword, others gallantly resolving rather to dye 
than to forsake me, stuck close to me and to the safety of 
their town." Convinced of the hopelessness of his enter- 
prize, or called away by domestic concerns, (his father, 
the Earl of Derby, being on the point of death) Lord 
Strange withdrew his forces on Friday, September 30th., 
and on the next day made an exchange of prisoners. 
The town declared that they had lost only four killed and 
four wounded. The houses, however, were much damaged, 
and plunder to the amount of £ 10,000 (a vast sam in 
those days) was said to have been carried off by the 
royalists. The republican townspeople attributed their 
happy deliverance to the special intervention of the Lord 
in their favour, and, as an evidence of miraculous iulerpo- 
sition, a story was told of a bullet having struck one of the 
elect on the lip without causing any pain or even breaking 
the skin. Religious cant was carried, indeed, to the most 
ridiculous excess by the votaries of Parliament In a 
publication bearing the serio-comic title of ''Jehovah 
Jireb, God in the mount, or England's Parliamentary 

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Chronicle/' (written apparently by some ^ Praise-God^ 
Bare- Bones'') the Mancunians are eulogized in the most 
fulsome style for their warlike achievements during the 
si^e and in other encounters. They are spoken of as " the 
honest-hearted and most courageous Manchesterians/' '* the 
principal men in the kingdom^ next to the most famous and 
renowned citie of London^ that fight most prosperously for 
God and true religion." Of course these valorous souls 
were in special favour with the God of Battles^ the 
extent of whose paternal intervention was reduced to 
arithmetical calculation. "The soldiers in the town 
(says the aforenamed Chronicle) from first to last had 
prayers and singing of psalms daily at the streets' end, 
most of them being honest and religious men« and of 
very civil and inoffensive conversation, who came out 
of conscience of their oath and protestation, and 
the inhabitants and townsmen were very kind and res- 
pective to the souldiers that thus assisted them, and all 
things were common among them, and the gentlemen in 
the town made bullets night and day. The souldiers were 
most resolute and courageous, and feared nothing so much 
as a parley. It was even admirable and wonderful, and 
might be thought a thing almost impossible, that so many 
musket and cannon bullets should be shot at the town and 
people therein, and yet so little harm to persons or things 
in die town. For there could not be less, on probable 
conjecture, than 3 or 4000 bullets shot from the enemie, 
small and great, and very near as many from the Towne, 
yet, as was said before, not above four men slain by all their 
shot, and only as many wounded. * * * Now these and 
many the like visible expressions of God's providence and 
protection did so encourage them that (as some of them- 
selves said) they went as merrily to meet their enemies in 
the hottest skirmishes as to a feast, and many of them 

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were heard to say to one another, when they went on 
couragiously, 'Through the name of the Lord we shall 
destroy them. They fall down flat, but ^e doe rise 
and stand up stedfastly by our God."* In another 
place the puritanical Chronicler, adverting once more 
to the exploits of the Manchester troops, confidently 
asks— *' And can we then much wonder that God hath 
so admirably and wonderfully protected and preserved 
this towne, and made it so prosperous and successfnll, for 
these many moneths together, even to this very day; 
since the Lord himself hath long ago saide it, and in all 
ages, and liow also at this time, made it goode, ' Them that 
honor me (as Manchester hath done) I will honor; and they 
that despise me shall be lightly esteemed of me!"* Lord 
Strange's forces were diminished by three hundred men; 
some of his officers were killed, and three of them were in- 
terred at Didsbury. Parliament directed a public thanks- 
giving for the deliverance of the town from the hands of the 
Philistines, and ordered that all prisoners should either be 
cast into dungeons or sent up to London to be specially 
dealt with; *and they further prohibited the Feoffees 
of the Manchester School from renewing a lease of the 
town's mill to Mr. Prestwiche, on the ground that he was 
a royalist Sir A. Radcliffe, of Ordsall Hall, having been 
taken soon after these events, in Essex, was committed to 
the Tower for his share in the siege of Manchester. On 
the other hand, Charles having issued his commission to 
Sir W. Gerrard and Sir C. Trafford to raise forces in Lan- 
cashire, many Catholics joined his standard, and thereby 
ini^arted fresh rancour to his opponents, who saw in this 
connexion a confirmation of their long-cherished suspicion 
that Charles was at heart a Papist In November, new 
fortifications were added to the town; and, under the 
Speaker's warrant, four pieces of brass ordnance, com- 

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mandcd by R. Assheton, Esq.^* were ordered for its pro- 
tection. The garrison was felt as a disagreeable tax upon 
the persons of the Puritans^ and it was presently determined 
that the estates of the " delinquents^ were the most proper 
treasary wherefrom to defray the charge of its maintenance. 
They were taxed accordingly. Parliament had previously 
offered " satisfaction after 8 per cent./' to a Committee 
whom they selected to receive it, to such parties as would 
advance money for that purpose. The gold did not flow 
rery freely; the inhabitants^ however, offered to raise some 
"dragooners** to fight in the good cause. On the 2d. 
December, Sir C. Trafford fell into the hands of his 
enemies in Manchester. 

As the town was now free from its assailants, two com- 
panies of the Manchester regiment embarked in " foreign" 
service and marched to Wigan, where they Suffered a 
defeat; but aller sundry fastings and prayers another 
expedition was ordered, which was more successful, a 
splendid victory having been achieved, December 24, at 
Chowbent, in consequence of which Leigh was given up 
to the victors. On the 12th. January, 1643, Sir Thomas ' 
Fairfax, Parliamentary General of the North, occupied 
Manchester with his troops, and there remained till the 
21st., when with two thousand five hundred fi^ot and 
twenty-eight troops of horse he marched to the relief 
of Northwich. In this expedition the Manchester troops 
committed great plunder. Fairfax]: was succeeded 

• Tb« AnbetoM were a powerful family, ImtIdi; "the liTesand propertiee 
of Uieir oeighboars at their disposal." In Barrett's MS. it is stated that a 
fallows was erected near the Hall, aod that not many years ago handcoA 
were still bangiog from the walls. One of the family was styled the Black 
Koifht, and it is recorded by the same learned aathority that there was 
formcrlf m ctwtom at Ashton-ander>L)rne of making the efflgy of a man on 
Baater Moudar, placing It on a lean horse and shooting at it with gone 
aod pistols. This poor martyr was christened " the Black Knight." 

I There is a tradition that this' noted General was at his death secretly 
interred In the parinh church of Afhton-ander Lyne, to avoid the exhnmatlon 
and dishonor of his remilns to which those of many other repabUcaos were 
sobsjcctrd after the restoraUoa. Google 


by his Lietiteatnt-Genera], Sir J. Seaton, who, on the 
10th. February, marched to attack Preston, which town 
surrendered after two hours' fighting. Captain Booth 
was the first to scale the walls with the cry of 
** Follow me, or give me up for ever !" and it is stated 
that in the skirmish the three Manchester troops " distin- 
guished themselves eminently." There was, as usual, a 
public thanksgiving, which was held on the 16th., for this 
achievement. The 27th. March having been spent in 
''seeking the Lord," the next day was devoted to the 
work of slaughter. Bolton was attacked and taken by the 
Parliamentarians. Lord Strange (now Earl of Derby) 
had in the interval threatened a fresh attack on Man- 
chester, declaring that he ''would either take or lay his 
bones before it;" but Lord MoUineux being suddenly 
called to Oxford, the enterprize was abandoned. The 
town was probably regarded by the Royalist army with 
peculiar rancour from the fact of the inhabitants having 
been among the earliest to take the "solemn league and 
covenant," and having since distinguished themselves by 
. great activity against their opponents. The next expedi- 
tion was against Wigan, where the Republicans defeated 
the Earl of Derby and took eight hundred out of 
eighteen hundred of his men, with one thousand stand 
of arms, and carried off property of Papists to the 
value of £20,000. On the 5th. April the same forces 
attacked Warrington, but the Earl of Derby had then the 
mastery and beat them off. This failure and other 
mishaps were attributed to the machinations of one Peter 
Ueywood, a Captain in the Parliamentary army, who was 
suspected of betraying the council of his masters. His 
father was one of those who seized Guy Fawkes, and his 
rooted hostility to the Papists was the occasion of his 
assassination in 1640, by a Friar, who stabbed him in 
Westminster Hall. Heywood was eventually seized on 

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8ii8]ncion of being a spy, but Colonel Holland ordered 
his release, and he then went over to Prince Rnpert In 
May another attack was made on Warrington by forces 
nnder Colonel Assheton ; and, ailer a fierce enconnter, the 
Earl of Derby was driven from the town. In July the Earl 
of Newcastle sent officers to Rochdale, to meet deputies 
from this place and require its surrender. They carried 
the following letter : — 

I pnnuDe you are not Icnonot of the tnccesse It hftUi pletsed Almlthty Qo& 
to give onto bis M^esties army nnder my comand, and the great desire I 
teTe to aroyd tbe effo^oo of Christian blood, which moYM me before I proceed 
■■7 fintlMr towards yoa to make yoa an offer of bis Mi^eities graot and 
mercy: If yoa wUl sabmlt yomelTSs, lay downe yoor Armes, so ai^ostly 
taken op In contempt of the Lawes of this kingdom, and Imediately retorne 
Id yov dee alleglaiice: His MiOerty Is gratlooily pleased to authorise me to 
lecalYe yoa into bis faror and protection, vhicb I am as willing to do as to 
Infofoe yoar o4ldic»ice ; if yoo will refuse I cannot bat wonder, while yoo 
Ikflbk against the King and bto Authority, yoa slioaM so boldly offer to Profease 
yooxaelTea for King and Parliament and most Ignominioosly scaodalixe this 
army with the title of Papists, when we yentare our Liresaod Fortunes for tbe 
tnie Protestant Religion established in this kingdom : Be no longer deceived, 
for Ch0 blood that shall be shed in this quarrel will assuredly fall on your own 
beads ; I have no other ends in this, but to let yoo see your error, if yoa 
lieasf } for my condition is such, that I need not Court you ; If not, let me 
nosive yoor answers by this Messenger, and yoa may expect to find attle 
fisvor (If yoa force my natore) but soch as is due to so high contemners of his 
Majesties Grace and Favor now offered to yoa by 

Bndfsrd, 5 Joly, IftS. W. MXWCASTLB. 

The inhabitants through their deputies replied — 

Blglit Honorable} 
It iMtta been ever since tbe first fomenting of the anbappy differences in this 
Kingdom and so shall be oar principall care and endeavour to preserve the true 
PNtealut reHgioB by Law Bstablisbed in tMs Realm, tbe Honor of the King 
In aU S«s»l Rigbts and Prerogatives and Priviledges of Fartlameot, and tbe 
tma and native Liberties and Priviledges of the subject by Law Established i 
Aad then it Is not to be wondered at that having been opprees'd by Papists and 
tilMm MaUgnants, we bave by defensive aims laboored to repell soch as by 
Oiloar of bis Majesties comlsslon have endeavoured to overthrow Religion, 
Rls UiOetties Regall Rights and Honour, with all the imuniUes of this King. 
tfOB* la tbe preservation whereof His Majesties Noble Progenitors have so 
loos and boooarably fioarlsbed{ By which we hope It is apparent to aU 
indifllerent Jadldoas and rellgloas people that we have not pnt ourselves oat of 
ma Sl^aatles pioteetloB, aer caiMot poaslbly enter Into oar andentamttng that 
Hm troa Protcatant rellgioii cannot be Intended to be defended by so great a 
Oookpaay of Papists as have been, and now are In Arms nnder such protec. 
a—t nor tto propriety of Oic iwtaect, by ao many altenaiHl other malefartorB 


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M dftilf resort onto themi And we coold wish so bbnorable a pmoo ai 
yoorselfe might be teparated and freed from protecUng sach delinqQents. 

8ir, we are nothlnf dismayed at yoor force, bot hope that God, wbd batti 
been oar protector hitherto, will eo direct oar Joat Army, that we ahall be able 
to retaro the Tldence intended into their bosomes that ahall assay the prose- 
cution of it, which shall be the endeavoor of 

His Mi^Mties most homble and obedient serrants. 

Rochdale, 7 Jaljr, lOiS. 
The deputies retuming this bold refusal to give up the 
town, the Earl abandoned his intention of marching from 
Bradford to besiege it 

Byron> of Rochdale, was this year (1643) created a 
Baron in reward of his services to the royal cause: no 
less than seven of the name fought at Edge Hill, and it 
was the rashness of the troops under Sir John Byron which 
gave a less successful termination to that en^unter than 
under better auspices might have been experienced. Ten 
months ailerwards the more decisive engagement of 
Marston Moor threw a damp upon the affairs of the King. 
Prince Rupert had been successfully occupied in Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire prior to that battle, and afler the 
defeat he retreated into this county. Whilst in the 
neighbourhood he attempted, through Heywood, to gain 
over Colonel Roseworm, the German Commander-in- 
Chief; but that gallant mercenary was unassailable, and 
stood fast to his employers, although he conceived that 
he had been somewhat scurvily treated by the citizens of 
Manchester. Internal divisions indeed had arisen, and 
Rupert, hoping to be advantaged by them, moved towards 
the town for the purpose of attacking it; but Roseworm 
stood to his post, and the Prince drew off his forces. 
Prior to this event, Roseworm renewed his agreement 
with the town's people, who offered him, besides his pay, 
an annuity of £60 for his own life and that of his wife : 
he accepted the terms, because they relieved him from the 
fear of " leaving a desolate widow, in case a warlike end 
should befall him." It appears, however, that his stipead 

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Was paid with sach irreg:ularity as to induce an inter- 
ference from Parliament after Rupert's attempt upon the 
town. — In the first year of Charles's reign, Manchester 
fomished a title of nobility to Sir Henry Montague, who 
was created Duke of Manchester. It is a curious fact 
that the holder of the title thus granted by the hand of the 
unfortunate Charles should be found within a brief space 
ranked among his most active opponents ; yet so it was, 
and wt read especially of the services rendered by the 
Duke against his royal benefactor in the battle of Marston 
Moor. But he was well requited: having used him as 
their tool, the Parliament fr^ themselves of him by the 
self-denying ordinance. 

Throughout the country the intestine strife had caused 
a scarcity of money, until at length, as already stated, the 
Parfiamentarians hit upon the expedient of mulcting the 
delinquents and compelling them to compound for their 
estates, the money thus extorted being appropriated to 
the payment of the Commonwealth forces. In Lancashire 
one hundred and forty-five persons were fined to the 
amount of £S8,109 11 4. Among the sufiPerers were — 

John BTTom, or Salford SOl l6 6 

ttwAnlByrom 9 8 

A^MBBowker. 10 13 o 

Ffeter Bowker, of Mancbecter la 

Sir E. Motler, off Hoogh*t-eiMl 4874 o 

Nioboitt Moilef • off Anooata 170 

Ftanda Mosley, and KicboUa his sou, of CoUybant. 900 

Hoirj Pendleton, of Mancbester 80 

Alemiider Potter, of MancfaetUf 4 6 

flIrT.PreetwIcbe, and Thomas blflKUB, of Holme SSO 

FenUnaad Stanley, of Broofbton 150 

> off Mandieater. 4 8 4 

1^0045 9 

Although thus oppressed by the Parliamentarians, with 
wliam he was in very bad odour, Sir E. Mosley volun- 
tarily advanced to the King a loan of £30,000, no incon- 
siderable sum in the seventeenth century. 

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In 1644 Prince Rupert made an ansucceflsfal attein|ft 

npon liverpool; and on the 28th. February of the same 

year Fairfax undertook the enterprise against Latham 

House which^ though persisted in for three monUis> (with 

some interruption from the battle of Marston Moor) and 

opposed only by a female, the dauntless Countess of 

Derby, ended in discomfiture. The expedition had been 

planned by the "Holy States" of Manchester. It seems 

to hare been undertaken with some trepidation : ^rarions 

consultations were held before the leaders determined 

upon it The troops of the neighbourhood marched 

under the command of Col. Moore, of Bank Hall, 

Colonel Assheton, of Middleton, and Colonel Rigby, 

through Bolton, Wigan, and Standisfa, as if on route for 

Westmoreland. Sir Thomas Fairfax was present at the 

siege, and in addition to the officers named above Colonel 

Egerton, of Shaw, and Colonel Holcrofl, of Holcroft, 

had commands. The military assistauta of the Countess 

were Capt Chisenhall, of Chisenhall, Capt Farringden, 

of Wuerden, Capt Chamock, of Chamock, Capt Ro»- 

them, of New Hall, Capt Ogle, of Prescot, and Capt 

3!oIyneux, of Radcliffe. Capt. Farmer was major of the 

besieged house. After four months had been lost by 

Col. Rigby, who quarrelled with the other officers, tl» 

place was relieved by Prince Rupert, who, on entering 

Lancashire at Stock port-bridge, defeated a party from 

Manchester and other troops under Col. Dnkinfield, which 

had met to oppose him. The besiegers retreated on Bolton, 

which town was well defended, and the Prince Rupert, 

having failed in his attempt to carry it, marched to Liyer^ 

pool. In the former attempt on Latham House, the 

besieged had been supplied with the munitions of war from 

Manchester; in July, 1645, however, the siege was agaw 

formed, without the hope of any relief from this place. 

The attack was so closely pressed that the Kin^ himtdf 

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set forward on his march into Lancashire to relieve the 
f^oontess ; he experienced, however, a defeat near Chester, 
wliicfa gave an ancient chronicler an opportunity of re- 
iMo-king, that 

Tbe fortnnate have whole years. 

And those they choose } 
Bat the nnfortanate haTe only dayit 

And those they lose. 

(te the ccwclusion of the siege a widow, who had 
served as a bearer of dispatches, was pressed to reveal 
tile names of her correspondents at Manchester, but she 
8l3t>iigly refused, albeit ''she was burnt with matches 
betwixt her fingers so long that three fingers of each hand 
were bnmt off, yet the woman, beyond the resolution of 
her ces or of any woman upon record, suffered all those 
leriiues with invincible patience, and would discover 
noCfaing/^ The communication between the besieged and 
their firiends was afterwards carried on by means of a dog. 

The year 1645 witnessed the final subjection of the 
Royalists to the Parliamentarians, and a consequent 
cessation of the warfare between the two parties in 
England. This event caused the disbanding of the 
militia, and the retirement of the principal part of the 
Farl^ameBtary troops stationed in the district. But an 
esemy more terrible than war succeeded that scourge, 
in the ahape of a pestilence, which carried off a thousand 
souls, and rendered it necessary to establish a cordon 
nmnd the town. The living were scarcely more fortunate 
than the dead, trade having been completely paralyzed, 
and famine threatening to destroy those whom the plague 
hmd spared. So dreadful was this visitation that a sort of 
pfareoty seized upon the inhabitants: the town was reduced 
to a complete state of disorganization: the populace 
attaaipted a genera! pillage, and the mad outery of the 
Cky of Uk Plagae seems to have rung, "Let us eat and 
dHnfcf for to-mofrow we die." In this crisis the German 

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soldier once more interposed his authority for the salvation 
of the place: despite the ravages of the destroyer, he 
fearlessly kept his station in the town, though supported 
hy only a dozen of his troopers, and curbed the reckless 
abandonment of order in the people. Parliament, too, felt 
it necessary to step in for the administration of relief, and 
on the 9th. July voted £ 1000 to aid the destitute sufferers. 
In December, a general collection in all the diurches 
of London was ordered, and the proceeds were forwarded 
hither to Sir John Hartley, of Strangeways Hall. It 
would seem that after this crisis had passed the inhabitants 
manifested no gratitude to Roseworm for the eminent 
services he had rendered them, but withheld his paly and 
otherwise so maltreated him, that in his indignation he 
published a pamphlet setting forth the unworthy slights 
he had received. After enumerating the opportunities he 
had had of betraying, or dividing the inhiiiitants againal 
themselves, he sarcastically remarks, ''But I should then 
have been a Manchester man, for never let an unthankful 
man and a promise-breaker have another name.*' In the 
year 1646 the pestilence abated. 

The partial cessation of the civil war gave the 
Parliament an opportunity of applying its attentiof^ to 
other matters. Presbyterianism having now gained the 
ascendant, the episcopal form of worship was here as 
elsewhere made to give place to the new lights. Heyrick, 
the Warden, of whom mention has already been made, 
was mainly instrumental in effecting the change in 
Manchester. Sequestrators were sent down into these 
districts to strip the Church of her temporalities; and, in 
consequence of the regulations which they enforced, the 
majority of the clergy seceded from their cures. A fervid 
zeal against Popery kept Heyrick at his post, but he does 
not appear to have chimed in with all the dogmas of the 
Parliament, some of whose proceedings, indeed, he smiurtly 

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leprebended in a Bermon whicb he waa delegated to 
pttach before them. 

The voracious maw of the sequestrators had seized the 
re?enae8 of the Collegiate Church, her officiating ministers 
being pensioned off with a starving allowance from their 
own monies; but at last the funds were restored, on 
condition that the clergy should signify their adherence 
U> the NaUoaal Convention, which all of them consented 
to do except Mr. Bradshaw, one of the Fellows. For his 
tadadty in refusing compliance he was made prisoner, 
M»d dragged, with every mark of contumely and dishonour, 
wnidst the revilinga of a republican mob, who stoned him, 
to a distant dungeon. In October, 1646, an ordinance was 
Passed converting Lancashire into an ecclesiastical province 
wider the Presbyterian forms; Prestwich, Oldham, Eccles, 
Plixton and Ashton were constituted, with Manchester, the 
fart classical division for this county, which was divided 
into nine audi districts, each of which had its monthly 
Presbytery; and deflates from these assemblies met 
occasionally as a Synod, their first meeting being at 
Preston, and all afterwarda at Manchester. As no 
national or general assembly for the whole kingdom was 
wected, each Synod was supreme and uncontrollable in 
its own province. So far all was well ; but the Presbyterians 
•«re chagrined that Parliament had not recognised in 
ifcem the power of excommunicating offenders. There 
Me no means of ascertaining (though it is easy to 
eoDjectnre) the motive which induced the Legislature to 
■top short of conceding this extreme authority. Whatever 
it might be, it failed to satisfy the Presbyterians, who 
*tt^fore arrogated the power, and exercised it pretty 
•lartly, withoat the permission of the rulers of the 
commonwealth. This state of things continued during 
toorteen years — to that period, indeed, when our entire 
^^\ and religious polity was restored to the condition 

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from which it had been so strangely warped. Bat in the 
interval many remarkable incidents occurred. Although 
Presbytery had the ascendant, another sect^ that of the 
Independents, was rising rapidly into religious and political 
notoriety, under the protection of potent friends in high 
places. Disciples were gained so fast in Manchester as 
early to excite alarm among the Presbyterians; and the 
Warden, Heyrick, and Mr. Hollingworth, who became 
a Fellow of the Church, were especially active in opposing 
it. Heyrick got up an address to the Parliament, which 
was signed by eight thousand five hundred persons, six 
thousand of whom were inhabitants of Salford, (of the 
hundred, no doubt) praying the exercise of its authority 
to put down all '^ Anabaptists, Brownists, Heretics, 
Schismatics and Blasphemers." This document, which 
bears date the dd. March, 1647, designates the sectarian 
spirit of the times as a "freting leprosie and eating 
leprosie," and the subscribers declare that they "do detest" 
it "A toleration," say they, "would be the puting of a 
sword into a mad man's hand ; a cup of poyson into the 
hand of a child; a leting loose of mad men with firebrands 
in their hands; an appointing a City of refuge in mens 
consciences for the devil to fly to ; a laying of the stumbling 
block before the blind; a proclaiming liberty to the wolves 
to come into Christs fold to prey upon his lambs; a 
Toleration of soul-murther (the greatest murther of all ' 
other) and for the establishing whereof damned souls in 
hel would accurse men of earth.'' Among the crowd of 
Presbyterians who subscribed to these opinions were the 
Ministers of Deane, Bolton, Chollerton, Bury, Rochdale, 
Middleton, Ashton-under-Line, RadcliflT, Denton, Newton 
Heath, Eccles, Flixton, Holcome, Heywood, Ringley, 
DIdsbury, Ouldham, Cockey, Salford, Halsal, Hyton, 
Ormeskirk, and other distant parts of the county. But» 
despite these efforts* the Independent party acquired 

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daily strength throughout the country, although Heyrick 
contrived to keep the town's people tolerably free from 
their taint The Lancashire troops, however, imbibed the 
eontagion. The Presbyterian party, indeed, were not 
▼eiy scrupulous as to the means they adopted to conquer 
their infant rivals: the excommanicatory power was not 
pemutted to lie dormant; when they could not convince 
by ai^ument they enforced silence; and, among others, 
George Fox, who about this time visited Manchester to 
spread his new lights, was compelled to desist from his 
inreachings. (a. d. 1 647.) Alarmed by the grovring power 
of the Independents, the Presbyterians of the Provincial 
Synod assembling at Preston published a solemn exhor- 
tation to ail the churches in Lancashire, and at last, the 
tide still running against them, they attempted to make 
terms with the King. That failing, their brethren of 
Scotland once more took up arms; the expedition under 
Hamilton was planned; and that General, marching 
into England with twenty thousand men, penetrated 
into this county. But bis career was short-lived. 
Heyrick still fulminated his denunciations of the new 
sects in vain : the Independents, whom the Presbyterians 
both hated and feared, marched steadily forward under 
the guidance of their profoundly cunning leader, until 
a Protectorate usurped the place of monarchy. Presby- 
terianism had never been favoured by the multitude : its 
ceremonials are stated to have been so unpopular here, 
that the schoolmaster of Prestwich took precedence of the 
recognised clergy, and was in constant request to solemnize 
marriages and baptisms; rites which, for the sake of 
privacy and security, he usually administered after sunset 
Lancaahiie, in Oact was full of discord and division. The 
plans of the Independents being matured, Charles I. 
was brought to the block in 1648, to the inexpressible 
horror of his early enemies the Presbyterians, wl^o little 

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anticipated such a catastrophe. In Manchester a solemn 
day of humiliation was appointed on the occasion, and it is 
recorded that the general excitement of the town's people 
was augmented by various natural phenomena. The 
unusually heavy rains which fell, producing a great flood, 
were regarded as special evidences of God's resentment. 
The Presbyterians did not submit quietly to the new order 
of things: foiled in their desire to mould affairs to salt 
their own inclinations, they once more turned a friendly 
eye towards the dethroned family, and tlie young Prince 
was proclaimed, to the infinite joy of the Lancashire 
Presbyterians, who, according to custom, set apart a day 
of public thanksgiving. But the Independents counter- 
acted these manifestations : the principles avowed in the 
^ agreement of the people" were widely disseminated; a 
republican Council of State exercised the monarchical 
functions; and one of their first acts was to appoint another 
Committee of Sequestration, which seized all the Church 
lands in this parish, dissolved the College, and appro- 
priated its revenues. Heyrick, the Warden, who resisted 
the administrators of these resolutions, was brought into 
subjection by Colonel Birch, of Birch Hall, who forcibly 
entered the Chapter House of the Collegiate Church, which 
the Warden had barricadoed. Parliament pensioned him 
off with £100 a-year, and granted £80 per annum to 
each of the Fellows out of the public treasury. 

Meanwhile Prince Charles's attempt to regain the throne 
by an army from Scotland had been made, and failed. 
Heyrick appears at this time to have taken so active a part 
in the plots against the Commonwealth that he was 
seized, with other leading ministers and elders, and nar- 
rowly, escaped the forfeiture of his life. The Eari of 
Derby, the staunch adherent of royalty, was less fortunate: 
after his noted engagement at Wigan with Col. lilbume, 
(who passed through Manchester on his route to thajt 

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town] the Eaii being made prisoner under a promise of 
quarter, on the borders of Cheshire, Parliament resolved 
to wreak full vengeance, and ordered him to be tried by a 
High Court of Justice composed of nineteen persons, or, 
in other words, by a Court Martial. Such a tribunal 
had no difficulty in pronouncing him guilty; and on the 
15th. October, 1651, at three in the ailemoon, he was 
hdieaded at the Market Cross, in Bolton, amid the sighs 
and wailings of the assembled people. The infamy of 
this legd murder is laid to the charge of Bradshaw, Rigby 
and Birch, who were said to have been prompted to it 
from inveterate malice, — ''Bradshaw, because the Earl had 
denied him the Vice Chamberlain's place at Chester; 
Rigby, because of his ill-success before Latham House 
and Bolton ; and Birch because his Lordship had trailed 
him under a hay-cart at Manchester, by which he got, 
even among his own party, the epithet of the Earl of 
Derby's carter.'* The circumstances attending the trial 
of the Noble Earl, and his demeanour in the interval 
before execution, possess much interest, but they do not 
come within the range of this narrative. 

A comparative calm succeeded these harrowing occur- 
rences. Cromwell, having dissolved the Parliament and 
invested himself with the wllole power of the State, set 
about that reform of the House of Commons under which 
this town was first invested with the privilege of being 
Kfiresented in Parliament On the 19th. July, 1654, the 
electors chose as their representative Mr. Chas. Worsley. 
In August of the following year a second election took 
pUce, when Mr. R Ralcliflfe was returned. 

Another fruitless rebellion disturbed for a time the 
intomai tranquillity, and aflforded the Protector a pretext 
for inflicting additional severities on the Royalists. In 
Lancishire Sir G. Bboth (whom, for his fidelity, Charles 
11^ on his accession, created Lord Delamere) made pre- 

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parations for a risiog, bot the failure of the general plan 
prevented any demonstration. In the coarse of the 
following years the moderate Episcopalians again reared 
Ihcir heads, verifying their motto *" vineit qui patUur** 
In Manchester this party, at the head of whom we find 
the names of Holland, Egerton, Stanley, Synmiond, 
Mosley, Prestwich, &c., held a controversy with the 
Presbyterians; the two sects forgot former animosities, 
and, uniting to overwhelm their common enemy, in 1660 
the monarchy was restored. Sir G. Booth, who had risen 
prematurely in ftivour of Charles, suffered a defeat at 
Northwich, and retreated upon this town. 

The restoration was solemnized by a public thanks- 
giving in Manchester, Ashton, Oldham and Eccles. The 
King was proclaimed with great joy; Mr. Newcombe, a 
noted divine of Presbyterian principles, preached a sermon 
on the occasion at the Collegiate Church; and on the 
14th. of August was held the last classical assembly of the 
Manchester Presbyterians. At the coronation of the King, 
the enthusiasm of his friends in Manchester (judging from 
an account of their festivities to be found among Mr. 
Barrett's MSS.) appears to have boiled over. On the 23d. 
of April, 1661, a grand procession took place, in which 
figured mimic soldiers, armed cap a pie: the bells rang, 
bonfires blazed, the cannon roared, the conduits ran with 
" pure claret" all day, and there can be no difficulty in 
giving credit to the assertion of a writer who states that 
the wine ''was freely drunk" by such as could make their 
way to it, although the excessive crowding rendered that a 
task of no easy accomplishment 

The King attempted to regain the confidence of the 
lower orders by re-establishing the forbidden sports. In 
a proclamation put forth in the sixteenth year of his reign, 
his Majesty, after stating that Lancashire abounded in 
Popi^ recusants more than any other county in England, 

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but tbat Acre had of kte been some amendment, which 
caased htm the more to regret the " general complaint of 
oor people that they were barred from all lawful! 
leo-eation/' declares his pleasore to be "that after 
the end of divine service, our good people be not 
disturbed, letted, or discouraged from any lawfull re- 
creations, such as dauncing, either men or women, 
archcrie for men, leaping, vaulMnge, or other such haroN 
lesse Recreations, nor from having of May-games, Whitsun 
Ales, and Morris-daunces, and the setting up of May- 
poles, and other sports therewith used, so as the same 
may be had in due and convenient time, without impe- 
diment or neglect of divine service ; And that women shall 
have leave to carry rushes to the Church for the decoring 
of it, according to their old costome. But withall we do 
here accompt still as prohibited all unlawfull games to 
bee used upon Sundayes only, as Bears and Bull baitings, 
Interludes, and at all times in the meaner sort of people 
prohibited Bowling.** 

Subsequently Charles 11. departed from the course of 
Moderation he had adopted. The Act of Uniformity 
caused the secession of a considerable number of ministers 
in Lancashire; but Warden Hey rick, who had witnessed so 
many changes in religion, was suffered to continue in his 
office until his death, which happened on the 6th. of August, 
1667 : he was aged sixty-seven, and was interred near Hun- 
tington, the first Warden of the College. Among the 
secedeis were — Rev. R. Birch, Birch Chapel; Rev. T. 
Holland, Blakeley; Rev. E. Jones, Vicar of Eccles; Rev. 
W. Leigh, Gorton Chapel; Rev. P. Aspinall, Heaton; Rev. 
6. Tliomason, Heywood ; Rev. H. Newcombe, Manchester; 
Rev. J. Walker, Newton Heath ; Rev. R. Holbrook, Salford 
Abont seventy ministers seceded in Lancashire; and this 
town, said at that time to "possess a greater dissenting 
population than most odiers in the kingdom,^ became the 

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resort of the ejected. In Lancadiire all Non-conformists, 
and more especially the Quakers, were severely treated. 

Excepting the ferment thus manifested, no important 
event connected with the history of Manchester occurred 
for several years. In the thirteenth of Charles 1 1, an act 
was passed confirming the sale of Hulme Manor to Sir 
E. Mosley by the Prestwich family, whom the civil war 
had much impoverished. In 1679, a precocious youth 
named Charles Bennet appeared on the public arena, and 
greatly astonished the inhabitants by the facility with 
which, although only three years old, "he did speake 
Latin, Greeke and Hebrew languages, which he had never 
been taught." He was carried to London to be presented 
at Court 

Lord Delamere was so active in these districts in stirring 
up opposition to the tyranny of King James, that in 1685 
be was committed to the Tower, (whither his faithful con- 
sort followed him) but upon trial was acquitted. Dr. 
Stratford, one of the clergy of the Collegiate Church, was 
for his services to William III. created Bishop of Chester. 
Although the Lancashire gentry were resolute in their 
opposition to James whilst he was yet King, he had no 
sooner lost his crown than many of them turned round and 
counter-plotted for his restoration. Among the chiefs of 
this vacillating party were found the names of Leigh of 
Lime, Lord Molyneux, Sir R. Stanley, Sir W. Gerard, 
Sir T. Clifton, &c. To these parties James sent commis- 
sions for raising forces, but the design was discovered and 
communicated to the Magistrates in Quarter Session, 
whilst Lord Delamere quickly assembled a body of forty 
thousand men on Bowden Downs to oppose the plotters, 
a service for which the King created him Earl of Warring^ 
ton. — In 1694, Sir Giles Eyres held a Court at Manchester 
for the trial of certain influential parties supposed to be 
implicated in " The Lancashire Plot," among whom 

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Here H. Willoiighby, Ralph Ashton, Jas. Holt, Thos^ 
Lerer, Jas. Yates, Nic Starkie, Hen Farrington, and Jos. 
Horton. By a skilful manoeuvre of one of their party, 
however, who contrived to mislead Lunt, the informer 
against them, (a man employed as messenger by the exiled 
James) the gentlemen escaped conviction. 

The Non-conformists assembled as a separate body in 
Manchester in 1672, under the ministry of Mr. Newcombe, 
and a chapel was built for him at the extremity of Aca's 
Field, which from its locality received the popular title of 
"St, Plunge 'em's Chapel."* Some years afterwards, 
during the " Sacheverel riots," it was pulled down by a 
inob headed by Thomas Syddall, a peruke-maker. Par- 
liament granted £1500 for its re-edification, and Syddall, 
^M^g committed for trial for his offence to Lancaster, was 
thence rescued by the invading army of the Chevalier St. 
George, whom he joined. On the overthrow of the insur* 
gents, however, he was retaken, and with four others was 
executed at Manchester. It is recorded of Mr. Peploe 
that, being at Preston and required to perform divine 
•ervice, he had the courage to pray for the reigning family 
of Orange in presence of the Pretender; for which act, 
OD the death of "Silver-tongued Wroe," as he was fami- 
liarly styled, the Crown rewarded him with the Wardenship 
of Manchester College. The returns of the estates of 
Non-jnrora and Catholics in the Hundred of Salford at 
the time of this rebellion stated their number to be seven- 
teen, and their annual value £721 1 3; and, for the 
whole county, three hundred and twenty in number, annual 
value £358,194 5 3^. The failure of this first attempt 
of the Jacobites did not deter them from a future and a 
more desperate effort Duriftg the interval of thirty years 
which elapsed, the tone of party politics had no abatement 
Dr. Byrom, the inventor of a system of short-hand, took a 

• Kow known w CroM.ttre«t Chapel, and (torotod since ttie yetr 177^ to the 
licnkalion of Unitarian doctrine. 

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lead on the one side ; all the clergy were infected with the 
Jacobinical mania. Dr. Peploe, the Warden, opposed his 
brethren; but they were too strong for him, and in 1738 
he was compelled to resign his post in favour of his son. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that the rebellion of 1745 
should have had so many votaries in Manchester. 

In the years preceding that event a great change had 
occurred in the condition of the town, to which there 
had been large accessions. Of the state of the district in 
those early times there exists a memorial of an extraordinary 
and interesting character in the College Library. It is a 
MS. volume, in excellent condition, which may be des- 
cribed as a rate-book for the whole county, setting forth 
the names and description of the taxes dien levied, 
with the modes of assessing them, and the amounts for 
which the several hundreds or townships of the county 
were liable.* The taxes are thus described: — 

Tbere be stx serenil klnda of Taxes mod Imjb ased within the coanty 
Piallatioe of Lanoaster, (tIz.) 1. The Sabatdie. S. Th« Fifteen, s. The 
Oxe Ltf . 4. The Maimed Soldiers Laf . 5. llie Prisoners Laf . 8. The Sol- 
diers Laf or CoQDty Laf. 

1 . The Subsldie is onlf ased when a sobsidie Is cranted to the King's Majesty 
b7 Act of Parliament, and then It is to be Rated, Taxed, Levied and Paid 
accordlnic to the tenor of the same Act, whereooto I refer the Reader hereof 
not iateoding to write any more of that Tax or Laf In this Book. 

9. The Fifteen Is osed when a Fifteen and Tenth is granted to the KUigs 
Mi^iostf bf Act of ParUament; bat bceaase the same is osaallf paf ed, taken 
and levied in manner and form aforetime osed; and beeaose also that divers 
Hundreds within the said Coanty are att the Soldiers Laf to be rated and taxed 
•ocordlng to the Fifteen within the same Handreds, (theDedactions being first 
deducted and allowed) I have thouitht good at the end of these roles to set 
downe the nsuall Fifteen of evcrjr Township in everf severall Hundred within 
the said countf besides the Dedaetion. 

There are 900 Townshlpps within the said conntf which stand ebarged to p«y 
the Fifteen to the Kings MiOe^ty , (Besides Raven and Mealea, the greatest pact 
whereof Is drowned in the Sea.) (viz.) 

InSalford Hnndred 41 In Amoondemess Hondred . . . . 4p 

In Derby Hundred 79 In Blacfcbom Hundred 51 

In Uyland Hundred .....34 In Lonsdale Hondrwl 40 

« Its title is *« A Book of Rates fbr the Coanty Pallatine of Lancaster. Com- 
lyiled and pablisbed for the generall good and benefit of the whole ooonty. By 

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S. TteCteelAjtaDMdfornroTlMioDofOxenfortheKiDttMiOeitiasboaie- 
teld aecordlDf torn eompoeitioii mmde by the said coantj. This Tuc or Lay was 
i^nod opoo itb day of January Anoe Regnl Reftnw BM«abeUMB l6th. Aanoq: 
DamtlUS, ▲ Oopvy whereof T bare InMftadhertaftef. 

4. The BCaimed Soldiers Lay Is ased for the relief of sick, bart and maimed 
SoldierB and Marrlners. And this Lay is Tszed by force of a statnte made 
Ammo 4S of BHs: fUf: poBd: Anaoqoe Don: 16»1. A ooppy vbareof I b«f« 
barealtcr inserted. 

s. The Prisoners Lay Is cMd fbr the Relief of the Foor Prisoners in tbe Klnt* 
M aK ^tlea gotl attLMCtater. AadtbiaLay laTssedbyfaveaefastatntemade 
Aoao 14 Klis: Besq: Cap. s. And by virtae of tlM same statnte a Tas or Lay 
wna aett downs and agreed opoo S3 die Aoffnsti Anno is Car. Regis Annoq. 
Dom: 1637. A copy wttereof I have hereafter inserted. And these three last 
■MiiUiiiWMl Thxes or Laja (viz.) the Oxe Lay, tbe maimed Soldiers Lay and 
the Prisoners Lay tutve ever since they were so sett downe and agreed npon as 
aioieenid been observed and followed within the said county. 

fiw Tlie sixth and last which U called the Soldiers Lay or County Lay is the 
asost osoall Tsz or Lay either for Mustering Arming and Famishing of Soldiers 
fipr tbe Ktaigs Majesties Warr, or of the trained Bands, or for Repair of Bridges, 
or ior any other use or purpose witmn the said county. And all Somes of Money 
to be Taxed upon tbe said county, except it be for some of the fire Speciall 
p ni p ofles before mentionedt All to be taxed, collected and paid In all the 
eefenOl Hundreds, Parishes and Townshipps within the said oountjr according, 
tbe name Lay being the most equall, reasonable and Indifferent Tax for the 
whole County. 
And this Lay was pused: In the yeare of our Lord 1588, and agreed upon to 
Lay for Rating and Taxing of the said Couuty cither with men or 
And since att the genall: meeting of the Justices of Peace of the same 
Ooonty att Lancaster, att the 8heriflRB*s Tsble there upon Wednesday att night 
in the Aaslzes weeic, being the 1 Ith. day of August Anno R. Regis Dom. JaooU 

AngliK xxt) et Scotlas iTiU, Annoq. Dom: 16S4{ the same Lay was holden to 
be most fitting Tkx. for the whole County, as by an order then and there made. 

a Coppy whereof is Inserted in this Boole as may appear. 

The modes of assessing are next explained. The dif- 
ference between the Oxe Lay and the Soldier's Lay is 
shewn in the following table, which gives the proportion 
of each per cent levied on the several hundreds: — 

oza LMX. soLoiaas lay. 

flalford Hundred 10pts.or4?l6 lo* u pts. or jS'u 

Derby Hundred SfipCs.or^^Sfl S4pCs.or4?24 

Leylaod Haodred 8pts.orjtf8 gpts. or^^O 

Amoundcmess Hundred.... 10 pts. or jf 10 10 ippts.or jtflQ 

Blackburn Hundred 10 pCs. or ^l6 10 18 pts. or jtflS 

Lonsdale Hundred lOpCs. orjtfiO 10 I0pts.orjtfl6 

The hundred of Salford was formed into three divisions, 
viz., the Manchester division, the Middleton division, and 
the Bolton division; and all sums of money to be levied 

• TbtT9 Is erldeotly a mistake in the MS. with reference to the parts charged 
qpon these bandreds. Instead of il^ it should hare been lO^. 

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upon the hundred according to the Cauntrey Lay were 
divided into one hundred equal parts, of which the Man- 
chester division paid 42 parts, the Middleton division 29, 
and the Bolton division 29. The proportion payable by 
the Manchester division, in a Lay of £42, was thus appor- 
tioned amongst the parishes of which it was composed : — 
Ifinohwttr paiiilms ptt. and » iUi. p«rt of one part, or iffis 5 • 

Bodas parish, 10 pti. and a 0tti. part of ona part, or jtflO 8 4 

fUiton pariah, 8 pta. and a sdlh. pt. of one pt, and S pto. of 
a 4th. part of that one part belnr divided intoaocqnall 

parts,or , £i 7 < 

Pr«rtwich parish, 5 parts, and the reaidae of the said 4th. 

partof thatooepaft,heiBri7pvt8tbereo<;or jtf 5 4 S 


The relative wealth of each township in the parish of 
Manchester appears from the following tables: — 

Maneheiter Pariah is divided in 8 Townshipps whidi do aUwayes beare and 
pay afomdingtothts Rale faUowint (via.) Att a Uy of 18b. ii^d. 

s. d. s. d. 

Mandiestflr 7 Beaton Norrii.... .«,«..... .^. \ % 

Sallbfd..... 8 8 ChorltonRow 4 

Stretford 1 Reddish I 3 

Withington 4 8 Cbeetham bk 

Ibe osoail Fifteenth of evarf Townshipp within the Hondred of SaUbrd, 
besides Uie OedocOons:— 

Bladcrod . 



Stretford..... z^ 

Bntterworth . 


Cronpton .......... 




Ashton Under line . 
lioetock and R om wort h .. 










Withington £V^ zv 

Manchester cam 
Menb: jAQ 

9artQi) siver Irwdl zzz^ 

Beaton com BalliweU..,. zi4 


Middleton zi 

Pilkington zxiU 

Tottington zv 


Boalton . . . 










Hondersfleld . 





Holton X 

Woraley xzl 

Prestwioh xfiy 

Turton xv 

Beaton Norris xiij vj 

Bdgeworth xij vj 

Urmlston v1(J yj 

AspoU tU vlU 

CfaorietonbyArdwidE iU iQ) 

SnmmaTotal ifxU ziiU iiU 

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The weekly taxation of tbe several parithes in the 
bundled of Salford, for the relief of Maimed Soldiers and 
Prisoners in the Marshalsey, was fixed by the Justices at 
the Lent Assizes^ forty-third Elizabeth, as under: — 

b«iDf 81. M. ^ WMk, ftt^ U,ft vui. 

The whole payment required from the county was 
£43 6 8 per annum; of which Leyland Hundred paid 
£3 18 0; Derby Hundred, £9 19 4; Amoundemess 
Hundred, £6 18 8; Blackburne Hundred, £ 4 6 8; and 
Lonsdale Hundred, £ 9 10 8. 

A similar rate of taxation was settled by the Justices, 
at Lancaster, 23rd. August, 8th. Car 1, for the relief of 
poor prisoners in his Majesty's Gaol at Lancaster. 

From tbe year 1624, the Cauntrey Lay appears to have 
been used (as the order of the Justices expresses it) as the 
•* most fitting and meetest tax to be for the generall Tax of 
soch moneys as shall be laid for this County throughout 
erery severall Hundred within thb County :'' that is, the 
proportions of every tax, not otherwise specially provided 
for, were regulated by the proportions fixed in respect of 
the Soldier^ Lay or Caunirey Lay; and the MS. to which 
we are indebted for this information contains a variety of 
tables, somewhat in the nature of those in a modem Ready 
Reckoner, exhibiting the precise amount payable by 
every township in the county, when the respective hun- 
dreds were chargeable with certain sums from £100 to lOs. 
In the year 1665, however, when the royal aid for Charlea 
IL was to be collected, there appears to have been some 
dissatisfaction at the disproportion between tbe rates 

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charged upon the hundreds of Derby, Satford and Lona* 
dale, and those paid by the other hundreds. His Mflijesty 
therefore signified his royal pleasure to the Gommissioners 
for collecting the aid, that they should meet with all con- 
venient ^>eed ^ to rectifie the disproportions and to settle 
the severall assessments in such manner that the Levy 
thereof may not be grievous or obnoxcious to complaint." 
In obedience to his Majesty's commands the Commissioners 
met at Preston on the 13th. of June, 1665, and agreed 
that not only the assessment for the royal aid, but like- 
wise all other assessments, taxes and layes whatsoever 
should be " layed, taxed and assessed by the same Rule 
and afler the same Rate and Tax, (viz.) in a medium or 
middle way betwixt the Soldiers Lay and the Oxe Lay.*' 
The monthly payment in respect of this royal aid from the 
county of Lancaster was £1,006 13 6; and this sum was 
divided amongst the several hundreds, according to the 
new assessment, in the following proportions : — 

DArt>7 Hundred .i^si 13 4} Blackbnra Hand red i^l7!i ia 0| 

SBlford Hundred us 10 4| Amoanderness Hundred . 17S i» • 

Leflaod Hundred 86 11 4 Loinsdale Hundred 163 11 

In 1650 the people of Manchester are spoken of as the 
most industrious in the northern parts of the kingdom : 
the town is stated to be a mile in length, the streets open 
and clean, and the buildings good. There were four 
market-places, two markets weekly, and three fairs in 
the year. In 1708, the increase of Uie town rendering ne- 
cessary an additional church, an Act was passed aufhorizing 
the erection of St Ann's. — In 1720, the place is described 
" as the largest, most rich, populous, and busy village in 
England, having about twenty-four thousand families." 
About this time, too. Sir O. Mosley built an Exchange; 
and it is recorded that in the course of twenty years no 
less than two thousand houses were erected. These calcu- 
lations, however, must comprise, not the town merely, but 
the whole parish. 

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The extraorctinary epoch of 1745 is more intimately 
associated with the history of this town, than with that of 
any other portion of the northern counties of England. 
The leading inhabitants, the Clergy of the Collegiate 
Church, Dr. Deacon and his followers, were all warm in 
the cause of the exiled Stuarts, and were led on most 
actively by Colonel Townley, a name well-known in 
Lancashire, Dr. Byrom, who was regarded as the "Master- 
tool of the faction/' Mr. Dickenson, and others. The 
Clergy were not merely associated with the Pretender's 
cause by politicai partialities, but it was even alleged 
agunst them, upon the authority of documents which were 
unanswerable, if genuine, that their religious feelings were 
of the same tendency with his, and that they had actually 
entered into a correspondence with the Church of Rome 
with a view to their re-admission into her bosom« The 
Pretender was at that time taken under the protection of 
the French King, who made a tool of him for the further- 
ance of his policy, having for its object the invasion of 
these kingdoms. A Colonel's commission was forwarded 
to Townley, who was living in Wales, and who thereupon 
visited Manchester to conununicate witli tlie disafiected, at 
a public-house contiguous to Jackson's Ferry, near Dids- 
bory. At this p]ace» according to the good old English 
bshion, business was transacted over a good dinner, one 
ceremonial of which was the drinking of the King's health 
over a bowl of water. The enthusiasm evinced at these 
meetings was supposed to pervade the whole town, and 

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glowing promises of general support were forwarded to 

At length Prince Charles set his foot on the Scottish 
shores, and was joined by friends and partizans; success 
dawned upon his arms at Preston Pans; (Nov.) and the 
way being open to him, he adopted the bold determination 
of penetrating into England. Colonel Townley guided 
his forces; and, whilst joy possessed the hearts of his select 
adherents, consternation seized the loyal part of the com- 
munity. The bridges at Warrington, Barton, and indeed 
along the whole line of march, were ordered to be destroyed: 
in Manchester, those who looked askance upon the Jacobite 
cause hurried off with their effects, whilst the more cou- 
rageous made such preparations for defence as circum- 
stances admitted. The Government in London was by 
this time alive to the alarming character of the inroad, and 
was attempting to check it, but hitherto no force beyond 
the local troops which each district furnished could be 
brought against the invaders, who in the meanwhile were 
advancing apace. A ludicrous story is told of the manner 
in which this town was first occupied by the Jacobites; but, 
fortunately folr the valour of the citizens, it is one in which 
truth has been sacrificed to effect It is related that a 
force composed of one corporal and his man seized, ti tt 
nrmii, and took military possession of the town. The 
Prince distorted the feigned occurrence so far as to say 
that it served to shew the enthusiastic courage of the 
army, and Ihe terror with which the English were 
seized. It Would seem, however, diat the hero of this 
story, an adventurer named Dickson, who was privileged 
to beat Up the country for recruits, having met with faint 
success in Preston, obtained permission to move fon^ard 
to Manchester, which he did, accompanied by his mistress 
and one drummer. Entering boldly, the latter began 
pouring forth his martial strains, whilst Dickson pro- 

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claimed the glories of the service in which he sought to 

embark the Mancunians; and as it was presumed that the 

Preteadei^s forces were near at hand, no oppositioQ was 

for some time offered to him. At length, finding that the 

matfi body was some hours' march off, the inhabitants 

resolved upon ''taking him prisoner, dead or alive." A 

fight ensued, the issue of which was that the Jacobites 

having come out to defend the recruiting corporal the 

assailants were repulsed, and during the rest of the day 

the seii^eant and the drummer paraded the streets in 

triumph. Dickson obtained about one hundred and 

eighty recruits,^ who were remarkable by their white 

cockades. On the evening of the 28th., the main body 

being at Leigh and Wigan, the van-guard entered 

Manchester, followed, about ten in the morning, by the 

main body. This force marched into St Ann's Square at 

the time the last obsequies were being paid over the grave 

of the rector, Joseph Uoole. Some of the officers joined 

decorously in the service, after which quarters were sought 

for the Prince, who had not yet arrived; and the residence 

of Mr. Dickinson, in Market-street Lane, since known as 

the Palace Inn, was selected for him. Hie publicans were 

ordered to muster for the purpose of attending the soldiers^ 

and threats of military execution were held out to induce 

the excise and other government officers to bring in such 

public money as they might have in their handsw The 

Chevalier arrived about two in the afternoon, with a body 

guard of Highlanders: he wore a light plaid, blue sash, a 

blue bonnet adorned with a white rose, and a grey wig, the 

disfiguring appendage of those days. In his rear were 

sixteen pieces of ordnance, many waggons and loaded 

horses. The Prince was not an entire stranger in 

Manchester. In the previous sununer he had made a 

* OOitr aocooDts state tlitt only ititf MaoeoalaDt joined the rank! of Uie 
rnteadec^ altho«tb a 4b«M«r of flfe gotneM wee oAred. 

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secret visit to Sir Oswald Moeley, of Ancoats^ ancestor 
of the present Sir Oswald. l*his historical fact has been 
too little noticed. Prince Charles Edward passed seyeral 
weeks at Ancoats Hall in privacy. He frequented the 
only news-room in town, where London newpapers were 
delivered three days in the week, and appeared always very 
anxious for the arrival of the post upon those occasions. 
The daughter of the person who kept this news-room was 
in the habit of attending upon the company there, and 
she had frequent opportunities of observing him. His per- 
sonal accomplishments and polite address particularly 
attracted her attention, and one day when she had brought 
him, at his request, a basin of water and a towel to wash 
himself with, he rewarded her in a much more munificent 
manner than a common guest could have done. An in- 
delible impression of his countenance and figure was thus 
left upon her memory ; and when she saw him subsequently 
at the head of his troops, she immediately recognised 
him as the same person who had so frequently attended 
the news-room in the former year. Her father, who had 
been in the secret, enjoined strict silence from her upon this 
topic, but so soon as the rebellion was over, and personal 
danger to her father was no longer to be apprehended, she 
conununicated the circumstance to a member of her 
acquaintance. Sir Oswald Mosley was not himself at 
Ancoats during the concealment of the Pretender there : 
he remained at his seat in Staffordshire during the Rebel- 
lion of 1745; but from the hospitality which had been 
previously shewn to him, and the encouragement offered 
many influential men in Manchester and the vicinity, 
the Pretender had expected more powerful support than 
he received when he toived in town. He did not hesitate, 
indeed, to express his great disappointment to all those 
around hiuL His supplies began to fail him at Man- 
chester; and, with the advice of his Scotch associates, he 




hi^fied a considerable sam tipon the inbabitants, for the 
payment of which he compelled Mr. Jas. Bayley (father 
of the present Shr Oswald Mosle^^'s grandmother) and 
several of the wealthiest of the Whig party^ to become 
sureties ; bat as the whole amount could not be raised so 
promptly as they required, the . Scotch forces took Mr. 
Bayley, as a hostage, to Derby, and did not liberate him, 
even npon their return from thence, until the rest of the 
money had been raised, a part of which Mr. Bay ley was 
obliged to provide out of his own private fortune. The 
Prince's ill-clad men were grotesquely armed with swords, 
{HStols, a few guns, and other less martial weapons. In 
short, diey must have resembled the torn and tattered crew 
from whose company through Coventry Falstaff was so re- 
solute to be free. These beggarly characters enshrined 
themselves under waiving banners, on which were inscribed 
the pompous and hollow words — " Liberty and Property " 
— ^Church and King.** The Prince marched through 
Salibrd, and was met by Mr. Clayton, a clergyman, who, 
iiedlhig on his knees, prayed for Uie divine blessing upon 
the chevalier. Prince Charles took up his abode at the 
•Palace** m Market-street Lane, whither Jacobites of 
both sexes flocked to welcome him. Although the pre- 
sence of female associates in Manchester is not parti- 
cularly named, it is stated that the young adventurer 
was aeeompanied from Scotland by partizans of both 
sexes. A lady of Preston, giving an account to a friend 
of the Prince's entry into that town, informs her that 
he had with him "four ladies who seem to be of some 
dudnction— Lady Ogilvy, Mrs. Murray, Jenny Cameron, 
and another whose name I could not learn, but they say she 
is the mistress of one M'Sheridan, a Popish Priest. The 
two first were in a chariot by themselves; the other two in 
a coach and six, with the young Pretender and M'Sheridan, 
who, it seems, is called the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

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This young Pretender seemed very faint and sick, and it 
very assiduously ministered unto by Jenny Gamenm. 
She is, it seenui, the niece of a person of some fashion in 
the Highlands, and was sent by her uncle to pay hid 
compliments to the young Pretender on his march firom 
Lochaber to Perth. She brought with her a oonsiden^le 
quantity of cattle> some Usquebaugh, and other little 
presents. When she appeared before the young Pn^nder's 
tenC, who received her rery gallantly, she jumped off her 
horse and told him with great frankness that she came lilce 
the Queen of Sheba to partake of the wisdom of Solomon: 
he answered 'And thou shalt, my dear, partake of all that 
Solomon is master of/ He took her in his arms and 
retired with her into his tent" 

This lady, usually known as "Miss Jenny," was a 
heroine of no common stamp, and though the mischievoua 
pen of the lady at Preston, who thus describes her, might 
at the first glance be supposed to have been dipped in gall, 
other traditions bear out her testimony as to the Scottish 
damsel. In early life she was the favorite of her father, 
who, "out of a mistaken tenderness for her, was so long 
before he would put her under the restraint which her 
education required, that some passions were suffered to 
take so deep root in her mind that neither time, care, nor 
expense could afterwards eradicate." In the nursery she 
was "a plague to all her family," and as she grew she 
evinced an unfeminine delight in violent exercises and 
in the company of boys. "She grew very soon to be a 
lusty, robust girl, and too big to be suffered to play 
amongst them." The fair promise of childhood Miss 
Jenny did not disappoint. Her parents placed her too late 
under the care of an aunt; she was then "a wild, uncul- 
tivated hoy don, who did not want sense, and had a sur- 
prising ready wit, which was buried in a violent, passionate 
temper, impatient to the last degree of contradiction." 

Diggized by CjOOQ IC 

Her aunt contmed to k^ heir withiD bounds for a short 
Hme ^ by the help of gaudy apparel, and some trifles that 
Ae bad not been accastomed to in the Highlands f* but 
these lores lost their potency, and " the lady found she 
mast try what efiect a course of wholesome discipline would 
liaTe on her. Miss soon gave her an opportunity of putting 
the experiment in practise, for, having trangressed, Mrs. 
Cameron called her into a closet, and there intended to 
give her some moderate correction : Miss, not being used 
to sach treatment, ooidd not be brought to submit to it, 
bat fM foul of her, and what the old lady had designed 
for ber was unhappily returned upon herself, so that she 
was obliged to capitulate with Miss, and promise her 
anlimited indulgence for the future and forgiveness for 
the present'' Notwithstanding these manifestations of 
insorbordination. Miss Jenny grew in knowledge and in 
personal grace. She was " tall and well shaped, her skin 
dear, and her features agreeable ; she had large sparkling 
eyes, with a wanton softness about them that never failed 
lo please If they designed to make a conquest, so that if 
die might not be reckoned a beauty, at least she was very 
agreeable." But it would be indiscreet to pursue Miss 
Jenny's history. The curious may learn much more of her 
by consulting James Ray's ** Compleat History of the 
RebeHion," wherein her steps are traced, with most mali- 
cious accuracy, through the maizes of a ^ strict friendship" 
with her butier Sawney — a career in a Parisian nunnery — 
her flight thence with a " young Colonel" — a Don Juan 
trip, in masculine habiliments, to Flanders — a residence 
in Utrecht and sundry adventures in search of a husband 
— a renewed career in Paris — her return to ScoUand and 
rencontre with the Pretender, whom, however, (contrary 
to the opinion of the lady in Preston) she appears not to 
have accompanied into England. Having again joined 
him on his retreat, she was taken prisoner in the Colonel's 

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attire which from the first she had worn, and lodged in 
Edinburgh Castle. 

Retumingy then, from this digression, the Pretends 
was proclaimed as King James III., and in the evening^ 
public illumination testified the joy of his followers, at the 
prospects of success which their imaginations conjured up. 
Among those who enlisted in the Jacobite cause, were the 
three sons of Dr. Deacon, who, through them, evinced a zeal 
in the cause which at his time of life he was unable to testify 
by his actions. Commissions were issued from the Dog 
Inn, where Lord George Murray, the Prince's Secretary, 
had his quarters, and the command of the force to be 
raised in Manchester was by him assigned, by order of 
the Prince, to Colonel Towneley. Other men of some 
respectability joined the Prince, but the miyority of his 
Manchester adherents were of the shop-keeping and hum- 
bler class. The officers appear to have paid for their 
commissions. Among them was Thomas Syddall, a barber, 
who rejoiced in having, as he supposed, an opportunity 
now of avenging his father's death. A quondam pupil of 
the Grammar School, named Cappock, joined as Chap- 
lain, and paraded the town with his military associate, a 
drummer, to the great annoyance of the well-affected. 
The recruiting department was entrusted to Mr. Charles 
Deacon, one of the Doctor's sons, who fixed his quarters at 
the Bull's Head, then the principal hotel of Manchester ; 
but although rewards were promised to recruits, and 
attempts were made to rouse the popular enthusiasm by 
proclamation, and by appeals against the Government and 
its gross expences, Manchester only furnished three 
hundred men to the Jacobite army, of which number scarce 
thirty were said to be inhabitants, whilst only £3000 in 
money were raised. Such as did join the Pretender's 
ranks were mostly of the lowest rank, and of such charac- 
ter that the Duke of Perth, one of his followers, declared 

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^msm^m^K^ j ■■ ■ ^^p^^^n^^^^ 


that **%£ the devil had come a recruiting and proffered a shil- 
ling more than the Prince, they would have preferred the 
former/' The authorities, if friendly to the Prince's 
cause, shrank in fear from the consequences of failure : 
the chief Magistrate of the town resorted to the flimsy 
expedient of holding all his communications with the 
ioTaders on the other side of a silk curtain. But all were 
not so timid. It is recorded of an inhabitant named 
Johnson that, though forced to receive as guests in his 
house some of the Pretender's officers, his independence 
was not destroyed or abashed. Being required in a 
carousal to give a toast, soon afler the health of " King 
James" had been drunk, he boldly proposed " King 
GeOTge." The hands of the valiant Jacobites touched 
their swords, as it were instinctively, but they were 
rebuked by one who justly observed^ '*He has drunk to 
our Prince, and why not we to his; here's to the Elector 
of Hanover !" On the 30th., the day succeeding that of 
his arrival in Manchester, the Prince observed the reli- 
gions duties of the Sabbath at the Collegiate Church, 
Capppck preaching. Afler service, the troops mustered 
in the yard, and were reviewed by the Prince. 

But the day was not wasted in idle parade. Advance 
parties were sent forward towards Stockport, Altringham, 
Cheadle, &c., to clear the woods ; and on the Monday 
the Prince marched for Macclesfield, which town the 
advance guard reached the same afternoon. It having 
been intimated, with a view to mislead the royalists, that 
the Prince purposed marching into Wales, the country 
people broke down the bridge on the Mersey, and when 
the real route was ascertained similar impediments were 
devised elsewhere. The consequence was that the invaders 
were compelled to ford all the rivers. At Stockport the 
Prince passed through the water, which reached " up to 
his middle.'' The Manchester regiment halted tliat night 

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at Wilmslow, whence a party, headed by Mr. Thomas 
Deacon, was sent forward to Derby, towards which place 
the main body still progressed, the Duke of Gmnberiand, 
with tCD tl)ousand men, retiring from Congleton on tlieir 
approach. On the 4th. December they reached Derby, 
when, the Duke being only a league distant, preparations 
were made for battle on the next day ; but news having 
arrived that reinforcements of three thousand strong had 
landed in Scotland, whilst in front thirty thousand mai 
were posted at "Finchley Common** to dispute the 
advance of the invader, the resolution was taken to retire, 
and on the sixth the retrograde movement began. The re- 
sults are known. Being within a few miles of the Duke of 
Cumberland, whose councils were distracted and his plans 
marred by false intelligence, the troops had expected to 
be led to an immediate attack; or, if the Prince deemed it 
more prudent to avoid him and march forward, the road was 
open to London, and the panic which existed there afforded 
the Highlanders ground of hope that the wealthy capital 
would fall an easy prey to them. These considerations 
doubly embittered the disappointment always incident to 
retreat; and it was rendered more disastrous from the 
nature of the Prince's forces, which consisted in great 
part of Highlanders — men who are ever ready to march 
into the jaws of death, but who no sooner begin a retreat 
than it becomes a breaking up, each man considering him- 
self free to make his own way quickly to his native hills 
and home. The Manchester regiment is said to have been 
particularly disheartened. The news of their altered plans 
preceded Uie forces, and of course rendered their march 
less secure. From Manchester men were sent out to break 
up the roads ; from the surrounding country the people 
mustered in large bodies, threatening opposition to the 
retreating army. In the evening of the eighth an advanoe 
of a few of the insurgents, among whom, it is alleged, vas 

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Thomas Syddall, reached Manchester, and an unsuccess- 
fol attempt was made to seize him. Another party arriving 
the next day, such was the revulsion of feeling since their 
last appearance, or rather such the acquired confidence of 
the loyal party, that the Jacobites were stoned in marching 
down Hanging Ditch; but the arrival of the main body, 
which was of course again billeted upon the inhabitants, 
<diecked their rising opposition. In the after-^art of 
the 10th. December, the news that the Duke of 
Camberland was advancing by forced marches caused 
a hasty retreat of the rebels. The Manchester regiment 
wore in great dejection, and some of them lingered behind, 
loath to depart on the now forlorn expedition. Of these 
was Captain Fletcher, who was taken forcibly from his 
hoose and compelled to join the flying march. The Duke 
o( Cumberland sent forward a messenger to Manchester, 
ordering the authorities to seize all stragglers, for which 
pnrpose a small party of dragoons was put under their 
diieetion. The Duke pursued the retreating soldiers, if 
aoch a half-starved, half-dad crew deserved the name, 
with vigour. The inhabitants of the towns and small dis- 
tricts through which his Royal Highness passed supplied 
horses for the infantry, to facilitate their advance, and the 
consequence was that, though the rebels were originally 
three or four days' march in advance of the royal forces, 
the latter gained rapidly upon them: on the night of the 
fifteenth the rebels marched hastily out of Lancaster for the 
north, as a portion of the royal army entered at the 
/wnth side, and had it not been that an alarm in the rear 
cooipelled the latter to retrace their steps, they would then 
in all probability have taken prisoners a great portion of 
the Jacobites. 

Here terminates the history of this invasion, so far 
aa Manchester is involved; but the fate of the regiment 
lused in the town has also to be recorded. Chagrined, 

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as it is said, at the coolneis of bis reception here, th^ 
Prince came to the unworthy determination of leaving the 
Manchester regiment, now reduced by desertion to one hun- 
dred and fourteen men, with some Scotch soldiers, to gar- 
rison Carlisle, an indefensible place for a small party; or, in 
other words, to abandon them to the fury of the royal forces. 
They were accordingly put under the orders of Colonel 
Towneley, Colonel Hamilton commanding the associate 
Scots. The Duke appeared before Carlisle town on the 
21st ; and, having blockaded it for a few days, was pre- 
paring for an attack, when Hamilton insisted on a surren- 
der, contrary to the wishes of the Manchester troops and 
of their Commander, who swore it was '' better to die by 
the sword than fall into the hands of those d— d Hanove- 
rians." They surrendered, however, the only condition 
they could obtain being that they should not be put to the 
sword. The officers who thus fell into the hands of the 
royalists were. Colonel Francis Towneley ; Captains James 
Dawson, George Fletcher, John Sanderson, Peter Moss, 
Andrew Blood, T. D. Morgan; Lieutenants T. Deacon, 
Robert Deacon, Thomas Chadwick, John Berwick, John 
Holker, Thomas Furnival; Ensigns Charles Deacon, 
Samuel Maddock, Charles Gaylor, James Wilding, John 
Hunter, John Bretargh; Adjutant Syddall; and Quarter- 
Master Cappock, who had deserted the pulpit for the 
avocations of war. Of non-commissioned officers and 
privates there were only ninety-three remaining. The 
officers were sent in waggons to London, and the subor- 
dinates were thrown into the prisons of Carlisle, Penrith, 
and Kendal. Before they were marched to the metro- 
polis the former were confined in the town jail, and the 
privates in the cathedral of the first-named place. One of 
them, named James Miller, a Manchester man, left behind 
him a history of his misfortunes, which may be found in 
our College library among the manuscripts of Mr. Barrett 

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He says, " We were barbarously treated, the soldiers 
rifling us and taking every thing of value from us, both 
money and cloathes." No provision was allowed them for 
their mess, and they were compelled to drink from a well 
in the body of the church which had not been used for 
upwards of a Imndred years. He and some of his com- 
rades were on the 1st August marched away to Chester 
and Lancaster Castles, where they arrived on January 
18th. On the route they were "used very barbarous/' 
by ** dragging us through the dirtyst plases." " Orders 
were given to the Jaylor to load us with heavy irons." 
Grovemment allowed each man four-pence a day for sub- 
sistence, but the *' jaylor" took the money and gave them 
instead " cow-heads, livers, lights, and the refuse of the 
market'' Upwards of eighty died ; and on the 1st. August 
certain of the survivors were escorted to Carlisle^ leaving 
behind upwards of one hundred who had " sieud " for 
transportation. The writer of the narrative alluded to 
embarked subsequently with others of the rebels in an 
expedition to the East — On their way to Newgate the 
officers were subjected to much indignity, the popular 
mind being excited against them. In prison their conduct 
was various — some driving away melancholy by means of 
the bottle — some holding aloof, among whom was Towne- 
ley — another (Captain Morgan) forgetting his cares in the 
society of his wife — and another (Captain Dawson) occu- 
pying his vacant hours in inditing poetry to a fair one to 
whom his vows were plighted. He it was of whom Shen- 
stone wrote his beautiful ballad. Messengers being sent 
down to Manchester by Government to search the town 
thoroughly, Mr. Fowden, one of the constables, was appre- 
hended by them, ^Thereupon many others took the hint 
and absconded. Among these was Mr. Clayton, the clergy- 
man who had implored Heaven's blessing on the Prince's 
cause. On the 9th. October, 1746, thanksgivings were 

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offered throughout the kingdom for the suppression of the 
rel>ell]on. At Manchester, as elsewhere, sermons were 
preached and rejoicings made in honor of the ''deliferance.'' 
In the evening of the festal day there was a public iliomi- 
nation, in which the willing of course freely shared, 
whilst the unwilling were forced to participate. The 
houses of Dr. Deacon, the hapless widow Syddall, and 
others, were attacked and roughly used. On the 16th. 
July, 1746, the trials of the officers commenced. Captain 
Fletcher had heen urged to turn King's evidence, but he 
spumed the base offer. Ensign Maddock was less 
unbending; he betrayed his associates. Evidence the 
least satisfactory was adduced, and the prisoners were 
allowed very little consideration in meeting their accusers. 
The inquiry, though hurried on, lasted three days, 
terminating in the conviction of all the prisoners. 
Towneley, Sanderson, Fletcher, James Dawson, Blood, 
Morgan, Thomas Deacon, Thomas Chadwick, and Thos. 
Syddall were ordered for execution ; the remainder were 
condemned to transportation for life. Two of the officers. 
Captains Moss and Holker, had effected their escape from 
Newgate before the trials, by making a breach in the wall, 
and they effectually eluded pursuit, although Holker was 
dependent, for six weeks, on the fidelity and kindness of a 
green-stall "keeper, a female, who concealed him. He 
afterwards passed over to France ; and his applications for 
pardon proving ineffectual, he established at Rouen a 
cotton manufactory, by which he amassed great wealth : 
when he died, in 1786, he was holding the honorable office 
of Inspector-General of Cotton and Woollen Manufactures 
in France. All the convicts appear to have awaited the 
approach of death with coolness and resolution. Their 
remaining time was occupied in drawing up declarations, 
couched, as was natural, in strong terms of reprobation 
against the Government through which they suffered, but 

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breathing, many of them, sentiments worthy of the noblest 
cause. The dOUi. July being fixed as the day of execution, 
the prisoners closed their earthly career by taking leave of 
th^ nearest connexions — wives, parents and friends. 
The story of Captain Dawson has had entwined around it 
the strongest interest by the pen of the same Poet who 
has been akeady named. The heroine of this " tale, alas 
too true l" attended her lover to the scaffold at Kenning- 
ton, whither he and the other prisoners w^re ignominiously 
conveyed, on sledges, from their last abode in Southwark 
gaoL Some time was occupied by them in devotion; 
after which, delivering to the Sheriff their several written 
declarations, they met dea^ with firmness and almost with 
tsanquillity, Syddali alone exhibiting a momentary tremour. 
With a ferocity disgraceful to the times, the bodies of the 
tmhappy sufferers were taken down almost before the pulse 
had ceased to vibrate, and the inhuman process of behead- 
ing and disembowelling was added to the awful penalty of 
doUh. The heads of some of the most distinguished were 
exposed in the metropolis and in the large towns of the 
empire, Syddali and the elder Deacon being selected as 
objects for the vulgar stare in Manchester. Their heads 
figored on the Exchange, where Dr. Deacon was the first 
to gaze apon the remains of his son : though bowed with 
age and adversity, he subdued his parental sorrows so far 
as to salute the unbodied head, and to express his rejoicing 
that he had possessed a son who could firmly suffer mar- 
tyrdom in such -a cause. For some time these memorials 
of rebellion and bloodshed kept their position, but no true 
Jacobin ever passed the spot without reverently doffing his 
hat m salutation. On the other hand, they were scoffed at 
a« ''the Gods spiked upon the Exchange;" as "Tyburn 
Gods,'' gone to sulphureous and tormenting flam^. On 
the 12th. August the Manchester and other soldiers impri- 

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soned at Carlisle were brought to trial, true bills being 
found against twenty-nine of them. Of these, Cappock» 
who now resumed the priestly garb, was executed on the 
18lh. October. He had plotted, in concert with his 
associates; to effect his escape, and the attempt nearly 
succeeded. Ailer sentence of death had been pronounced, 
the prisoners contrived to saw off their irons with a knife 
which they had "jagged" into a saw by striking it on the 
edge of a glass, over which, to prevent noise and the 
chance of breaking, a handkerchief was tied. Penrith, 
Brampton, and York were made the scenes of execution of 
other Manchester soldiers who had been condemned, and 
Lieutenant W. Bradshaw, taken prisoner at the final 
battle of Culloden, was hanged on KeuDington Common. 
In April, 1747, Mr. Fowden, the suspected Constable 
of Manchester, and Mr. Ogden the younger, were 
tried at Lancaster for high treason, but acquitted, and 
a triumphal return to their homes testified the joy of 
their Jacobite fri^ds. The inhabitants of the town 
were taunted by their countrymen in various parts of the 
kingdom for the apparent zeal and cordiality with which 
they had espoused the cause of the Pretender. Judging, 
however, from the insignificant pecuniary aid and the very 
small number of recruits furnished to his army by this 
place, the charge of disloyalty would appear to have been 
somewhat overstrained. Be this as it may, the inhabitants 
felt extremely uneasy under the imputation, which they 
strove to remove by publishing a vindication of themselves, 
setting forth the exactions of the Prince and the undis^ 
ciplined conduct of his soldiery during their stay. 
Of the retreat of the rebels it is said, "they could not 
hide their dejection, though they drank plentifully of 
spintuQus liquors, nor forbear expressing their disappoint- 
ment at Manchester; and several who, when here before. 

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bdieved the iUumi nations to be voluntary, said they 
thought the devil must have been among the people, they 
were so altered*" 

The 29th. of May and 10th. of June (the latter the 
birth-day of James III., as he was called) were made 
Jacobite holidays. If writers of those times may be 
believed, Charles appears to have won to his cause very 
many of the fiur "witches" of Manchester. "Many a 
pretty girl was taught to read ' Godi>less Prince Charles' 
upon her pincushion, before she could say her catechism." 
It seems, too, that a common mode of testifying affection 
for the Pretender's cause was by wearing habits of Scotch 
plaid — ^plaid gowns for the ladies, plaid waistcoats for the 
men; and at assemblies or elsewhere Scotch music was 
introduced. The Jacobites were the butt of much 
persecution, and the constant objects of public execration. 
The cry of "down with the rump" survived very long 
the occasion which called it forth. During these time« 
the Magistrates held regular sittings at "The Dan< 
gerons Comer," and compelled the disaffected or the 
doubtful to take oaths of allegiance to the reigning 
Monarch. The height to which politics were carried in the 
town cannot be conceived, even in these days. The As- 
sembly-room, the private ball, the Exchange, the Church> 
the Chapel, were made arenas for exhibitions of party 
rancour; and the ladies seem to have taken up the 
quarrel of their lords with so much zeal as to have called 
forth the animadversions of the press. Every article of 
women's attire was emblematic of some party association. 
On the 29th. May, their houses and their persons were 
enveloped in oak; on the 10th. June, they were fragrant 
with white roses; and weekly, at Church, did they 
offer negative worship to the Pretender by refusing to 
join in the Church prayers for his antagonist. King 

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George.* The stanza sinoe so famed was penned by 
Dr. Byrom at this time : — 

God MeM the Klor— I mMO oar faith's defender I 
Qod MeM (DO barm in Mauinf ) the Pretender I 
Bat who Pretender is, or who is King,— 
Ood IHeiB oe all— that's qaite another tiling I 

« Some of the Clergr were singalarlf actire partizans of the Pretender. 
One of them, the Rev. R. Asheton, broaght down eerere censorto upon hie 
oondact, whichheendeaTooredtoJastifjinacaasticpabllcaUonentitJed "A 
Colectionof Carioos Papers— containing, 1. A new method of reaaoningby 

the B p of C— r. S. and 3. Two Essays by an Admirer of liia ir— p. in 

order to improve and iUastrate the said method. Tie 4th. prores the metiiod 
to be Inoonciosive, and, oonaeqaeotly, that it could not be the work of that 
Learned Divine. And the last shews that he has been engaged in matters of 
much greater moment than to troaUe himself aboat any method of reasoning." 
In this pamphlet the author professes to adduce " Reasons shewing the Rev. 
Mr. Richard Asheton to be Jostly suspected of disafflection to hia M^esty King 
George.** Some of them are rather curious— the fbllowing not the least so:— 
*' Because he has shewed a remarkable aflRKtlon to the loth, day of Jane, the 
Pretender's pretended birth^day* in baptizing two children, as is credibly 
reported, on that day, tho' no Sunday or Holiday according to the Church of 
England, whereas be refused to baptize on another week day, aUedglng that it 
was neither Sunday or Holiday.— Becanse he has never been accustomed to 
make Bonfires, nor Huzza, nor drink healths at them in the street upon any 
anniversary or other rejoicing day, till of late when he dorst not do otherwise. 
—Becanse he has shewed a remarkable afltetion to the use of Jamei the 
Pretender's pretended name of baptism, in baptizing many children, as la 
credibly reported, by that name, whereas he has not baptised so many by any 
other name, alledging upon good reason shewn he would do as the parents 
desired, tho* It was neither Sunday nor Holiday.- Because he has never 
been observed to speak any thing in favor of detraction or giving foal 
language, as Miscreants, O>mmon Drunkards, Common Swearers, Devils, 
and the like, on anch public occasions as might fiairly have led him to do 
80, bat has asserted other principles destructive of such practise.— Because 
for these several years past he has never been need to drink any Mam, 
which is his Majesty*s own Country liquor. This may well be deemed a mark 
of disaffection, because, tho* he is at liberty to drink this or that Mqnor, yet why 
he should never touch Mum at all cannot reasonably be ascribed to any other 
cause than a downright aversion to the name of Brunswick.- Becanse he baa 
shewed a remarkable affection to the city of Rome, the Pretender*8 pretei^ed 
place of abode, by often quoting in bis sermons St. Paul's Epistle to the 
Romans, whereas there are Epistles to theEphesians, PhlUpplans and otbera by 
the very same author.— Because, though the sign of his Majesty King George 
bangs ap in the very town where he officiates as chaplain, yet he never has been 
there to drink his health; this is the more remarkable, because it is a boose of 
good entertainment and kept by every good Protestant.— Becaaae in all his aer- 
mons it is his constant custom never to say any word of St. George and the Dra- 
gon, not even apon the S3d. of April; and this, as is reasonably believed, for no 
other reason but because tho Saint IshisMiOnty'Bnamesake.- Because in a ser* 
mon lately preached before the present Lord Bishop of Chester he represented his 
Mejesty's Protestant sabjects, the Presbyterians, aa people that very seldom 
camo to Church.- Because be has been several times observed to pass by a wall 
whereon was written **down with the rump,'* without so much as once 
offering to efface It with his gown-sleeve, handkerchief or periwig.— Becanse 
be has been Instromental in soffering oak-boaghs to be placed on the top of 
the steeple in remembrance of the restoration, without even preaching to the 
people against such wickedness in higb places.— Becanse he is credibly 
reported to have several treasonable books in h|i stvdy, paitlcolarly a volume 
of sermons by the late Bishop of Rochester. 

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Hie substantial intereBts of the commanity were sacrificed 
to these shadowy considerations. Trade and eommereo 
languished ; the whole traffic of the town was at a stand ; and 
the lower orders were of necessity thrown into the greatest 
distress. Happily, however, these antipathies cooled 
and dfed away. On the 11th. January, 1749, some of the 
unfortuoate Manchester soldiers were removed from South- 
wark gaol for transportation; and about the same time 
some secret friends, after much difficulty, stole away the 
heads of Deacon and Syddall from the places in which 
they had so long shocked public feeling. The last 
palpable evidences in Manchester of the Rebellion being 
removed, ancient feelings revived, and the animosities 
which had been burning with such intensity rapidly 

The events of the succeeding fifty-five years are of a 
varied character* Many incidents connected with this 
period are woven into those departments of the history to 
which they more immediately refer, leaving but the glean- 
ings of a spacious field to be collected and arranged. In 
1752 the first newspaper of any permanency was esta- 
blished by Mr. Harrop, under the title of the Mercury. 
Mr. H. Whitworth had conunenced such a periodical two- 
and-twenty years previously, but it was rather, as its 
subsequent name imported, a " Magazine." On the 22d. 
June, at night, 1753, the shock of an earthquake was felt 
in the town and vicinity. On the 14th. February, 1777, a 
similar phenomenon occurred, about eleven o'clock in the 
morning, extending to Ashton, Stockport, Wigan, Preston, 
Chapd-en-le-Frith, Stayley Bridge, Mottram, Knutsford, 
Macclesfield aiid other places. The vibration of the earth 
was so strong that the bells of the Collegiate and St Mary's 
Church are said to have been rung by it, and the congre- 
gations in the various places of worship were terrified by 
the loud noises that accompanied the shock. A third 

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instance of this fearful visitation occurred about the clotfe 
of 1796 .♦ In September of 1753 a resident of Salford, 
named Grindret, poisoned his wife and family, of which 
offence having been subsequently convicted, he was hanged 
at Lancaster, and afterwards exhibited, hung on a gibbet 
and in chains, at the end of Cross Lane, Pendleton. ' In the 
same year, a cause of much interest occurred at Lancaster, 
in which the Warden and Fellows of the Collegiate Church 
and the weavers of the parish were litigants; the former 
claiming a composition of fourpence on every loom as tithe 
from the latter. The decision was against the impost The 
four next years were seasons of scarcity and distress, which, 
as usual, occasioned serious violations of the peace. In 
one of these exhibitions, especially, the people and the 
military came into collision, and the " Shudehill Fights 
became a celebrated event for its brief day. Riots, unfor- 
tunately, are not incidents so rare in the records of the 
town as to require any long description, after a lapse of 
eighty years. 1 762 was another era of popular conmiotion. 
In 1763 an unsuccessful attempt was made to constitute 
Manchester a borough. Buildings were erected as a work- 
house and a place of durance under the new government, 
but the grand scheme having failed, (from the imprac- 
ticability of obtaining an union of parties) these also 
were abandoned and eventually pulled down. They stood 
at the entrance of Miller's Lane, and had for some years 
been occupied by tenants who obligingly gave their 
gratuitous presence. The population of Manchester about 
this time has been calculated by Dr. Price, whose works 
also furnish a similar statistical account of the condition 

* Aboat three o'clock od the morning of Thursday the soth. August, I835» 
the thock of an earthquake awakened from their sleep many of the residents 
In this town and the outskirts. It was strongly felt also at Blackburn, Wigan. 
Preston, Qarstong, Lancaster, CUthero, Soatbport, and even at Ulverston and 

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of several of the surroundnig townships and of large 
towns at a distance: — 


lUncbMtw uid SoUbnl 1773 4,888 0,410 S7»m0 

LiTtrpOOl 1773 0»84O 8,002 84,487 

Cbotcr 1774 .... 8,488 14J18 

Lead* 1775 .... 4,096 17.181 

Firlah of M an c faerte r , esdoslve 

ofTown 1774 S,41S S|tt3 13.730 

Wonlef, Buton, Pendtotoo aiul 

CUftanLane. 1778 .... 1,68ft 9.117 

Bolton and UtUeBoltoa 1773 1,178 .... ft,889 

Bory 1778 408 .... 8,090 

In 1777 the inhabitants raised a corps of volunteers to 
serve during the conflict in America. Before their 
departure the troops (one hundred and fifty men) were 
reviewed on Castle Field. Their officers were — Thomas 
B. Bailey, Esq., Lieut.-Gol. Commandant; George Loyd, 
Esq., Major; (whose lady presented the regiment with 
colors wrought by the ladies of Manchester) Captains, 
T. Potter, T. Falkner Philips, P. P. Foxlow, W. Rawlinson; 
First Lieutenants, James Dinwiddle, Robt Robinson, Jas. 
Bradshaw, Joseph Hadfield; Second Ditto, Thos. Barlow, 
John Philips, Wm, Whitaker, J. Leigh Philips; Rev. S. 
Hall, Chaplain; Thomas. Walker, Adjutant; Thos. White, 
Sui^^n. This afterwards became the 72d. regiment, 
which distinguished itself greatly at the siege of Gibraltar. 
In the memorable sortie upon the enemy's advanced works 
made on the 27th. November, 1781, under conunaud of 
the gallant General Ross, the flank companies of the 72d. 
were the foremost combatants, dashing through the embra- 
zures, occasionally forming into line to flank the flying 
enemy, and exhibiting all the skill and ardour of British 
veterans. They were harrassed by a constant round of 
perilous and fatiguing duty, exposed night and day to an 
incessant fire of shot and shell from the enemy's lines 
and gun-boats, which greatly annoyed the whole garrison'. 
On their delivery from this arduous service and recall 

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home in August, 1783, they lauded at Southampton, A 
public breakfast vas given them, a subscription was 
opened for the widows of their lost comrades, and along 
their whole line of march they were received with eof 
thusiasm. In Manchester, public dinners and rejoicings 
welcomed their arrival ; they were disbanded ; and the colors 
which they had borne with so much honor were deposited in 
the College* imd are still exhibited among the curiosities 
of that antique structure. In 1778, the old chapel on 
Salford Brieve, of which mention has already been made, 
was levelled with the dust, and made to give place to the 
accommodation of the public, the bridge being widened. 

On the 24th. March, 1782, Oswald Mosley, the eldest 
son of Sir John, the Lord of the Manor, came of age, an 
event which was celebrated by a ball given to four hundred 
of the nobility, gentry and principal inhabitants. In April, 
the Lord of the Manor commenced an action against Mr. 
T. Chadwick and Mr. Holland, for setting up meat stalls 
in Pool Fold, in violation of the manorial rights, which, 
however, he succeeded in vindicating on reference to the 
Court of King's Bench. 

It was not until 1783 that Manchester had the protec- 
tion of a nightly watch, which was originally maintained 
to some partial extent by portions of the inhabitants; in 
November of that year a town's meeting was held, and it 
was determined to fonn a Committee as well for managing 
this as the scavenging and lighting. No Police Act was 
obtained till 1791. This and the succeeding winter were 
of such extraordinary severity that the wealthier inha- 
bitants liberally subscribed for the relief of the po(»v 
seventeen thousand of whom participated their bounty. 
The month of August, 1785, is remarkable in connexion 
with this fact, that the Autumn Asoze at Lancaster was a 
« maiden " one. At the Assize twelve months subsequently 
James Holland was condemned, and suffered death at 

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BolUm Moor, for croft-breaking, a crime then very preva- 
lent throughout the district; his body remained exposed 
on the gallows for some days. In the following year two 
men wore hanged at Liverpool. Thb practice of executing 
malefactors in the vicinities in which they had offended 
was continued for many years. In 1790, September 11, a 
man named Macnamera, convicted of a burglary near this 
town, was hanged on Kersall Moor, before a prodigious 
concourse of people. The gallows was erected on the hill 
sear the present Grand Stand, and the gibbet was left with 
Ha occupant for some time. In September, 1796, a man was 
executed on Newton Heath, for croft-breaking. 

In 1787, the town was visited during seven days by a very 
great flood, which carried away a portion of the battlements 
of Salford Bridge. The centenary of the revolution of 1 688 
was celebrated with a degree of enthusiasm which shewed 
that the inhabitants were fully sensible of the great and bene- 
ficial change effected in their ci?il and political condition. 
The only other important event of the year is the establish- 
ment of a post coach to London, which departed at four 
A.M. and professed to arrive ^ early next evening." It 
carried four in and two outside passengers, whose quantum 
of luggage was restricted to fourteen pounds each, every 
thing additional being paid for after the rate of twopence a 
pound. Though this was evid^tly, for the time, an 
adventurous step, coach4ravelIing was neither rare nor 
expensive : the fare to Preston was 5s. 6d. in^ 3s. 6d« outside ; 
to Lancaster, 9s. inside, 6s. out. The London mail was 
first conveyed by coach in August, 1785: the establish- 
mrat of the Birmingham and Chester mails is of eom- 
{Moatively recent date. 

It would seem that political contentions of Liberals 
aid Tories were as goaeral in the last as in this 
oontnry* ''Reform Clubs'' and "Church and King 
Cloba'^ were in fuU operatton sixty years ago. Under the 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


auspices of the fonner, Mr. Fox, Lord Robert Spencer^ Mrr 
Grenville and Sir Frank Standish visited Manchester on 
the 15th. September, 1785, and dined with the Liberals, on 
which occasion the crowning toast of the evening was " the 
majesty of the People." A "Constitutional" Club was 
in vogue in 1791 ; at a public dinner in that year the first 
toast was "the majesty of the People;" another^ "May 
the British, the American and the French revolutioiis 
serve as lessons to oppressors and examples to the 
oppressed;" a third, "the French revolution, and the 
speedy overthrow of every despotic Government;" and a 
fourth, "May every constitution be founded on the rights 
of man." Mr. Thomas Walker, father of the present 
Mr. C. J. S. Walker, was a prominent leader of the liberal 
party, and a decided advocate of Parliamentary reform, 
for ihe furtherance of which object he had, in 1790, been 
instrumental in forming a Club. Popular feeling was 
then decidedly opposed to the promulgators of these 
doctrines: besides being subjected, in December, 1792, to 
an attack upon his house, to which outrage the premises of 
other individuals holding similar opinions were subjected, 
Mr. Walker was, in 1794, tried at Lancaster on a charge of 
having conspired to overthrow the constitution and assist 
the French in their threatened attacks upon the island 
He was acquitted, and returned triumphantly to Man- 
chester. The principal witness against him, named Dunn, 
was tried at the next Assize for perjury, found guilty, and 
sentenced to two years' confinement, coupled with the 
ignominy of standing in the pillory. Mr. Law, afterwards 
Lord Ellenborough, was counsel for the Crown against 
Mr. Walker, who was defended by Mr. Vaughan and' 
Mr. Erskine. 

Before the French revolution broke out, the claims of 
Dittsenters to relief from the obligations of the CorporatioB 
and Test Acts had kept up a constant ferment in the town. 

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wliich after the commencement of the war never subsided. 
In January, 1793, Paine was burnt in effigy by the 
populace, who evinced strong marks of detestation for 
IHinciples which were not rendered more acceptable by the 
sabsequent execution of Louis of France. High Mass 
and a solemn dirge was performed in the Catholic chapels 
of Manchester on the announcement of that event In 
other respects the year was one of disquietude, arising 
fiom commercial distress. The number of bankruptcies 
was nearly trdbled, and popular discontent ran so high 
that it was necessary for light troops to parade the streets 
with torches throughout the night. It was said that 
during this and one or two succeeding years not less than 
twenty thousand persons had gone from the town and 
neighbourhood to join the army, but the number was 
doubtless much exaggerated. The ardour to serve in the 
cause of the constitution and the Country (the French 
having threatened an invasion) was, however, very great 
It is mentioned^ for example, in March, 1794, thafLe 
Gendre Starkie, Esq. has given £ 105 towards raising the 
bounty given to recruits five guineas a man, and others 
^re following his example." — ^' Harvey Aston, Esq., one of 
the intimates of the Prince, is engaged in recruiting in 
this county ; he and nine others have undertaken to raise 
each one hundred men.'' — ^^ Thomas Legh, Esq., of Lyme, 
proposed to raise six troops of cavalry, and did so in 
fourteen days." In April, 1794, "the regiment of In- 
dependent Manchester Volunteers was incorporated in 
the d3d. of the Duke of York's Brigade as soon as it 
arrived at Chatham." " His Majesty has been pleased 
to grant the title of 'Royal' to the regiment now 
raising, with an 'official promise' that the 'Royal Man- 
chester Volunteers,' if reduced, shall come to Manchester 
to be disbanded." On the 10th. May a feu-dejoie was 
fired in St. Anp's Square on account of advantages gained 

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by the combined annies: six hundred and thirty stand 
of arms were sent from the Tower for the Manchester 
Volunteers. The success of Lord Howe off Ushuit was 
announced at the Kersal Moor races, and assembled 
thousands received the intelligence with loud cheers: in 
the evening it was communicated to the audience at the 
theatre by Mr. Ward, in the character of the Busy Body 
In August £500 were given by Lord Stamford for 
additional bounties to landsmen and seamen entering the 
navy ; and on the twenty-first of the same month the Royid 
Manchester Volunteers were inspected by Mtyor General 
Musgrave. Colours were presented to the regiment in 
St Ann's Square, after which it marched to Liverpool to 
embark for Ireland : it subsequently became the 104th. 
regiment. In October a subscription was obtained for 
nusing a Fencible Corps for the county of Lancaster. 
The Loyal Associations in Manchester and Salford formed 
themselves into a corps for the home defence. The war, 
however, was not universally popular: in 1795 a petition 
vras sent from the town praying for peace. In November 
of that year the National Committee appointed to inquire 
into the high price of com announced that the importation 
of foreign grain was desirable, and that to encourage 
it a liberal bounty should be offered. They also stated, 
that though the harvest generally was abundant, there was 
a deficiency in the wheat crop, and therefore the mixture 
of other grain with it was desirable. Handsome premiums 
were given to farmers bringing the largest quantity of 
provisions to thb market. In addition to the sufferings 
from want, an epidemic fever was raging, and it was 
proposed, therefore, to erect fever wards. In February, 
1796, the Boroughreeve, Clergy and others publidy 
pledged themselves, in a series of resolutions, to reduce 
their use of wheat-flour at least one-third. Commercial 
distre49s pressed so heavily upon the people, that thou^ 

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tibey were relieved as far as possible by subscriptions and 
otber means, their priyations drove them to occasional acts 
ef violence, which required corresponding precautions by 
tbe authorities. On the 31st. July an order was issued 
that all public-houses be closed by seven in the evening, 
and all private persons appearing in the streets after nine 
o'clock were compelled to give an account of themselves. 
On the 29th., several gentlemen being employed in 
examining the weights in the potato-market, a disagree- 
■lent arose between the spectators and the market-dealers. 
A tamalt ensued ; the people began to break the windows, 
and the light troops were called in. The soldiers, after 
riding quietly but ineffectually amongst the people, were 
ordered to gallop through the midst of them, and they 
w^re thus dispersed. They assembled again in the morning 
at New Cross and in Newton Lane. Several loads of 
meal were seized and thrown away. On the arrival of the 
military and magistrates the rioters returned home without 
doing any further mischief. On the 10th. November an 
address was presented from the delegates of all the Loyal 
Associations in Manchester and Sal ford, congratulating 
die King on his escape from the blow of a ruffian who 
attempted his life on his way from the House of Peers. 
At this time, by general agreement, pies and paddings 
ceased to appear on the family table, in order to lessen the 
consumption of ftour. Such soldiers as could be spared 
from military duty were commanded to assist the farmers 
in thrashing out com. At the close of the year a most 
respectable meeting was held "to take nieasures for pre- 
serving liberty and property from republicans and 
levellers." Patrols were formed in the town shortly 
afterwards. Early in 1797 the first regiment of Royal 
liancashire Volunteers received the thanks of his Majesty, 
conveyed through Lord Comwallis, for their patriotic 
services in Ireland. In March, it is stated that the first 

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and second battalions of Manchester and Sal ford Volon- 
teer Infantry were 6mwn out for the first time. This, 
therefore, most have been an additional new corps. In 
April, the Lancashire and Cheshire Volunteers, the former 
commanded by the Earl of Wilton, offered to serve in any 
part of Europe. Shortly allerwards £25,953 13 were 
raised in the towns of Manchester and Salford and the 
neighbourhood, for the support of Government In 
November there was a disposition to riot, owing to the 
high prices of com and flour. Subscriptions to purchase 
articles of food, and retail them to the poor at a low rate, 
were liberally made. 

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The termination of the peace of Amiens rendered it 
necessary, early in the summer of 1803, to make prepa- 
rations to repel the invasion threatened by Napoleon 
Bonaparte. In Manchester meetings were immediately 
called, arrangements for forming military bodies made, 
and sobscriptions entered into with zeal and liberality. A 
general meeting of the Lieutenancy of the county ( Lord 
Derby in the chair) was held at Wigan, in obedience to 
the King's command, to assist in carrying into effect the 
"law to enable his Majesty more effectually to provide for 
the defence ;iDd security of the town during the present 
war." Schedules were sent to the various officers in the 
towns throughout the county, desiring them to make, 
without delay, returns of the inhabitants, cattle and stock 
within their jurisdiction; the clergy and gentlemen were 
requested to give their assistance in furnishing the returns, 
and the county was divided into eight parts, each portion 
being superintended by a Lieutenant Manchester con- 
stituted the sixth division, and was placed under the 
charge of John Leaf, Esq. A meeting was immediately 
convened to consider the best means of assisting in the 
defence of the Country, and it was agreed to accept the 
offers of James Ackers and John Leigh Phillips, Esqrs. 
to re-establish the Volunteer Corps, and also to support 
the proposal of Joseph Hanson, Esq., for the formation of 
a Volunteer Rifle Corps to furnish their own accoutre- 
roents, serve without pay, and march to any part of Great 
Britain. A subscription was raised to defray the various 
expenses, and a Committee appointed to superintend the 
appropriation of the fund. The following is copied from 


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the returns made by the Deputy Lieutenants of the avail- 
able force in this county, the moveable property and stock : 





Toonf catUe «nd colts. 




Sheep and (oats. 




— •si 

Ki S e 


^ w w 

vntcat, qoarteiB of > 

Data, qoarten of 

Barley, quarters of 

Beans and Peas, qrs. of 

Hay, loads of 

straw, loads of 

Fotatoa, sacks of 

Qoarters of 

Sacks of 

Malt, qoarters of 

Cheese, cwt. of 

Bacon, barrels of 

Com, acres of 

Wheat, acres of «[ 


Barle y, acres of 

Pot atos, acres of i^ 

Bops, bag» of a 

Hay, acres of |a 






Total nnnber of men 
between 15 and Oo. 




0» to Oft 

No. of men wiUing to 
serve on horseback. 

serve 9c provide firelocks. 


No. of swords, ptotols and 

No. of the persons to be 

provided with arms at the 

general assembly. 


No. of pioneers and la. 
boorers with felliog-axes,, 

mattocks and saws. 


No. of goides and over- 
seers for the removal of 
waggons, live and dead 

No, who wlU supply wag. 
goos, drivers and con- 

Ditto, with Uiree horses. 

No. of carta without tilta, 

three horses. 



Ditto, wtUi two horses. 

» M* 

No of carta with tUts, 
two and three horses. 

Ovens to supply con- 


Ovens to supply on emer- 


No. ot barges. 


Total tonnage. 


No. of mills. I 

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On the 27Ul of Jaly, a general meeting of the Lieo«> 
tenancy was held to receive the returns. The assembly 
expre^ed satisfaction at the number in this county 
who were willing to aid the cause; at the same they 
lamented that so large a proportion should have offered 
themselves as guides and pioneers, but more particularly 
as conductors and drivers of cattle — a number infinitely 
larger than could be required for those purposes. In 
the mean time, by command of his Majesty, Lord Hobart 
forwarded to the Earl of Derby particular instructions 
for raising, training and clothing the various military 
corps to be formed in the county. On the 16th. of August 
Lord Hobart signified that his Majesty had accepted the 
offered service of the regiments commanded by Colonels 
Ackers and Phillips, intimating at the same time that the 
title of "royal" could no longer be permitted them, and 
that allowances of twenty shillings per man for clothing, and 
one shilling per diem for twenty days' drill, would be issued 
to the commandants, to be by them applied as they deemed 
most beneficial. In little more than a week after the 
royal communication was received, the regiments numbered 
two thousand men. Those who were debarred from 
appearing in the field fireely opened their purses, and the 
sum of £22,000 was raised in a very diort period in 
Manchester alone. The subscriptions in the neighbouring 
towns reflected equal credit on their respective inhabitants. 
Among the foremost contributors were — Sir R. Peel, 
£100; the Honble. Mr. Percival, £100; R. Peel, jun., 
£100; Sir O. Mosley, Bart, £200; Earl of Stamford 
and Warrington, £525, &c. &c. But the bodies of 
military already mentioned were not sufficient to satisfy 
the ardour of the inhabitants, and within a very short time 
his Majesty was pleased to accept the services of the 
Light Horse Volunteers commanded by Shakspeare 
Phillips, Esq., the Coq)s of Infantry commanded by 

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Colonel Silvester^ the St George's Corps by John Cros«^ 
Esq., and the Fourth Class Volunteers by 6. Philips, 
Esq.; the Hulme Volunteers by Major Pooley, die 
Pendleton by Captain Ablett> the Trafibrd by Lieutenant 
Colonel Cooke, &c. &c The Masons of the town formed 
a body Under the title of the " Loyal Masonic Volunteers." 
Those who, from exemption or oUier causes, did not enrol 
themselves in the military corps, registered their names as 
special constables for the defence of the town and its 
vicinity, (for must it be presumed that the daughters 
of our land, the witches of Lancashire, took no interest in 
the preparations carrying on around them. Designed by 
nature to labour in a more retired yet not less useful 
or important sphere, our fair countrywomen employed 
themselves in adding to the comforts and thereby to the 
efficiency of the soldiery* They entered into a very 
liberal subscription to supply the troops with flannel 
clothing, the making of which was not entrusted to the 
hands of hirelings. Frequently, too, the soldiers were 
regaled at the mansions of the officers^ the hostess being 
ever foremost in dealing out good English cheer to the 
men, thus adding to the enthusiasm of the brave by the 
condescension of the fair.**^ Others presented standards 
and cockades of their own handiwork to the troops. On 
the other hand fast days were proclaimed to supplicate the 
Divine blessing on the Country, and were stricdy observed 
throughout the land. 

Among the patriotic offers of the townspeople and many 
of the gentry and nobility in the immediate vicinity of 
Manchester, may be mentioned the latts Earl Wilton's levy 
and equipment, at his own expense, of one hundred 
Volunteer Infantr^f from among his tenantry, to be trained 
to the use of small arms: ten six-pounder field pieces, 

* Lady JeralnKhun, of Cossey, Norfolk, proposed to nhe ud command • 
corps of 600 females to drire ttie cattie from Uie coast. 

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with annmunition - waggons, poises and drivers, were fur- 
nished by his Lordship. Otho Hulme, Esq., of Medlock 
Vale, supplied two twelve-pounder carronades with all the 
accompaniments. John Trafibrd, Esq., of Trafibrd House, 
and F. Dukinfield Astley, Esq., of Dukinfield, each raised 
and accoutred, the former three hundred and fidy, the 
latter one hundred men, without any expense to Govern- 
ment Mr. Astley, at a later period, attached fifly men 
to the Manchester Rifles. William Harrison, Esq., of 
Urmston, attached sixty pikemen to the Manchester 
and Salford Rifle Corps. Samuel Taylor, Esq., of Moston, 
clothed and armed a company of pikemen, consisting of 
axty rank and file, to join die Manchester Rifles, of which 
he was Major. Messrs. Pickford undertook to furnish 
four hundred horses, fifly waggons, and twenty-eight boats. 
Mr. John Scott offered forty horses and carts to go to any 
part of Scotland, and six waggons and forty horses for 
Lancashire, the drivers to be paid by himself. Similar 
zeal was shown by the neighbouring towns. 

The 12th. of April, 1804, is rendered memorable to the 
inhabitants of Manchester by a review of their martial 
fellow-townsmen on Sale Moor. The commanding officer 
was his Royal Highness Prince William of Gloucester, who 
expressed the greatest satisfaction with the discipline of 
the various bodies, amounting to nearly six thousand men. 
The pleasure of the day was damped by the breaking 
down of a stand on the ground, by which one person was 
killed and several were injured. Afler the review, his 
Royal Highness presented a pair of standards to Major 
Phillips, of the Volunteer Cavalry, and in the evening he 
graced the Assembly by his presence. He had on the 
preceding day honored the town with his company at a 
public dinner in the Assembly Rooms, and in the evening 
attended the Theatre. The Prince, on a visit to the town 
in 1803» had made himself acquainted with the nature of 

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the manufactures, by going through several of the print- 
works and other establishments. In January, 1804, he 
was a guest at Tattou Park, and in the September of the 
same year, accompanied by his father, his Royal High- 
ness the Duke of Gloucester, he partook of the hospitali- 
ties of Heaton Park, again visited some of the manufac- 
tories, reviewed the Volunteers at Ardwick, went through 
the College, and partook of a public breakfast. 

Such numbers of men as were embodied in Volunteer 
corps could not be brought together without some heart- 
burnings and jealousies. After the lapse of a few 
months. Major Phillips resigned the command of the 
Manchester and Salford Cavalry, that he might meet Mr. 
Jones, a private, on equal terms, and give him the "satisfac- 
tion'' he had demanded. The meeting took place on Ker- 
sal Moor, on the morning of July 9th., 1804. Mr. Phillips, 
after receiving his adversary's fire, discharged his pistol in 
the air, when the parties shook hands and left the ground. 
This was succeeded by a dispute not confining itself to 
individuals, but extending to the officers of two regiments. 
The point in question was as to precedence, which was 
claimed by Lieutenant-Colonel J. L. Phillips, as conmiand- 
ant at an earlier period of a larger body of men, and by 
lieutenant-Colonel Hanson, on the ground of priority of 
date in his commission. This disagreement eventually was 
to be settled by a hostile meeting, but the Police having 
been apprised of the intention, the rencontre was prevented 
by placing both gentlemen under arrest Precedence 
being afterwards awarded to Lieutenant-Colonel Hanson, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Phillips, conceiving that he was in fact 
the first entitled to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel Com- 
mandant, tendered his resignation, which was followed 
by all the officers under his command declining to 
s?rve under any other leader, and by the immediate 
disbanding of the First Manchester and Salford Vohin- 

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teers, they being deemed guilty of insubordination in 
venturing to remonstrate with Government The dispute 
for a ^me engendered the warmest feelings, not only be- 
tween the officers and men of the two corps, but through- 
out their famUies and connexions. The disbanding of the 
First was shortly followed by the dismissal of the St. 
George's Corps of Volunteers In August, a letter was 
received from Lord Hawkesbury, stating that, in conse- 
quence of the extreme insubordination which prevailed in 
that corps and the impossibility of re-establishing disci- 
pline, his Majesty had been pleased to accept the resigna- 
tion of Lieutenant-Colonel Cross, tendered a short time 
preTiously, and it was his Majesty's pleasure that the St. 
George's Volunteers be forthwith disbanded This notifi- 
cation gave rise to warm arguments and much violent 

In November, 1805, the inhabitants met to promote a 
sabccription for the relief of those who had lost their 
relatives in the battle of Trafalgar, and, whilst they gloried 
in this achievement of British valour, to express their 
regret that it should have been purchased by the death of 
the immortal Nelson* The victory was celebrated at 
Ardwick, and a day of thanksgiving was appointed through- 
out the country. A representation of the ^Battle of 
Trafalgar" was produced at the Theatre to a crowded 
audience, but so much was public feeling excited, that at 
the opening of the scene depicting the death of the naval 
hero the strongest disapprobation was expressed, the cur- 
tain fell, and no subsequent attempt was made to obtrude 
the melancholy spectacle upon a Manchester audience. 

In 1808 there was a renewal of disputes between the 
masters and weavers with respect to wages. A meeting of 
the latter was held in St George's Fields on the 24th. of 
May, and was resumed on the following day with such an 
ac«*eMion of numbers, that it was deemed expedient to 

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order out the civil and military forces. Hub manifestattoa 
and the reading of the Riot Act not having produced the 
desired effect, the military were ordered to clear the ground, 
when one of the weavers was killed, several were wounded, 
and others arrested. In the course of the proceedings 
Colonel Hanson addressed the populace, though previ- 
ously desired to leave the ground. The officers and 
soldiers of the 4th. Dragoon Guards presented a day's 
pay to the widow of the weaver who was killed. A new 
list of prices was arranged but did not prove satisfactory, 
and to preserve the peace of the town it was necessary to 
plant military patrob for several miles on the different 
roads. In Rochdale the prison was destroyed: acts of 
violence were also committed at Ashton and Oldham. The 
military power was consequently augmented, and large re- 
wards were offered for the apprehension of the ringleaders. 
An indictment was preferred against J. Hanson, Esq., for his 
share in the proceedings at Manchester. In March, 1809, 
he was found guilty of having, " by bis conduct and lan- 
guage, encouraged the weavers to hostile proceedings.'' 
The trial lasted twelve hours, J udgment was delivered in 
the Court of King's Bench on the I2th. of May : he was 
sentenced to be imprisoned for six months in the King's 
Bench Prison, and to pay a fine of £ 100 to the King. 
The weavers expressed a wish to pay the fine by penny 
subscriptions, but their offer was positively declined by 
Mr. Hanson. It was then determined to present to him a 
silver cup, and a deputation waited upon him before lus 
liberation to announce the intention. There were said to 
be thirty-nine thousand six hundred penny subscribers 
to the tribute. On Mr. Hanson's return to Man- 
chester the roads were thronged with weavers anxious 
to celebrate his entry, but he prevented a demonstra- 
tion by driving at a rapid rate to his residence. In 
October, the Jubilee on the occasion of his Miyesty 

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George the Third having completed the fiftieth year of 
his reign was celebrated with great spirit in the town and 

The year 1812 was another of those stormy periods 
which so frequently occur ia the annals of Manchester. 
It was intended to hold a meeting on the 10th. of April to 
address the Prince Regent, and assure him of support on 
his investment with the royal authority. Understanding, 
however, that opposition was intended, the Authorities 
determined not to hold the meeting, but the populace got 
possession of the Exchange, and passed resolutions cen- 
suring Government They then destroyed the furniture, 
greatly injured a picture of Colonel Stanley, and were 
preparing to set the edifice on fire, when the arrival of the 
military put a stop to their proceedings. A general spirit 
of disorganization appeared to prevail throughout the 
district Machinery was destroyed, the markets were 
attacked, and the surrounding corn-mills entered and 
robbed. A considerable increase was consequently made 
to the military power, and the Watch and Ward Act was 
enforced. Military patrols escorted the farmers into the 
town, the supply of provisionis being much diminished by 
the violence of the populace. Many of the foremost in 
these outrages were apprehended, and at a special com- 
mission held at Lancaster four ii^en an4 one woman were 

The regret caused by the a8sa98ination of Mr. Spencer 
Percival on the 11th. May was strongly participated in 
Manchester. Francis Phillips, Esq., formerly a merchant 
here, was the first to render the unfortunate gentleman 
assistance, Hearing the exclamation, " I am murdered 1" 
he rushed forward, caught Mr. Percival in his arms, and 
assisted in conveyiog him to the Secretary's room, where 
he expired. 


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Kersal Moor preseated a very enliveued appearance 
during a portion of the year 1812. A military camp was 
formed on the hiccher ground, in which were stationed the 
Stirling, Louth, and Buckinghamshire militia, and several 
pieces of artillery. The whole routine of camp duty was 
observed, and a telegraph was placed on an elevated 
point, from which any information could be conveyed 
throughout the district in a few minutes. The encamped 
suffered much discomfort from incessant rains. 

In October the Right Honourable George Canning 
visited Manchester, and delighted three hundred gentle- 
men, who dined with him, by his eloquence and urbanity. 
In May, 1813, two hundred gentlemen dined together, 
for the first time, as members of the Manchester Pitt 
Club. The winter of 1813-4 was particularly remarkable 
for the severity of the frost Great interest was excited 
by an inquest on the body of Miss Lavinia Robinson, 
who disappeared from her home on the night of the 16th. 
December, 1813, and was found drowned on the banks of 
the Irwell on the 8th. of February, 1814. She is des- 
cribed as a young lady possessing superior mental accom- 
plishment, with a person equal to her mind, and of the 
most fascinating manners. On the evening of the 16th. 
December, she was seen in the company of a gentleman to 
whom she was shortly to be united, and it would appear, 
from a note found upon her table, that he had expressed 
suspicion of her virtue. It was considered by her family 
that thb note was not the production of Miss Robinson, 
and her death has ever since been involved in mystery. 
Popular resentment was so strongly evinced towards the 
individual whose name was associated widi that of the 
unfortunate lady, that he was compelled to quit the town. 
In April the news that the succession of brilliant conquests 
gained by the allied armies had terminated in the abdica- 

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tion of Bonaparte and the restoration of peace throughout 
Europe, was hailed in Manchester with the greatest joy. 
The event was celebrated by a general illumination, a 
grand procession, and the extension of true old English 
hospitality by the wealthy to their poorer brethren. Peace 
was proclain^ at the Exchange, and in other parts of the 
town, on the seventh of July.* 

Bonaparte's escape from Elba early in the year 1815, 
ibilowed by the flight of the King of France and the 
entry of Napoleon into Paris, destroyed those pleasing 
visions of national repose to which the proclamation of 
peace had given rise. The successes which terminated in 
the splendid victory of Waterloo on the 18th. of June, 
and the consequent cessation of warfare, were announced 
amidst universal acclamations at the Exchange. 

That eventful period was now approaching at which 
Manchester began to be regarded as the centre of wide- 
spread and deeply-ramified social disorganization. The 
Luddites had b^n exhibiting themselves in the manufac- 
turing districts, (of Leicester, Nottingham, and Carlisle more 
especially) in which commercial distress came unhappily 
to mingle its bitterness with political animosities; and con- 
qoently, though subscriptions were liberally made to re- 
lieve the poor, by opening soup-shops and in other ways, 
the exit of the year 1816 was attended by dark and gloomy 
forebodings. On the 4th. November, the first of the meet- 
ings afterwards so famous was held on Peter's Fields, 
Knight, of Oldham, being in the chair, surrounded by 5000 
people, " to take into consideration the present distressed 
state ot the Country.'' On the ninth of the next month 
came the great Spafields (London) meeting, which ended 
in riot, and an appeal to military power. Hunt, the 

« On the smh. ft very larre portion of the rock that bounds the river Irwell 
at Hant*a Bank, and on which baildlnffs were erected, gave way: three Uvea 
were lost, and three children severely hart. It is supposed that Uie violent 
tewing of the river, doilof frequent floods, bad aadermined It. 

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leader, was supported by Watson, Hooper, Carpenter, and 
others, who subsequently answered for their conduct before 
the criminal tribunals of the nation. The example of the 
metropolis was extensively followed, and the condition of 
affairs became so unsatisfactory that counter-moTements 
were at length actively made. On the 13th. January, 
1817, a meeting of the inhabitants of Manchester and Sal- 
ford was held to consider the '' necessity of adopting addi- 
tional measures for the maintenance of the public peace." 
An association to further that object was formed, and a de- 
claration adopted which received the signatures of upwards 
of two thousand of the principal residents. In this em- 
bodiment of their views and feelings, they stated that 
** the numerous meetings held both publicly and secretly 
— the organised system of Committees, Delegates, and 
Missionaries — the contributions levied, particularly for 
disseminating pamphlets calculated to mislead and irritate 
the public mind — tlie indecorous and highly unconstitu- 
tional reflections upon the exalted personage now exer- 
cising tiie royal authority — the marked disparagement of 
the most extensive charitable relief in seasons of unavoid- 
able pressure, — the language of intimidation, not merely 
hinted but plainly expressed — the appointment of popular 
assemblies in various parts of the kingdom on one and the 
same day, after the meeting of Parliament, and the ipte- 
vious assembling of deputies in London; — all these 
circumstances afibrd strong manifestation of noeditated 
disorder and tumult, and bear no analogy whatever to the 
fair and legitimate exercise of that constitutional lib^ty 
which is emphatically the birth'^ight and security of 
Englishmen." Meetings for the same purpose were held 
at Bury, Bolton, Rochdale, Oldham, Stockport, Ashton, 
Saddleworth, SandBach, Cottgleton, Ltvei|>ool, Leeds, 
York ; and, at the Salford Quarter Sessions for January, 
the Grand Jury (Mr. T. Peel, foreman) joined in a do- 

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claration, in which they said — ** We have rejoiced at the 
glorious termination of the war, and hoped, for awhile at 
least, to have enjoyed some internal quiet and repose; and 
it iq with bitter grief and disappointment that we find the 
aame political agitations already renewed to an extent that 
it wonld be nn^e to disregard them. We have gained 
some wisdom from the experience of what has passed, and 
we caxmot forget that good men must associate in times 
when bad men combine. We therefore think it be- 
comes us publicly to express our entire and unqualified 
approbation of the principles and. {Hrooeedings of the Asso- 
ciation formed at a public meeting at Manchester, on the 
thirteenth instant, and earnestly to recommend the example 
to every other town in this great and populous county. And 
we beg leave to express our hope that this Court will con- 
cur with us in this recommendation." In the same month 
of January, another of the Peter^s Field meetings was held, 
and, almost contemporaneously, additional excitement was 
created in the public mind by an attack* upon the 
Prince Regent when returning from the House of Lords. 
A Secret Comouttee of that assembly was eventually 
appointed to investigate this and other matters, in whose 
report it is stated that Hampden Clubs, Union Clubs, and 
Tioions Societies, bearing diflRerent names but aU pur- 
suing illegal objects, existed, chiefly in and around 
Manchester, Blackburn, Birminghan^ Norwich, Leicester, 
Loughborough, Nottingham, Derby, Chesterfield, Sheffield 
end Glasgow. On the 25th. of February an attempt waa 
made, by holding a county meeting at Preston, (convoked 
by the SberifiT, R. Towneley Parker, Esq.) to check the 
angry feelings irf* the people in Lancashire, but the "loyal- 
ists'' were out-voted and defeated in their object. Shortly 
aftenrards Parliament suspended the Habeas Corpus Act, 
thereby, of course, envenoming those against whom so de- 
cisive a blow was aimed. On the 10th. March, and again 

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on the 17th., the people assembled on Peter's Field ; upou 
the latter day avowedly to adopt measures for march- 
ing en tnasse to London, simultaneously with the people 
of other places, to " petition the Prince Regent for redress 
of grievances.'' They came to the field in readiness forth- 
with to enter upon their journey, and though the troops 
were called in to disperse the meeting and seize the leaders, 
many hundreds of their followers had actually set forth. 
They were pursued : the country on their line of march was 
in a state of great agitation, and, the local corps of Police 
or Yeomanry being on the alert, they were eventually 
stayed. The Macclesfield Yeomanry turned back one 
body of them at Stockport; five hundred marched to Mac- 
clesfield; some passed the borders of Staffordshire, some 
reached Ashbourne, and some Derby. Two hundred 
and fitly of these unfortunate creatures were placed 
in the New Bailey; twenty-one were lodged in Chester 
Castle ; sixty were confined at Northwich. These, pro- 
bably, whp chiefly obtained their discharge by entering 
into recognizances, escaped the most leniently, such as 
strayed further from home having encountered bitter priva- 
tions. A King's messenger conveyed the leaders in the 
proceeding, Ogden, Drummond, &c., to London under 
military escort But the movement did not end here. On 
the 28di. March, the Magistrates and Police of Manches- 
ter notified " that information on which they could place 
the fullest reliance had reached them, of a most daring 
and traitorous conspiracy, the object of which was nothing 
less than open insurrection and rebellion." They added 
that " deputies, calling themselves delegates not only from 
the principal towns in this district but fVom others at a coo* 
siderable distance, are known to be engaged in it The 
town of Manchester is one of the first pointed out for 
attack, and the moment fixed upon for the diabolical enter- 
prise is the night of Sunday i^ext, the thirtieth instant? 

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Eleven persons had been apprehended as participants in 
these machinations, which were stated to have been planned 
at the " Oak/' and afterwards at the " George and Dragon/' 
Ardwick. A rocket was to be the signal for the surround- 
ing population to pour into the town : they were to attack 
the bairacks, the prison, the banks, and the houses of cer- 
tain proscribed individuals. The prisoners. Knight and 
others, were conveyed to London, and underwent several 
examinaUons at the Home Secretary's office. 

The official promulgation of these statements, combined 
with the scenes which were enacting through the Country, 
excited much apprehension. The provisions of the 
Watch and Ward Act were put in force in Manchester; 
special constables in large numbers were enrolled, troops 
poured in from all quarters, and, in conformity with a 
recommendation of the Grand Jury of the Session, three 
troops of Yeomanry, each containing fifty men, were 
formed. It was believed that a conspiracy had been 
organized for a simultaneous rising through Lancashire, 
Derbyshire, Cheshire, Staffi)rdshire, Yorkshire and War- 
wickshire, and nobody can doubt that there prevailed 
among the people much dissatisfaction, arising in great 
part, probably, from commercial distress,* as well as from 
political discontent Many persons were seized on sus- 
picion of being concerned in the ''insurrection plot" In 
Derbyshire a large body of people were arrested on their 
march to Nottingham: many were armed, and they had 
coounitted extensive depredations on their route. In 
October some of the leaders were tried at Derby for high 
treason; three were executed and afterwards beheaded; 
others were transported. 

The death of the Princess Charlotte on the 6th. of 
November, which spread so much sorrow over the Country, 

* 11M Ouettes eonteined ftt fhto UnM from foitf to >lzt7 names of banlmii^^ 
At Um Maocbeiter Aogost SeMloo Uiere were Uiree hoottred and seTenty-oiie 
1 for triai^a strong evldeoce of distress. 

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induced no mitigation of social turmoil; the twenty-sixth^ 
however, was observed as a day of mourning, and the 
funeral of her Royal Highness having occurred on the 
preceding night of Tuesday, the usual market was sus- 
pended. Befoi'e the close of the year***^ the persons from 
Manchester, seized by authority of Government, were 
liberated on their recognizance hereafter to appear. Anti- 
cipating the order of events, it may here be mentioned that 
on the 15th. December, 1818, their townsmen presented to 
Joseph Green, Esq., the Boroughreeve, and his colleagues, 
N. Wainhouse and T. S. Withington, Esq., Constables for 
1817, as well as to the Chairman of the Quarter Sessions, 
silver cups, as testimonies to the zeal and decision with 
which they had acted during the troubled times of their 
local administration. 

In 1818 the meetings on Peter's Field were renewed, 
and in the autumn there occurred an extensive turn-out of 
the operative classes, which led to some rioting, and an 
attack, on the 9th. September, upon the factory of Mr. 
Gray: the assailants were not repulsed till one man had 
been killed. These disorderly proceedings spread to the 
neighbouring towns. 

Among the current events of the year, it is recorded that 
the celebrated Mrs. Fry visited the New Bailey prison on 
the 3d. October. On the 1 7th. November the Queen died, 
and a meeting fbr the pu]*pose of condolence with the royal 
family was held in Manchester. 

The year 1819 was ushered in by a more acthre renewal 
of that political agitation which, having its centre in 
London, spread throughout the provinces. On the 7th. 
January, Mr. Nicholas Whitworth invited Henry Hunt, 
and on the 11th. Hunt expressed his acceptance of the 
invitation, to preside at a public meeting in Manchester to 

* Hie horrible murder «t PeofUetoiii for which the Adierofts mitecd 
execaUon At LtacMter, wai committed on th4 8d. of Mtjr in thU re«r. 

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petition a body whom Hunt in his letter described as a 
"corrupt and packed assembly, impudently and falsely 
denominated the House of Commons." On the 25th. he 
made a public entry from Stockport, attended by Knight, 
Ogden, Wardle, &c. in a procession, in which the cap of 
liberty and emblazoned flags in honor of Paine and his 
''Rights of Man" were exhibited Arrived at Peter's 
Field, he told his friends that he could not resist the 
temptation of meeting the bravest of brave reformers — the 
men of Lancashire. The meeting determined to petition 
the House of Commons no more, and a "remonstrance" 
to the Prince Regent was thej^fore adopted. On the 
succeeding Friday night Hunt, accompanied by Whitworth 
and other friends, appeared in the boxes of the Theatre, 
when the strongest reprobation was expressed against him, 
and he was at last forcibly expelled, whereupon he obtained 
a warrant for the apprehension of one of the parties who 
tamed him out, charging him with having attempted to 
steal his watch. The accusation was publicly heard and 
dismissed. In April, Baguley and his associates were 
tried at Chester, found guilty, and sentenced to two 
years' imprisonment They were indicted for sediUous 
harangues at a meeting in Stockport, of which there 
bad been several previous to their trial, as there were 
some afterwards. The evidence against them was re- 
markable, it was allied that "Harrison, the chairman, 
in his speech to the meeting, described the people of 
England as being run down at the point of cavalry swords 
and Castlereagh bayonets : he invited the mob to petition 
9 for a redress of their grievances, and, if not successful in 
that way, to obtain their rights by force. — One of the 
prisoners then stepped forward. He reprobated the apathy 
of the people, eulogized Tom Paine, and abused the 
Hagistiates. He said a national convention should be 
formed, modelled from that of France; that the whole 

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couutry should proceed witli petitions to London ; that the 
delegates should not wait for the tedious forms of the 
House of Commons, but go directly to the Speaker's 
chair and insist on their demands being granted. If they 
were not attended to, the Convention was then to act and 
the existing Government be destroyed ! — ^Another of the 
prisoners said the men at Derby had been murdered, and 
that Government had written to the clergymen of that 
county, who had packed a jury to convict them. He 
added, ' Oh that I had a sword large enough to strike otf 
the heads of all tyrants!' and gave the names of Lords 
Sydmouth and Castlereagh, and Mr. Canning, whom he 
called 'rascals.' He observed, he was indifferent to conse^ 
quences, and begged he might be particularly understood, 
for he would say it fearlessly, that whenever an oppor- 
tunity offered he would blow out their brains, and he would 
as soon do so as get his dinner and a bottle of wine! 
He then recommended the weavers not to go to work at 
the old wages, and told them, if they were not satisfied 
in their demands, to bum their looms! Sooner than 
return to work, he said, he would rob and plunder, aye, 
even murder, and put a pistol to the head of their oppo- 
nents, if he died on the gallows. — They all acted in 
concert; and it came out that the prisoners were the 
principal planners of the blanket expedition." It was at 
another of the Stockport meetings, which occurred sub- 
sequently to this trial, that Sir C. Wolseley, since a can- 
didate for the representation of Manchester, appeared, in 
connexion with Knight, Fitton, Ogden and Harrison, the 
last of whom was, with Sir Charles, afterwards indicted, 
found guilty of sedition, and imprisoned. Harrison was 
apprehended at the Smithfield meeting, in London, some 
time subsequently, by Birch; the deputy constable of 
Stockport, who on entering that town with his prisoner 
was stabbed, but eventually, though slowly, recovered. 

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On the 2l8t. Jvaae, 1819, another meeting was held on 
St. Peter's Field, and resolutions were passed appointing 
district del^;ates for a General National Union to reform 
the Government Meetings took place about the same 
time at Oldham, Royton, Bury, Heywood, Stockport, 
Ashton-onder-lyne, Failsworth, Gee Cross, Lees, Middle- 
ton, Rochdale, Todmorden, Barnsley, Holmfirth, Leeds, 
&C. &c^ and, with a view to embarrass the Government, a 
pledge was generally entered into by the people attending 
the several places of rendezvous to abstain from the use of 
every exciseable article "not absolutely necessary to sup- 
port existence/' Cotemporaneous with these proceedings 
also was the formation in various towns of "Female 
Reform Associations," the members of which publicly 
exhibited in processions or at meetings, communicated by 
deputies with similar societies in Manchester and elsewhere, 
and were at least as zealous, if not as efficient politicians 
as the men. It being deemed advisable to counteract, if 
possible, these combined movements, on the 9th. July a 
meeting of the inhabitants of Manchester was held, E. 
Clayton, Esq., Boroughreeve, in the chair, at which reso- 
lutions were adopted declaratory of a determination to co- 
operate in the preservation of the public peace: the 
names of two thousand four hundred of the chief inha- 
bitants were annexed to, and published with, the declara- 
tion. The Watch and Ward was re-established, and the 
Prince Regent issued a proclamation forbidding all meetr 
ings for ''training'' the people, or the election of delegates 
to a Convention. A meeting in Peter's Field appointed 
for the ninth was prohibited by the authorities, whereupon 
the projectors applied to Mr. Raincock, a barrister, for 
his opinion on the subject, which was that "the intention 
of choosing representatives, contrary to existing law, tended 
greatly to render the proposed meeting seditions." It was 
therefore not held, but Hunt, the intended chairman, had 

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a publie entry iuto the town. At Birmingham^ howerer^ 
the people did assemble, and Sir C. Wolseley was elected 
** Legislatorial Attorney " for that place. Placards an- 
nounced a meeting in Manchester for the 16th. August, 
between which time and the ninth some persons had been 
seized for illegal ** training '* on White Moss and Cockey 

The memorable meeting of the sixteenth of August 
comprised from sixty to a hundred thousand of the labour- 
ing population resident within a circumference of many 
miles. It was dispersed by the civil and military power, 
under circumstances which are familiar to every person. 
The town and suburbs had been kept in a state of incessant 
alarm through continuous days and nights by the prepa- 
rations for this manifestation, and especially by a know- 
ledge that numbers of the people were exercising them- 
selves in a sort of military training, with a view to the 
more imposing demonstration of their force. Intense, 
however, as was the excitement preceding the ''Peterloo" 
affair, the public mind was doubly heated immediately 
after its occurrence. On the one hand, the conduct of 
the civil power, and other persons who had rendered active 
service in maintaining order, embracing an immense num- 
ber of most respectable special constables and of the military, 
which comprised the Manchester and Cheshire Yeomanry, 
the 15th. Hussars, detachments of the 88th. and the 31st 
Foot, with pieces of Artillery, was cordially sanctioned; on 
the other, it was denounced in unmeasured language. 
The same opposition of opinion was exhibited throughout 
the Country : in London a placard was posted on the walls 
of the Mansion-House, ** to arms, and revenge the murder 
of your fellow-countrymen butchered by the military at 
Manchester." The Earl Grosvenor headed a subscription 
fbr the relief of the sufferers and the prosecution of the 
military ; a small portion of the inhabitants of Manchester 

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pablicly expressed their ^ utter disapprobation of the 
unexpected and unnecessary violence by which the assembly 
were dispersed;" and subsequently Sir Francis Burdett 
presided at a meeting in Westminster at which a "remon- 
strance" to the Prince Regent was adopted^ calling 
upon him to order the prosecution of the Manchester 
Magistrates by the law officers of the Crown. The 
Prince, however, had already expressed his " great 
satisfaction '^ at the ''prompt, decisive, and efficient 
measures for the preservation of the public peace" adopted 
by the Magistracy. But this Was not deemed sufficient; 
declarations were got up in Manchester, as in many 
other towns, expressive of entire approval of the conduct 
of the Magistracy, the civil foree> and the military power. 
The address to the Prince Regent agreed upon in Man- 
chester was signed by about fourteen hundred magistrates) 
clergy, bankers, merchants, and tradesmen. Adverting to 
the expressions of their opponents against the civil and 
military functionaries, the memorialists observed that — 
" Living at a remote distance fh>m the scene of these 
transactions, they must be perfectly incompetent to form 
an accurate opinion upon the circumstances which pre^ 
ceded or attended the meeting of the 16th. of August last 
They must be little acquainted with the preparations which 
had long been making through this and the adjacent 
counties for a formidable display on this occasion of the 
collective strength of the revolutionary cause— they must 
be totally ignorant of the temper and spirit in which this 
mighty mass of the population was brought together, the 
military array in which they proceeded to their appointed 
stations under the banners of disloyalty, and witji every 
demonstration of defiance to the constituted authorities of 
the land— whilst it must be equally impossible for those 
who were not present at this tremendous moment to form 
any adequate conception of the universal cbnstemation 

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which prevailed amongst the loyal and peaceable inha- 
bitants of these towns, when thej beheld their streets thus 
suddenly inundated by gathering crowds, from various 
counties, and from every part of the surrounding neigh- 
bourhood.^ * Hunt and nine or ten of his chief associates, 
after their apprehension at " Peterloo/' underwent sevcatd 
examinations at the New Bailey, wMch terminated in their 
committal (in default of bail) to Lancaster Castle, on the 
27th. August, upon a charge of conspiracy. Scarcdy, 
however, had Hunt himself arrived at the Castle, when bail 
was obtained for him. Subsequently true bills were found 
against him and his associates, all of whom traversed to 
the next Assize. Hunt gave bail, entering into his own 
recognizance of £400, and finding two sureties in £200 
each, of whom Sir C. Wolseley was one, for his future 
appearance. He returned, with some parade, through 
Manchester to London. 

These proceedings did not close the career of the radical 
reformers. In Manchester, the white hat emblematic of 
radicalism was still worn, and Hunt's name continued to 
be associated among the populace with the cry of " liberty." 
In addition to the inquests necessarily held on those who 
lost, or were supposed to have lost, their lives at the Peter^ 
loo meeting, the celebrated Oldham inquiry, originally 
opened in that town, but adjourned to the Star Inn, Deans- 
gate, Manchester, on account of the excitement and tumuk 
it had caused, extended over many weeks, feeding the 
universal ferment. Meantime, radical meetings were held 
in Wigan, Huddersfield, Norwich, Nottingham and other 
towns; a quantity of pikes were seized at Blackburn; and 

* WilUam HnltoD, Em., of Holtoo Park, ttie fenOeimii diieflj offemiTe to 
the radical reformers for his coDduct at Peterloo, was invited in March of 18S0 
to offer as a candidate for the representation of the ooonty, which in the event 
of a vacancy he promised to do. This marlc of esteem was intended to conn, 
teract the hosttle deportment of his opponents. Other trlbntes of approval were 
sabseqnently olflered to him, among which was his appc^tment by the King to 
the diBtinfoisbed office of Constable of Lancaster Castle. 

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a degree of sanction was given to the operations of the 
radicals by that great Yorkshire meeting, for his par- 
ticipation in which the Earl Fitzwilliam was dismissed 
from his Lord Lientenancy. The popularity of the 
leaders in these transactions was shortly afterwards mate- 
rially affected by a split in the " Committee of Two Hun- 
dred/' and a desperate quarrel between Hunt and Thistle- 
wood, the former charging the latter with being a spy, and 
the latter retorting upon Hunt with an accusation that he 
had misapplied the funds of the radicals. Watson also 
attacked Hunt, branding him as a '^ paltry scoundrel," a 
• lying villain," a *' fiend," a " monster," a '* trickster," 
and a " would-be dictator." 

On the 28th. November, Cobbett having landed at Liver- 
pool from America, a renewal of disturbances wa9 anti 
cipated from his proposed public entry with Tom Paine's 
bones into Manchester ; but so soon as he arrived at the 
outskirts his progress was stayed by a cautionary letter 
firom Thomas Sharp, Esq., Boroughreeve, J. Orford and 
R« Smith, Esqrs., Constables of Manchester, in conjunc- 
tion with J. E. Scholes, Esq., Borooghreeve, T. Marriot 
and S. Matthews, Esqrs., Constables of Salford. He re- 
odved the letter at Lrlam, and, having answered it, set out 
imvately by way of Knutsford on route for London. On 
die 10th. December, Knight of Oldham was committed to 
Lancaster on a charge of high treason, and on the thirteenth 
another meeting was appointed on Peterloo, simultaneously 
with other towns, to remonstrate with the Prince Regent 
and the House of Commons. The Manchester meeting, 
however, was not held. Some delegates were apprehended 
by Mr. Nadin at the Sir Sidney Smith public-house, in 
Port-street, and committed to Lancaster. In January of 
the next year George IIL died, and in February the 
Thistlewood plot was discovered. The trial of Hunt and 
his associates commenced at York on the 10th. March 

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Mr. Scarlett, now Lord Abinger, Sergeants Hullock 
and Cross, and Mr. Littledale, were for the prosecution : 
Saxton and Barrow were defended by advocates: the other 
prisoners pleaded for themselves. The case lasted many 
days : Hunt spoke in his own bdialf fonr hours and thirty* 
five minutes ; the reply of Mr. Scarlett to the defence set 
up by all the prisoners occupied three hours and a half. 
" No doubt,^' he said, in the course of his speech, " the object 
of Hunt might be to keep the meeting at Peterloo quiet — 

Good friends, tweet Mendt, let me not itir jroa op 
To aof eodden flood ot maUnjrj 

These might have been his words ; but, Uke another An* 
thony, he held up to the people the garment of the con- 
stitution, and pointed to its stabs. His object was not to 
produce a riot then^ but to shew those whom he designated 
as his ^emies that the people had power to trample 
them down if he pleased, and to destroy Manchester." 
Moorhouse^ Saxton, Swift, Wild and Jones were acquitted, 
and passed through the town on their triumphant return 
homeward: the other four prisoners, being found guilty, 
received sentence in London, during Easter term — on the 
5th. May — Hunt to two years and six months' imprison* 
ment in Ilchester gaol, and after the expiration of that 
term to find two sureties in £ 500, giving his own re- 
cognizances in £ 1000, for his good behaviour during five 
years ; the other three to one year's confinement in Lincoln 
Castle, with sureties also of £100 each, and their own re- 
cognizance in £200, for their good behaviour during five 
years. Sir C. Wolseley was at the same time sentenced to 
eighteen months' imprisonment in Abingdon gaol, and 
Harrison his associate (who was then suffering one term of 
incarceration) to a similar confinement in Chester Castle ; 
they also to find sureties for their subsequent good 

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From this time the spirit of discontent g^radually sub* 
aded. In Yorkshire, indeed, and in Scotland, riotA 
occinred; and an effort was made to impart new interest 
to the events of "Peterloo" by the observance of that 
day -with solemn pomp by some of Hunt* s admirers. 
AnoUier attempt was also made to bring the Yeomanry to 
an account for their services in 1819, by an action for 
assault which was commenced in the Court of King^ 
Bench, and tried at Lancaster in April, 1622; Thomas 
Redfem being plaintiff, and Hugh Hornby Birley, Alexan- 
der Oliver, Richard Withington, and Edward Meagher, 
(all of the Manchester Yeomanry) defendants. About one 
hundred witnesses, including many magistrates^ clergy; 
conmianding and other officers, private soldiers, police 
officers, xeporteis, and spectators, were examined on this 
celebrated trial, which occupied four days, and termi- 
nated in an immediate verdict for the defendants, the Jury 
deliberating only six minutes. This was the last practical 
•tmggle to establish a case of misconduct against the 
military and civil power. Motions for enquiry into the 
affair have indeed been since made in the House of Com- 
mons, but unsuccessfully, and their only issue has been 
that on a recent occasion, during the administration of 
Earl Grey, Lord Althorp (now Earl Spencer) spoke in 
sach equivocal terms of the conduct of the magistracy, 
that Mr. Hulton, who, as chairman of that body, took a 
lead in the proceedings of the 16th. of August, threw up 
his commission of the peace, which he has since refused an 
invitation to resume. 

The next political topic exciting any peculiar interest in 
Manchester, was the unfortunate difference between his 
Majesty George IV. and his Consort, who was brought to 
trial before the House of Peers. The favorers of the Queen, 
foiled in an application to the Boroughreeve, James 
Brierley, Esq. and his colleague, R. Warren, Esq., Con- 


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stablej fb obtain a public meeting of the inhabitants^ fa«kl 
their own meeting) at which Mr. Edward Baxter presided, 
and adopted a congratulatory address U> her Miyesty on her 
victory. It was presented by Messrs. Wooller and Hobhouae. 
The opposite party, who had already by theilr counter-<>fr- 
quisition prevented the holding of a meeting sanctioned by 
the authorities, now (December 9) held a meeting in the 
Police-office, at which they agreed upon an address to the 
King, and obtained three thousand approving signatures. 
Her Majesty's triumph was celebrated with great joy by 
one party, who illuminated their shops and houses. 

It is stated in the journals of 1821 that Sir Walter Scott 
passed through Manchester on the 9th. April, and on the 
30th. June that "the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Wilton, second son of Earl Grosvenor, and grandson of 
the late Earl Wilton of Heaton House, near this town^ 
took the oaths and his seat in the House of Lords as a 
Peer on Friday last'* On Thursday the 29th. November 
his Lordship married Mary Stanley, daughter of the late 
Earl of Derby, at Huyton Church, near Knowsley, her 
Ladyship being in her twenty-first and his Lordship in hia 
twenty-second year. 

The years 1825-6 were unhappily remarkable for more 
severe distress than any which had occurred since, dr pro- * 
bably during, the war. Many country bankers, unable to 
sustain the pressure upon them, stopped payment; dis- 
tance did not destroy these influences here. The Chann 
her of Commerce applied to Government for a loan Of 
Exchequer bills to relieve the manufacturers, and it was 
shortly afterwards announced that the Bank of England 
had authorised the Chamber to grant the loan of sums 
from £500 to £10,000, on goods or personal security. 
The number of bankruptcies through the country was 
enormous, and the stagnation of trade everywhere such as 
to occasion the Tbosi poignant suffering to the working 

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ch M iSOD sufferiflg wkich was the more severe because the 
{irevioas great activity in business had given them no 
waning to ]ay up provision for an evil day. A meeting 
was held in Manchester for the purpose of obtaining a 
fliihsGiiption to relieve the distressed operatives; soup-shops 
were opened, and fourteen thousand persons were weekly 
assisted with soup, meal, peas, &c. Although the inha- 
liitants of all classes contributed liberally to the privision- 
limd, it was found totally inadequate to the calls made 
upon it, and a meeting was therefore held in the metro- 
polis for procuring further aid. His Majesty, George IV., 
gave £2,000, and many of the Minbtry followed the 
liberal example; Sir R. Peel subscribed £500, Mr. (the 
present Sir Robert) Peel, £300; the Marquis of Stafford, 
£ 1,000. In a very few days £ 60,000 were obtsdned, and 
very large augmentations were afterwards made to the 
band, which was voted in small sums, and at various times, 
to the places most severely affected by the panic. Sub- 
sequently about forty thousand articles of clothing were 
issaed from the government-stores for the assistance of 
our own poor and the needy of several other towns; nearly 
£20/M)0, arising from the local subscription and the 
auxiliary fund la London, were spent in provbions in 
•Manchester, and in 1826 some thousands of the unem- 
ployed were put to work on the roads. In some parts of 
the country human beings were yoked like cattle to 
waggons, but thb practise was rather resorted to for the 
purposes of unwise excitement than from the exbtence of 
any necessity for so extreme a measure. Unfortunately 
the poorer classes in various towns, and in this as else- 
where, were led into the commission of serious breaches 
of the peace early in the year 1826. In May, several riots 
occurred. Factories were attacked by mobs, and an 
attempt was made* to destroy, by fire, that of Mr. Hugh 

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Beever. So alarmiag was the aspect of affairs in Man- 
chester, that it more than once occupied the attention of 
the Cabinet Council, and the issue was, on the one hand 
the meeting already named to open a subscription, and on 
the other the marching of large bodies of troops into the 
most unquiet districts. At the autumn Assize between 
forty and fifty rioters were tried and convicted — 
many of them of a capital offence. The local and county 
taxation was increased greatly by the operation of this 
commercial embarrassment In the township of Man- 
chester the rate for the relief of the poor, which in 1824 
was only two shillings in the pound, was in 1826 and 1827 
five shillings. The county rate was similarly affected: in 
1821 it was only £51,395; in 1824 it rose to £69,641 , 
and in 1826 it amounted to £ 102,204. The issue of local 
notes was said to have had a tendency to produce the panic, 
and a return was obtained, in confirmation of that opinion, 
from which it appeared that the issue by country banks 
was, in 1820 — of one and two pound notes, £ 1,728,186; 
and the total issue £ 3,49.%901 ; whilst in 1825, the former 
amounted to £3,251,499, and the total to £8,755,307. 
According to a recent statement, however, the notes of 
private banks circulating on the 26lh. December, 1835, 
was £8,334363, and of Joint Stock Banks, £2,799^1: 
total, £11,134,414. In connexion with this subject it 
may be mentioned as an extraordinary fact, that in 1828 
the utmost alarm was excited by an intimation that one 
of the most respectable private banks in Manchester had 
it in contemplation to issue its own notes. A public 
meeting was forthwith called "to prevent the possible in- 
troduction of a local note circulation in this town and 
neighbourhood," and resolutions were passed so strongly 
eondenmatory of the intention, that no notes appeared. 
Since that time opinions have changed! There are now 

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established in the town the following Joint Stock Banking 
Companies: — 

Capital. Fftid up. 
U«ocbetter aodliTerpool District.... itf6,ooo,ooo ...... 15 

Bank of Manchester 400,000 16 

Mortbera and Central Bank of BoglaDd.. 400,000 10 

Commercial Bank of Bogland.. 500,a00 6 

Besides others in the immediate yicinity. All these 
issue their own notes. I'he first on the list was pro- 
jected in 1826,^ (the year in which the Bank of England 
opened its branch in Manchester) and the eagerness 
for speculation in banks which has ever since been 
erinced may be judged from the fact, that in one 
of the most recently-established there were applications 
for one hundred and forty-two thousand shares, whilst the 
number to be created was only twenty-four thousand ! 

Other remarkable events transpired in the memorable 
years 1825-6. On the 29th. August a dinner was given to 
Lord Bexley* In the earlier part of the year a strong 
conflict arose 00 the building and famishing of the new 
Parliamentary Churches: meetings were held at the Col- 
legiate Church, at one of which it was proposed that, 
instead of silver, a pewter communion-service should be 
provided for the rising edifices. The inhabitants of Man- 
chester took a lively interest in the mysterious circum- 
stances connected with the death of Francis DukinfieM 
AstJey, Esq., and the subsequent judicial investigation, 
but it does not pertain to the present undertaking to refer 
more particularly to that painful event The murder of 
Mr. Price, a manufacturer, in his warehouse in Marsden 
Square, at mid-day on the 10th. February, 1826, attended 
by the simultaneous firing of the premises, excited a strong 
sensation throughout the town. His warehouseman, James 
Evans, was put upon trial at Lancaster for wilful 
murder, but the Jury acquitted him. The abduction of 

• TiM Uooo of notes baa been companUveljr receat. 

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Miss Torner in March, 1826, is connected with thelocaKty 
thus far, that Mr. Wakefield broaght his yidtim to the 
Albion Hotel, in Piccadilly, and that William Wakefield 
was in custody here, but was liberated on entering into 
recognizance to the amount of two thousand pounds. 
In May his brother was examined at Disley and com- 
mitted for trial. William Wakefield not appearing at the 
Lancaster autumn Assize,**^ his recognizance was for- 
feited, and a bench-warrant issued for his apprehension. 
In the succeeding March the two brothers stood, theh* 
trial, and were eventually sentenced to three years' impri* 
Bonment — Edward Gibbon Wakefield in Newgate, and 
William in Lancaster Castle. In the same year an Act 
was obtained annulling the alleged marriage. At the 
Spring Assize for 1828 judgment was given in a tithe- 
cause pending between the Warden and Fellows of the 
Collegiate Church and their lessee, Mr. Joule, they 
claiming tithe in kind on hay, milk, potatoes, the agist- 
ment of ley cattle, gardens, &c.: it was decided that the 
parishioners were liable to all these demands, except the 
tithe in kind on gardens, orchards, poultry, &c. 

On Tuesday, the 7th. October, the first Manchester 
Musical Festival of modern days — for many such had 
been held in earlier times upon a less extensive scale — 
took place. It was a season of general and delightful 
relaxation, in which all the wealthier classes of the district 
participated, and its enjoyment was perpetuated by the 
fact that it brought to the coffers of those charitable 
institutions which adorn and dignify the town the liberal 

* The trial of Uie two MHCeuit at this AMlte^ for a norder at a vlQaga 
tarcrn at Wintoo, near the line of the Liverpool and Manchester Railwaj, 
was regarded with mach Interest Ther were conTicted aad hanced. Another 
oaose which attracted considerable attention was one at the snlt of Sir O. 
Hosier, t-ord of the Manor, against Mr. Walker, a llshmonKer, for an infrao- 
tloD of his manorial rights. In the course of the trial (whidh woat in Ivroar 
of Sir Oswald) it was stated that he had within a few years expended jf SO.OOa 
In ImproTinf hte markets. 

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sum of £6000« The money was thus apportioned: — 

TDthclBflxTMnr £U09 TotbeBftirordDiipeiinrf ..jfSM 

.. HoQseof Reoorery.... 360 .. Cborltoo Row Do 400 

.. Lfinff-in-Hotpttal .... 800 Ardwick & Anooate Do. 800 

.. Ladies' AaxiUkrj Do .. 60 Lock Hospital 100 

.. Bye Instltotioo 160 Bonuuio Society 60 

Sdiool for Deaf & Dumb soo 

In (he earlier part of 1828, a Committee appointed in 
May» 1827, to define the bases on which was to be founded 
the concession of Parliamentary representatives to Man- 
diester — a boon long sought by a portion of the inha- 
bitants — made their report. They recommended that the 
qnalification to vote should be an assessment on £20, and 
^lat it should be required of parties to have paid up their 
poor, police and highway rates* The borough was to 
include the townships of Manchester, Salford, Cheetham, 
Uarpurhey, Newton, Bradford, Ardwick, Chorlton Row, 
and Hulme. The labours of the Committee, whose pro- 
positions were severely censured by the more extreme 
politicians of the day, were not for the time productive of 
any practical result 

The year 1829 is unfortunately remarkable only for the 
distress endured by the working classes, and the dis- 
quietudes of which that distress was, as usual, the cause. 
Early in the year the spinners in Stockport turned out 
against an alteration of prices, and were soon followed by 
ib/t operatives of this town. At the same time the weavers, 
not only in Manchester but in all the manufacturing dis- 
tricts, were in a state of great suffering. In the month of 
May serious riots occurred. The weaving factories of 
Mr. T. Harbottle* Messrs. Twiss and James Guest were 
attacked and gutted; that of Messrs. Parker was burnt 
down; many provision-shops were forcibly entered on the 
same day; (May 2) and eventually the military were called 
out During the week riots also occurred at Stockport 
and Rochdale, in the latter of which towns six persons 
were killed. The spinners' turn-out did not terminate 

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till the month of October, wh^ the hands resumed work-. 
Whilst these disputes were pending Mr. Hnskisson paid a 
visit to Manchester. (Aug. 26.) In the month of November 
in the same year, Mr. T. Bume, a gentleman well 
known, was committed to Lancaster to take his trial for the 
** wilful murder '' of Mr. Thomas Foster, in the fair at Sal- 
ford, by shooting him with a pistol. The disaster excited 
gre^t attention, and the eventual acquittal of Mr. Bume 
was hailed with much satisfaction by his numerous 
acquaintance. In the early part of 1830 the continuance 
of distress caused numerous meetings in this county, 
for the purpose of petitioning the legislature. The gene- 
ral election in August, preceded by the death of George 
IV. in June, took place under the excitement engendered 
by commercial embarrassment, heightened by the ferment 
of the French revolution. On the 23rd. August a meeting, 
which the Boroughreeve and Constables had refused to 
convoke, was held in the Manor Court-room to celebrate 
that event, and Messrs. Mark Philips, A. Kay, and J. C. 
Dyer, were appointed a deputation to repair to Paris for 
the purpose of congratulating the French on their change 
of dynasty. In September, the town was honored by the 
presence of the Premier — his Grace the Duke of Wellington, 
and many other illustrious individuals, among whom was 
the present representative of South Lancashire, Lord 
F. Egerton, and a character whose name is indissokiMy 
connected with this county — Sir Robert (then Mr.) 
Peel. The immediate occasion of their visit was the opeur 
ing of the railway, of which mention is made elsewhev^. 
That era was only less remarkable than the present for 
eager speculation in railroad projects: lines were proposed 
between Manchester and Leeds, Manchester and Oldham, 
Manchester and Bolton, Manchester and Sheffield, Preston 
and Wigan, Leeds and Liverpool, London and Binniag- 
ham, Leeds and Bradford, and many other neighbouring 

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. localities : neariy all of them wete ansaccessAil for the time, 
but have since been renewed under better anspices. 

On the occasion of the Premier's visit party polities ran 
high. Only two months subsequently an event occurred 
upon which for some time speculation had b^n busy: 
on the 15th. November, the Administration was defeated 
in the House of Commons by a majority of twenty-nine on 
the civil list, and a dissolution of the Government imme- 
diately ensued. Earl Grey succeeded to office, pledged 
to carry some measure of reform in the representative 
system. The history of the next two years is little more 
than the history of the reform agitation. So early as the 
24th. November, 1830, a Political Union, which, however, 
never attained to any influence, was concocted in Man- 
diester, with a view to organize the reform forces, and 
on the twentieth of the succeeding January, (1831) a 
meetiDg was held in the Town Hall, Mr. E. Baxter in the 
chair, to petition Parliament for a change in the represen* 
tation. In Salford a meeting was held on the twenty-fourth, 
to petition for a representative. On Tuesday the 1st March 
Lord John Russell propounded the Government scheme in 
the House of Commons, and on the ninth the inhabitants of 
Manchester assembled at the Town Hall, the Borooghreeve, 
J. Birt, Esq., in the chair, to petition in its favor. A month 
afterwards the Parliament, which had shewn itself unfavor- 
able to the proposed change, was prorogued, with a view to 
aa immediate dissolution. A meeting was therefore held, 
wUeh resulted in an invitation to Lord J. Russell to offer 
himself as a candidate for the representation of Lancashire 
ia opposition to Mr. Wilson Patten, who, though friendly 
to reform, had declined to support a change so extensive 
as that contemplated by Administration. His Lordship 
having, however, declined the invitation, Mr. Benjamin 
Beywood was sdected as the champion of the ministerial 
paity, who shewed so formidable a front that Mr. Pattep 

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withdrew from the arena, and Mr. Heywood was returned. 
The new Parliament assembled on the 21st Jun^ and 
attention was once more directed to the contemplated reform 
bill, which eyentually passed the House of Commons 
after a hard fight. 

Unnatural as had been the excitement occasioned by the 
general election — an excitement which exhibited itself at 
Wigan and elsewhere io wanton outrage and violence— the 
Country was afterwards thrown into a state of ferment to 
which there has scarcely before or since been any parrallel, 
and which was maintained until the bill eventually received 
tills sanction of the House of Lords. On the 22nd. Sep- 
tember; a petition to that august assembly was sent from 
the reformers of this town. On the 10th. October the party 
'again met in the Riding School, whence an adjournment 
took place to the open air: the agitation of that occasion 
was maintained during the week. Happily, however, the 
movements at Bristol and Worcester, and subsequently at 
Nottingham and Derby, found no imitators here. A party 
of obscure orators, headed by men named Broadhurst, 
Curran, Ashmore and Gilchrist, did indeed for some time 
' desecrate the Sabbath by holding political meetings, but at 
length, on the 90th. January, 18S^, the civil power inter- 
fered, the leaders were apprehended, tried at the next 
'Assize for conspiracy, and sentenced to und^go twelve 
months* imprisonment in Lancaster Castle. On the 8di. 
May, Earl Grey, in consequence of a movement in the 
House of Peers unfriendly to his reform bill, resigned office, 
in which he was succeeded by the Ihike of Wellington, 
and on the fourteenth a meeting was held in this town wHh 
a design to obtain the restoration of the Grey ministry. 
Peterloo was selected as the arena for the meeting, whitli, 
like its precursor of the 10th. October, was attended by 
drcumstances of an extraordinary nature. The assem- 
blage comprised from forty to fifty thousand - persons* 

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many of whom were operatives in factories^ frpm which 
a apeeies of "gentle compulsion '' wa^-^ercised in 
order to obtain their liberation. The banners displayed 
on the occasion spoke no equivocal language: among 
them were a white flag bearing the portrait of the 
King reversed, and a motto, "William be faithful, and 
this crown waits thee;'' a flag reversed, edged with 
black, descriptive of the late coronation; sundry flags 
emblazoned with the words "reform, or no supplies;" 
some tri-Kx>loured flags, &c. Similar meetings were held 
at Ashton, Bury, Bolton, Rochdale, and Wigan. Fortu- 
nately, they were the last assemblages of such a character. 
On the 7th. June the royal assent was given to the reform 
h\]\, and on the 9th. of August the friends of that measure 
in tins town testified their joy by a "reform jubilee," to 
which the sanction of the authorities was given. The 
procession of the trades almost rivalled that in celebration 
of their Majesties' coronation, which agreeably broke upon 
the reform agitation on the 8th. September, 1831. On 
this occasion a gorgeous pageant, such as no other 
town of the empire seems to have equalled, and in which 
all the trades participated, drew the immense population 
of these districts to Ardwick Green, the principal arena of 
its exhibition. — Other events transpired during the two 
years of the reform struggle, which may here be mentioned. 
A dispute having arisen between the master^pinners 
and the operatives of Ashton, Stalybridge, and their 
environs, the masters of Manchester were apprehensive that 
tbeir workpeople might follow the example of the Ashton 
Imnds, who, to the number of about thirty thousand, had 
"tomed out," but their fears were not verified. A strong 
•msation was, however, excited by the murder, on the 3d. 
January, 1831, of Mr. Thomas Ashton, of Wemeth, who, as 
it was subsequently proved upon the trial of two of the 
murderers at Chesto* in 1834, was offered a victim to the 

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vengeance of the unionists. Three persons were hired to 
shoot him» receiving blood-money to the amount of ten 
pounds in reward for their services. After upwards of three 
years' unavailing endeavour to search out the murderers^ 
justice at last overtook two of them, a third having availed 
himself of the King's mercy, which he purchased by giving 
evidence against his associates. They were tried at the 
autunm Assize for Chester, found guilty, and sentenced to 
be hanged. The hour was appointed, all the preparations 
were made, the prisoners, pinioned, waited to be led to the 
gallows which was to receive them in the castle-yard of 
Chester, when, to the great chagrin of the community, 
the stroke of justice was stayed by a dispute between the 
Sheriffs of the city and the county of Chester as to their 
Imbility to superintend the execution — the ^tfiffs of the 
city claiming, by virtue of a recent Act of Parliament; 
known as the Uniformity Act, to be thenceferth exempt 
from the painful duty of honorary hangmen, which had 
from time immemorial devolved upon them, and the Shmff' 
of the county refusing to undertake an office to which he 
had not hitherto been liable. Pending this disputo^ ^ 
murderers enjoyed a respite of sentence^ and it was even^ 
tually found expedient, after the lapse of several months, to 
fulfil the penalty of the law in London. The "turn-out,^ 
of which this murder was a bitter consequence, is the last 
which it falls within our province to record. A good 
understanding has since prevailed, without interruption, 
between the master-manufacturers and the immense popu- 
lation for which they provide the means of subsistenoe, 
and a season of almost unsaingled commercial pros- 
perity has .afforded no material whereon that class of the 
•ommunity who fatten on unions, and love the pay and 
power of ^delegates," could erect their corrupt machinery. 
A. temporary excitement was created for some months in 
the years 1833-4 by the discussions on the so-called feretory 

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qoestioa, but an end was put to them by the passing of a 
bill to restrict the hours of infant labour, which is now in 
operation throughout the manufacturing districts.* 

During the triumph of the reformers in the success of 
the Reform Act, the town was visited by that mysterious 
distemper which even in these days baffles the skill of the 
filiysician. The cholera, appearing in regions far remote, 
approached us by steady steps, and, suddenly breaking 
through the flimsy barriers which had been prepared to 
ward it from our shores, exiiibited itself in Manchester 
for the first time on the 17th. May, 1832, when a person 
iramed James PaUreyman, living in Somersetrstreet, Dole- 
field, was seized with symptoms which his medical adviser, 
Mr. Stephens, reported to the Board of Health to be those 
of malignant cholera. This Board, comprising the most 
eminent medical men and other inhabitants of the town, 
had adopted every precaution nhich sound judgment could 
dictate, and though all must lament the occasion which 
tnunediately led to the organization of such a body, the 
community will long have reason to be thankful for 
the pennanent service it rendered, in leading the poorer 
classes to a better domestic habitude, and directing the 
attention of the proper authorities to the unwholesome, 
fihfay, and disease-engendering condition of the more 

• TMs Act, which repealed ** Hobhooae't,'' prarlded that after the ttt. 
Janoanr, 1B3I, do peraon under eighteen years of age should work doriog the 
Bltht (1. e. between balf-pa&t eight p. m. and half.past Ave a. m.) in any except 
iMce factories} that they shonld work only twelve hoars a-day, (dedactiaf|«Bci 
•nd a half for meals) or sixty-nine in the week; tliat after the same date 
ckUdren ooder alne years of age shonld not be employed in any (except silk) 
bDIs} that alter the Slst. March. 1834, children under eleven— after the let. 
March, I83A, ebildren ooder twelre— and after the 1st. March, I8S0, children 
under thirteen, should only work nine hours a-day and torty.eiffht per week, 
•xcept in silk millet that they should hare two holidays and eight half hoUdayt 
in the vear; and that those children whose term of labour is limited to nine 
boors slioald not be employed In factories unless they prodoced a certificate of 
■ca aron a physician or surgeon . That schools should be esUbiished at which 
<he children should attend two hoars daily, a charge not exceeding a penny In 
efvtry sUliIng of their wages being made for it) and that the masters should not 
employ any children who did not on each Monday produce a certificate of their 
ottendaoce at such school during the past week.— The provision affecting 
chiUlreu ** under thirteen '* Mr. P. Thomson proposed to r^eal by a short bill 
totrodoced loto the House of Commons in March, 1896. 

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confined and pauperized districts of the town. The 
appearance of cholera in Manchester was immediately 
subsequent to its invasion of Liverpool. Soon afterwards 
Bolton, Rochdale, Stockport, Bury, Oldham and War- 
rington, were similarly attacked. In this town Blakeley- 
street, Hanover-street, Clock-face Entry, Lombard-street, 
Allen's Court, near the river Irk, FalknePs Court, 
near Port-street, Back Hart-street, Hind's Hamlet, John- 
street, Ancoats, Back Ancoats-street, Back Spear-street, 
Lower Bank-street, Mersey-street, Oidfield Road, Hewitt- 
street, Mount-street, or in other words the dis6*ict8 of 
Angel Meadow, Deansgate, Portland-street, Little Ireland 
and Bank Top, from which the majority of the streets 
and courts here named diverge, were the principal seats of 
the disease. It raged most fiercely in the month of 
August, as appears from the following table, already pub- 
lished in an able work of the late Dr. Gaulter: — ' 


.May 4 

.Jaoe .... a7 

.Jaly Ii8 

.Ao^it .. 050 
.September aOi 



.October .. 17« 

. November 83 

. December s 

. January .. S 


PopalaUon 143,026. No. of cases, from 
the comraeDcement of the disease io 
May. to December, 1882. 





Death or 

Treated at the Swao-street Hospital.. .. 

Ditto, at the Knott Mill Hospital 

Ditto, at their own dwellings 














I Popolation 40J80. First cases Jnoe 20th. and Attack. 
Joly 13th. i last case November /th., 1833. ed. 



In the township (all treated at home) 





In the New Bailey Prison 

Total. j 700 

210 ( 474 1 

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Popolatkm ao.sdp. FInt csm Joly isth.} luti Attack. 

case December 4tb., 18S2. 





Treated in the Hospital , 

Ditto at Home , 

Particolars onreported 















1 to 15 




15 to IS 




15 to 85 




35 to 45 




45 to 55 




55 to 05 




06 to 80 








Halme, Pendleton and Cheetham were slightly visited by 
the cholera, and a few cases occurred also in the Man* 
Chester Workhouse and the Fever-wards. Although the 
labours of the Board of Health and of the medical prac- 
' titioners, who gave their gratuitous service with the utmost 
alacrity, terminated with the year 1832, many cases are 
understood subsequently to have arisen, which bore all 
the symptoms of malignant cholera. They were treated 
privately, however, under the direction of the Overseers, 
whose quiet attention was probably of more avail than were 
the labours of a public Board, the very efforts of which might 
be supposed to have a tendency to spread the distemper, by 
engendering that alarm which medical men consider to be 
one of the great fosterers of cholera. Although no services 
could be more zealous and disinterested than those rendered 
by the Board and the medical practitioners, an extra- 
ordinary distaste prevailed against them in the minds of 
the populace, who were excited to one very serious riot, 
accompanied by an attack on the Swan-street Hospital, 
firbm which nine patients were forcibly carried, and but 
that there was an interference before all the occupants 
« CoUitedfromtborecordioftbcBoBrdofHealUi. 

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of the wards could be removed, it is probable that the 
people would have set fire to the building. Their iadig- 
nation in this instance was excited by the discovery that 
the body of a boy had been mutilated, probably for the 
purposes of a posi mortem examination : his head, which 
was found in his coffin severed from the body, was exhi- 
bited by his relatives to the populace, to excite them to 
revenge. In other places the medical men were ^accused 
of poisou, and even of darker crimes !'' 

It has been stated that the services rendered by the 
Board of Health had a value beyond the present object 
they were designed to promote. In the course of their 
investigations they were instrumental in obtaining much 
information as to the state of the town, which, modified 
as its value may now be by the lapse of time, is still of 
considerable importance. Coupled with other documents 
embraced in these pages, the following table will aid the 
non-resident reader in estimating the condition of the 
poorer classes of the inhabitants : — 

No. I 










\ Total 


•8 :& 


a a^ 
1 IE 

- a 


is 2 







. (3 

S48| Si\ IIH' S32 

O fl 

. ST 

HSO| 399 
2489i 808 

^lai u^ 









S « - "O I 





7*5 sg 

d.\-Z It 

I . 


3 O 

106 105 



6'.i?n'2»65i 960I gyp 




10 1 i 





70, 3a6 

lOfi 75ft 

fis! g€ 

69 asc 

11 66 


aa at) 




16 52 

54 1 17 
7 13b 

45212^1 267 







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Bat to return to the Reform Act and its operation, of 
which the first-fruits were the appearance, in several pro- 
|x>sed boroughs, of gentlemen volunteering service in Par- 
Hament In Manchester, Mr. Mark Philips came early 
into the field, under the sanction of a numerously-signed 
requisition fh>m that class whose opinions verged towards 
radicalism. For Salford, Mr. Joseph Brotherton and Mr. 
Thomas Hopkins made tenders to the same grade of 
politicians, but the latter gentleman withdrew before the 
tug of war actually commenced. It does not fall within 
the design of this volume to enter into a minute detail of 
the contests at the general elections of 1832 and 183d: 
it is necessary, however, to record their results. 

In the former, Manchester was contested by five can- 
didates, who stood thus at the close of a two days' poll: — 

M.Phllliw 9993 

C. p. Thoouoo 1009 

8. J.Loyd 183a 

J.T. Bope 1560 

W.Cobbett 1306 

TotalVotes. 9090 

In the latter there were four candidates, who were sup- 
ported in the following proportions: — 

C. P.nioBiaoo SSfS 

M.Phllip* 3189 

B. Bnadler 968B 

SlrCWollMler 583 

TottilVote^ 90M 

A second election occurred in 1835, on the return to 
power of the party which the Right Hon. C. P. Thomson 
supported, and his acceptance once more of an appoint- 
ment in the Board of Trade. The following was the 
result: — 

CP.niomaoo , 318» 

B.Bi«ldle]r 1837 

TotalVotes.. SOSO 

In Salford, also, there have been two elections under the 
Reform Act, which terminated thus : — 

1889 I8SS 

J. Brotherton.... 713 J. Brotherton 79s 

W. Gemett 518 J. Doffdale 573 

TotalVotes... 1230 TotalVotes.. liSj 

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The expenses of the election in 1832 were — for Han* 
Chester, £729 28. 6d.; for Salford, £250 15s. 6d. In 
that and each succeeding year the register of electors for 
the two boroughs has been as follows : — 











, 188 






















Newton , 


Bndford ajid Berwick 








No. 1 . 









.... 000 
.... 409 

.... 540 

.... 537 

.... 7*0 

.... 887 

.... 403 

.... 487 

No. 10 818 

No. II 419 

No. 18 194 

No. 13 871 

No. 14 341 

Totel 7198 




Bradford and Betwlck.. 


Cliorlton' opon-Modlock 















8 1.... 

1797 448' 1S0 

1 1. 

1801 440' 154 





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Broo^hton «•.... 








District. Blecton. 

No. 1 101 

No. 9 .... , 974 

No. 3 110 

No. 4 180 

No. 5 954 

No. 188 

No. 7 40a 

No. 8 181 

Total. • 1868 





PCDdleton . . . 
Pieiidlebarj , 







The history of the contests for the representation of the 
oonnty does not pertain to the objects of this volume; but, 
as a document for future reference, the annexed will 
Doi be without interest: — 



♦BlMkI«7 79 

Blackrod 47 

Blatcbin worth & Calderbrook.. 7S 

No. of Voters. 

•Aiotvofth 86 

*AIkrioiton 8 


• Ardwlck 118 

•Atbtoo.onder.LyDO 810 

Adiwotth 8 

Acpall .. 68 

*B*ftofi.apoo-Irwell 818 

Kftle-rnm-Bamford « 48 

Great Bolton., 

Xit»eBoltOD 187 

Bradford and Beswick 

Bradsbaw la 

Breigbtmet « 98 

•Bronghton.... 61 

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No. of Voters. 

«Barnaffe 17 

Bury 179 

Butterworth S5 

Castletoo 166 

«Cbadderton 7S 

«Cheethftm B9 

*Choritoa.opoo.Me<llock 405 

*ChorltoQ-wiUi.Hard]r S3 

*CUftoo 13 

Cromptoo 89 

•Crumpsall 03 

«Denton 69 

*Didsbary 49 

•Oroftodeo 7tf 

Edgwurth 4S 

Bltoo Sil 

KutwUle 83 

FRllsworth..... 04 

*Parnworth 08 

«FllxCoii 83 

•Gorton 79 

Halliwell 61 

*flarpurhef 8 

Barwood 68 

•Haoftiton 66 

Heap 908 

Heaton 98 

•GreatHeaUio 3 

•Little HeatoD 19 

•Heaton NorrU S30 

Uopwood 93 

Horwicb 67 

•Holme 915 

LlttieHulton 53 

MiddloUaltoo 99 

OverHulton 19 

•Kearsley 54 

•LeyenshaJme 39 

•Darcy Lever , 11 

•GreatLeTer 95 

•UtUeLever 84 


Looffworth 14 

IxMtock 86 

•Manchester 1599 

Middleton iSO 

•MosBSide li 

•Moftoo 87 

•Newton v 

•Oldham 478 

•Openthaw ... 85 

•Pendlebary 5f 

•PMidleton 89 

•Pilkinffton 19O 

PUsworth 17 

•Prestwich tf 

Qoarlton 9 

•RadcUflte 91 

•Reddish 89 

Rtvinftun.... 81 

Royton 81 

Roroworth 48 

•Rotholm* 5t 

•Salford 43^ 

Sharpies.... 43 

Spotlaod 890 

•Stretford 94 

Thornham 37 

Todmordeu and Walsden iOO 

•ronge 45 

ToDR-with-Hanlgb ^3 

Tottington Higher End < 69 

Tbttiagtoo Lower End 197 

Tnrton «. 6^1 

•Urmston 89 

Walmeraley-com-Shattlewortli. 88 

Wardleworth 79 

Westbougbton I4O 

•WilhingtoQ 41 

•Woralcy ,. 195 

Waerdale and Wardle 198 



Tbote marked * are lo the Manobeater MUog District. 

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From the earliest times the spirit of commercial enter* 
prise seems to have animated the people of Lancashire. 
Even hefore that obscure period of their history in which, 
through the intervention of Roman policy, our forefathers 
were mduced to abandon their roving life and settle down 
to the peaceful pursuits of incipient civilization, Phoenician 
traders had discovered the rich products of this island, and 
sought to barter the fruits of their industry for our metals. 
The Greek merchants of Marseilles, at a more recent date, 
made the Isle of Wight a depdt from which they carried 
on an extensive traffic with the mainland. English com- 
merce was at that time confined to the absolute necessaries 
of life; but ader the Roman invasion the luxuries of 
file East were supplied abundantly to this Country, 
l^bchester was the great marine outlet, and the benefits, 
mental and social, which generally attend communion with 
foreign nations, were liberally diffused among the people 
of England. ''Our own province and parish, in par- 
ticular, (says a distinguished writer) seem to have attained 
a more considerable degree of refinement, and to have 
actually existed in a more flourishing condition, than any 
of them knew for many, very many, centuries afterwards. 
All the improvements of the Romans had necessarily been 
introduced among us. Our mines were worked with the 
greatest skill; and our towns were decorated with baths, 
templesy market-places and porticos. Our architects were 

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eren so remarkably nomerons and good, thai a body of 
them was sent by Constantine into Gaul, to rebuild the 
ruined AugustoduDum with the greater magnificence. 
Aad so universally diffused were the riches of the kingdom 
that, even after the lapse of many centuries, and merely 
from the scatterings of negligence or the concealment of 
fear, the sites of all the greater cities in the provinces 
remain generally to the present time inexhaustible ruins 
of the Roman wealth. But the ravages of two destructive 
wars — the Saxon and the Danish — and the two settlements 
of foreigners, ferocious and rude, among us, threw the 
nation, the country and the parishes three or four centuries 
back in the progress of improvement, and successively 
re-plunged us all in a state of ignorance and incivility, 
which is the natural tendency of the darkened intellect 
and vitiated passions of humanity, and from wluch we 
never emerged entirely till the fifteenth or siiUeenth 

It was, indeed, impossible that commerce, at all times 
liable to suspension by the slightest political convulsion, 
should rear its head beneficially during that terrible crisis, 
the issue of which involved the destinies of this island as 
an independent state. B ut necessity is a hard task-master ; 
and the shock of the Norman conquest was no sooner over- 
past, and the Country restored to a state of internal quiet, 
than the people began to resume the occupations which 
had not then, as now, for their object the indulgence of 
foreign speculation, but were limited to the gratificaUon of 
the first wants of a rude population. The Kings of 
England appear uniformly to have directed their attention 
to the nurture of coounerce, though not always in the 
most enlightened spirit. In the existence of the periodical 
fairs, which, no doubt, were to a great extent — but not 
wholly — seasons of rejoicing, an evidence is afforded th^t 
different districts of die Country were engaged in mutm^l 

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ffafic, of which, probably, the products of th^ Idom 
formed an important ingredient Thb town, indeed, must 
have had a considerable trade at the period under review, 
nnce, so early as the reign of Edward II., there existed a' 
mill for dyeing goods on the banks of the Irk, and a few 
years afterwards one for fulling was erected. In the reign 
of Edward III., the Lord de la Warre having raised a 
company of Lancashire men to attend him in the war in 
Zanders, their noble commander contrived, on his return, to 
carry with him some voluntary emigrants from the traders 
of the Ix>w Countries, who settled in this county, and gave 
An impulse to manufactures. Manchester^ most probably> 
would receive a large proportion of these strangers; The 
Government of Henry YIII. achieved one act of legisla^ 
tlon more judicious than some of those which were passed 
with the avowed object of promoting trade — that, namely, 
by which the right of sanctuary was removed from Man- 
chester, on the ground (as already stated) that it tended to 
the injury of the manufacturing population. At that time 
the town was " well inhabited" and " distinguished for its 
trade in linens and woollens.'' Fustians range among the 
earliest manufactures of England; the fabric is well 
adapted to the climate, and "anciently'' it was considered 
''creditable wearing in England for persons of the primest 
quality." In the reign of Edward VI. ail act was passed 
to regulate the dimensions of "Manchester, Lancashire 
and Cheshire cottons," and "Manchester rugs or friezes." 
Unfortunately these early records are almost the sole 
means which now remain of estimating the kind and the 
extait of the existing trade — they suffice, however, to 
Aew that from its infancy this great town has depended 
upon the manufacturing labour of its energetic population. 

From the seventeeth century may be dated the rapid 
expansion of mercantile projects. Not only did they then 
affi>rd employment to a large proportion of the people of 

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Hanchetter, the seat and centre of operations, but diey 
qiread also to Bolton, Leigh, &c. Humphrey Chetham, 
of whom more in another place, being the principal buyer, 
one Cooke, a much less honourable dealer, cleared the 
market of those goods which Chetham would not con* 
descend to purchase. At this time yam chieiy came from 
Ireland and Scotland, and partially by export from Ham- 
burgh: it was obtained with extrenrc difficulty, and the 
weavers frequently lost many days of the week in tn- 
veiling among the surrounding cottagers, purchasing from 
them the small quantities which, in the intervals of other 
employments, they had been enabled to prepare. The 
dearth of yam was an almost insurmountable impediment 
to the growth of trade, and eventually operated so 
perniciously as to excite the anxious ^attention of in- 
genious men, and to give birth to those wonderful 
inventions which are the boast of modem times. But the 
rise of British trade was not the result solely of native skill 
or perseverance. The too-frequent convulsions on the 
continent, the bitter fraits of religious and political 
rancour, conduced in a wonderful degree to our aggran- 
disement, by compelling the most peaceful and industrious 
people of France and the Low Countries to settle here, 
they giving to England, in return for her protection, the 
benefits of their superior skill. In this way it was that 
the enormities of the Duke of Alva in the Netherlands, 
the yet more disastrous religious wars in France, and, 
above all, the revocation of the edict of Nantes, had the 
effect of driving from the bosom of their native land those 
whom a wise Govemment would most anxiously have 
fostered, and of enriching us through the means by which 
other nations were weakened. A large proportion of the 
exiles from the Low Countries settled in Manchester, the 
population of which, including the circuit of the whole 
parish, was rated shortly afterwards (in the year 1578) at 

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lOgOOO, Taking thb point, then, as a landmark, the 
snbseqnent growth of the town is almost incredible.^ 
Passing over a period of seventy years, the people are 
spoken of (in 1650) as the most industrious of any in the 
northern part of the kingdom. The town is stated to be 
a mile in length — the streets open and clean kept, and 
the buildings good. There were four maricet-places, two 
OMrket days weekly, and three fairs yearly. " The trade is 
not inferior to that of many cities in the kingdom, chiefly 
consisting of woollen-friezes, fustians, sack cloths, mingled 
fAxifk, caps, inkles, points, tapes, &c., whereby not only die 
better sort of workmen are employed, but also the very 
children, by their own labour, can maintain themselves. 
There are, besides, all kinds of foreign merchandize bought 
and returned by the merchants of the town, amounting to 
the sum of many thousand pounds weekly." From the 
bills of mortality of the Collegiate Church, it appears 
that within a century the population had greatly increased, 
the burials (which certainly furnish rather a negative evi- 
dence on this point) having been, from 1580 to 1587 — 184 ; 
from 1680 to 1687 — '286« Another long interval succeeds, 
and in 1720 the town is described as the largest, most rich, 
populous Mid busy village in England, having about 
twenty-four thousand families,t and enjoying a great home 
and fordgn trade, chiefly in fustians, linen, girth, webb, 
tickings, thread, tapes, &c. In a period of twenty years 
no less than two thousand houses had been built, and the 
bills of mortality shew that their erection had not pre- 
ceded the demands of the population. In the latter year 

* The timde of the seveDteeoth centanr mast have been rery aolike the 
eomraerce of oar days: in the relicn of Queen EHuibeth and her saccesKors 
trMetoien In geaeral eolned small moner of their own, being ** onder an obli- 
ratton to take it again when broaebt to tbem," so that a roan in Manche&ter 
cotaieed In a large trade was obliged to keep a '* sorting box,** in which be 
placed the coin of each separate trader until he sent to get it changed to sliver. 

t This cilcolation is exaggerated, unless intended to indade the whole 


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De Foe says of this town and Liverpool, that they hif^ 
extended ia a«urpiinQg manner within a few yearg. The 
population of Manchester he estimates at fifty thousand 
an amount which it could not then have attained; an esti* 
mate which possesses much stronger claim to accumcy 
makes the number of inhabitants of Manchester and 
Salford, in the year 1757, only nineteen thousand eighl 
hundred and thirty-nine. The numb^ of deaths from 
1764 to 1761 was 6,796, or 771 annually, being in the 
proportion of 1 to 26.7 persons. Liverpool, however, 
rose in this century with a rapidity that recalls the memory 
of those gorgeous palaces which the genii of the £a^ 
were so skilful in erecting. The latter town may be said 
to owe its origin to Manchester, and to have been almost 
dependent upon this district for existence. The following 
table of its population exhibits its giant stqps in the 
career of wealth and importance: — 


ITPO 5,146 . 

1710 8,1S4 

1790 ii;8i« 

I7S0. 11,0» 

1740 14,847 

1760 18,400 

ITflO M,57» 

1778. 84,060 

It appears from a table which is elsewhere inserted, that m 
1773 the popnlation of Manchester (including the inhtf- 
bitants of the contiguous townships) was 29,161, or nearly 
6fi00 less than that of LiverpooK The unprecedented 
increase is not, however, attribntable wholly to ordinasj 
causes. The new form into which society had for some 
time been resolving itself caused a great accession to the 
ranks of the trading conmiunity, the smaller dass of 
gentry being unable, in the dearth of wars, to find other 
avenues for their younger children, whom they therefore^ 
but with reluctance, devoted to trade. The eighteenth 

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eeatury brooght a great Bomber of diese strangers to 
Manchester, and it can scarcely be doubted that the iniu- 
aion of such new blood has had a tendency to exalt the 
diaraeter of English merchants. 

The progress of manufactures has thus been briefly 
traced to the middle of the eighteenth century. Woollens 
IumI hitherto been considered as "the grand British staple 
of conunerce.^ The historians of those days dwell with 
•stomshment on the fact> that at Manchester and Bolton 
atone goods to the amount of £ GOO/KX) were annually 
manttfiK^tured ; they advert with a trembling pen to the 
eneroediments which Spain, France, and even Portugal 
are making on this, the sole stay of the nation, as they 
teem to consider it; and the manufacturers of Ireland are 
regarded as such dangerous rivals, that it is proposed to 
prohibit them fipom exporting their goods to foreign coun- 
tries or to England. A noted writer, frighted from his 
propriety by the then recent invention of machines to 
fiunlitate manufacturing processes, questions whether it be 
''good policy for a commercial state to make use of 
madiines to lessen the price of labour!'' It is scarcely 
surprising that an epoch so fruitful of invention should 
have given rise;, among ill-informed meo, to doubts such 
as these, since it was impossible to foresee that in propor- 
lioA as the means of production increased new avenues 
hi pmfitaUe adventure should successively have presented 

• Befim entering upon the ield of modern commerce, 
Aa opening greatness of which caused so much apprehen- 
wmkt it may be desirable to present the following table of 
oMon wool imported and cotton goods exported during 
tlie latter years of Uie old, and the early years of the new 
qrttttn. Contrasted with similar tables of more recent date, 
iris an extraordinary and amusing record: — 

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li %SS :: 1 ?i:::::::: 1:w :: - ■ 

1730 1.MM7S ., «^ |»'5« •• •• 

•Ml l,«4S,0ai .. >7« ».W » .. 

In 1760 oats were Os. the bushel of 461b8.; whe^ 6s. the 
bushel of TOlbs.; meal wasSOs. the load; "jannock" Ifilbs. 
for Is.; malt 23s. the load; a goose cost 16d.; cheese 2id. 
the pound; beef was 2d. the pound; a neck of mmttoi 
cost 9d. ; land was sold at 40s. or 45s. the Cheshire acre; 
and a weaver's cottage, with a two-loom shop, rented at 
40s. or 608. the year ! The « merchants" of those days 
travelled through the country to retail their own good*, 
which were carried by pack horses,* and the state of 
society, as well as the mode of conducting business, wm 
the most primitive which it is possible to conceive. " It is 
probable (says Dr. Aikin) that few or no capitals of 
£3.000 or £4,000. acquired by trade, cxwted here before 
1690 However, towards the latter end of the last 
fseventeenth] century and the beginnmg of the present, 
reightfienth] the traders had certainly got money before- 
hand and began to build modem brick houses, m place 
of those of wood and plaster. For the first thirty years of 
the present century, the old-estaWished houses confined 
their trade to the wholesale dealers m London, Bristol, 
Norwich, Newcastle, and those who frequented Cherter 
fair The profite were thus divided between the manufac- 
turer the wholesale and the retail dealer; and those of 
the manufacturer were probably (though this is contrary 
to the received opinion) less per cent, upon the business 
they did than in the present times. The improvement of 

. The i*«* throsh MMiche«ter were iOiWto-hone tone^ nich M G«n«»- 
lane, Newton-lane, ot Market-'«treet)-tane. 

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their fortunes was chiefly owiog to their economy in living, 
the expense of which was much below the interest of the 
capital employed. Apprentices at that time were now and 
then taken from families which could pay a moderate fee. 
By an indenture dated 1695, the fee paid appears to have 
been sixty pounds, the young man serving seven years. 
But all apprentices were obliged to undergo a vast deal of 
laborious work, such as turning warping mills, carrying 
goods on thmr shoulders through the streets, and the like. 
An eminent manufacturer in that age used to be in his 
warehouse before six in the morning, accompanied by his 
duldren and apprentices. At seven they all came in to 
breakfast, which consisted of one large dish of water- 
porridge, made of oat-meal, water and a little salt, boiled 
thick, and poured into a dish. At the side was a pan or 
basin of milk, and the master and apprentices, each with 
s wooden spoon in his hand, without loss of time, dipped 
into the same dish, and thence into the milk pan ; and as 
soon as it was finished they all returned to their work. In 
George the First's reign many country gentlemen began to 
send their sons apprentices to the Manchester manufac- 
turers; but though the little country gentry did not then live 
in the luxurious manner they have done since, the young 
men found it so different from home that they could not 
brook this treatment, and either got away before their time, 
or, if they staid till the expiration of their indentures, 
they then, for the most part, entered into the army or 
went to sea. The little attention paid to rendering the 
evenings of apprentices agreeable at home, where they 
m^re considered rather as servants than pupils, drove many 
of them to taverns, where they acquired habits of drinking 
that frequently proved injurious in after-life." 

The increase of the cotton manufacture effected great 
changes in the town and its inhabitants. Hitherto there 
bad been, in fact, only one branch of trade — the woollen — 

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pursued in these districts; but since the middle of the last 
century the cotton trade has almost superseded the ancient 
fabric, whilst the recent migration of die silk manufacture 
has tended still more to diminish the importance of that 
which was once regarded as the ^ grand staple of com- 
merce.** It will be desirable, therefore, to take a separate 
view of these branches of industry. 

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Mention has already been made of the great impediment 
to the extension of cotton wearing which existed in the 
scarcity of yam. Until the eighteenth centary, the machi- 
nery for conducting every process of manufacture was rude 
in structure and slow in operation ; workmen were not then, 
as now, collected in factories under the eye of vigilant 
superintendents ; but the house of each roan was his work- 
shop, and, wages being high in proportion \fl the price of 
provisions, each individual suited his term of labour to bis 
own inclination. Still however, the weavers out-ran the 
spinners, notwithstanding the supplies of yam from abroad, 
and there existed a constant dearth of the material for 
manufacturing cloth. The spinning-wheel was brought 
into play by the young and old inhabitants of the farmer's 
cottage only to fill up vacancies of other employment, and 
there was consequentiy no regular supply to meet the grow- 
ing demand. It appears that in earlier times the master 
used to supply his weaver, generally, with the material for 
hb loom, but it is mentioned that about 1740 Manchester 
merchants began to give out warps and raw cotton to the 
weavers, receiving them back in cloth, and paying for the 
carding, roving, spinning, and weaving.'*^ At that time 
the warping was carried on by means of pegs fastened into 
the wall ; and all the other processes by which the raw article 

« Hie wmTktf ci a piece oontatoing twetre pouids at eigliteen pennr veft 
oeeoptod a weever about Iborteen days, and he received for the weaving l8t.; 
ipinnhiy the weft, at ninepenoe per poand, 9e.; picking, carding, and roving, 

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was converted were beset with difficulties, arising partly 
from the inaptitude of the machinery applied^ and partly 
from the rude and unworkmanlike construction of the 
machines themselves. Still, however, trade continued 
greatly to increase : whilst in 1743 the import of cotton wool 
amounted to 1,132,288 pounds, in 1749 it had increased- 
to 1,658,365 pounds : the quantity retained for home con- 
sumption being in the former year, 1,091,418 pounds, and 
in the latter 1,327,367. In this strait, therefore, nece«uty, 
the reputed parent of invention, called into exercise the 
faculties of her child, and the result was that splendid 
series of inventions which not merely remedied immediate 
deficiencies, but opened an entirely new field to enterprise 
and industry. A glance at these inventions, taken as nearly 
as possible in their chronological order, will not be destitute 
of interest: it will suffice, however, to notice their leading 
principles, without attempting to give a minute description 
of their arrangements, which it is scarcely possible to 
convey in fin intelligible or agreeable shape through the 
medium of mere verbal detail. 

In the year 1769 a patent for a machine (the water- 
frame) for spinning by rollers was taken out by Richard 
Arkwright, whose title to the original discovery will not 
here be discussed. The first machine only converted 
rovings into yam, but by subsequent improvements it was 
made to rove also. 

In 1770 James Hargreaves obtained a patent for the 
spinning-jenny, which be had invented in Blackburn, his 
native town, so early as 1764. The jenny spun weft, and 
the water-frame warps, so that the two dove*tailed most 
beneficially in their operations. The latter entirely super- 
seded the linen warp heretofore used in cotton goods and 
largely imported from Ireland. 

Lewis Paul (partner of Wyatt, at Northampton) took out 
a patent for an improvement in carding, a process which 

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hitherto had been carried on by mere wire-brushes. It 
imderwent Yarious modificatious in this county (into which 
it was first introduced by Mr. Morris, of Brock Mills, 
Wigan) at the hands of Mr. Lees, of Manchester, Mr. 
Wood, and Arkwright, until the latter took out a patent, 
in 1785, for his improved carding, drawing and roving 

Three other inventions, for the performance of processes 
anterior to the early one of carding, were also completed, 
namely — the willow, by which the fibres of the raw 
cotton are first opened and cleaned ; the scutching-frame 
(introduced by Mr. Kennedy, of this town, about five and 
twenty years ago) for further purifying and opening it, by 
means of blades revolving as many as seven thousand times 
in a minute; and the lapping-machine, for laying the cotton 
even on a roller in readiness for the carding-engine. 

The spinning apparatus heretofore invented was suited 
only to the coarser numbers of yam. In 1779, the 
mute-jenny for spinning finer numbers was invented by 
Samuel Crompton, of HalWth'-wood, near Bolton. This 
machine, by running in and out, and so distending the 
fibres of the cotton, twists them more gradually and 
efiectnally : its working is so good that it has in a great 
degree superseded all others. It had at first only 
twenty or thirty spindles* and worked no higher numbers 
than eighties, and, being made chiefly of wood, was but a 
mde outline of the present perfect machine. Crompton 
took out no patent, and his invention was at first in such 
bad repute that a young man on establishing a factory was 
told by his father that he feared his ''mules" would all 
turn out asses. How wonderfully has the assinine folly of 
the prophetic punster been demonstrated ! To the mule, 
Hiore than to any other modem invention, the cotton 
manufacture owes its present exaltation. Little is known of 
Crompton beyond that which his friend Mr. John Kennedy 

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of Manchester, has reccNrded in a ^ Brief Memoir" of hkn^ 
read in 1830 before the Literary and Philotopbical Societj* 
and published among tlieir transactions. He was bom oa 
the 3rd« December, 1763, at Firwood, near Boitoa, hk 
father being a small fanner, who, according to the custom 
of the time, occupied hb vacant hours in weaving, cardinf 
and spinning. At the age of sixteen, Samuel the son 
learnt to spin on Hargreavei^ jenny, and being dissatisfied 
with the work it turned off he devoted lumself to its im* 
provement In this task, undertaken when he was twenty^ 
one, he spent five years, and its result was the mule-jsony^ 
Being much annoyed by the importunity of ndghboma 
desirous to see his machine, he kept it in a ganet, but 
visitors obtained ladders, and <* climbed up at the windows 
to see him at his work/' At length he laid it before a 
number of gentlemen, who contributed collectively £50 for 
an inspection of it: the proceeds of this exhibition he ex^ 
pended in the construction of a larger and improved 
machine. Hargreaves's spinning-wheel had been adopted 
by the manufacturers through the circuit embracing Ash« 
ton. Bury, Blackburn, Oldham and Stockport^, as a sub* 
stitute for thesingle spindle heretofore commonly employed, 
but Crompton's invention superseded it Nevertheless^ it 
is surmised that in 1783 there were not a thousand of his 
machines in operation. About the year 1802, hia friends 
Mr. Kennedy and Mr. Lee originated a subscription^ by 
which dS500 were realized : with this sum Crompton enlarged 
his spinning and weaving establishment at Bolton. His sub- 
sequent history, as related by Mr. Kennedy, pourtrays but 
too forcibly the fate of an inventor. In his domestic rela* 
tions, equally as in his character of a national benefactor> 
little of the sunshine of life seems to have gilded his career. 
'* He was left a widower when his children were very young, 
and his only daughter kept his little cottage in King-street, 
Boltoo, where he died and where she is now living. Being 

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aweoYer, he &cected several looms ibr the fancy work of 
tlmt town, in which he displayed great ingenuity. Though 
IttB meana were but small, his economy in living made him 
always in easy drcnmsiances. He was fond of music, and 
built for himself an organ, which he had in his little 
cottage. In 1812 he made a survey of all the cotton 
diatriets in England, Scotland and Ireland, and obtained 
an estimate of the number of spindles then at work upon 
bis principle, wbidi amounted to between four and five 
millions.* On his return he laid the result of his inquiries 
before Mr. Lee and myself, with a suggestion that Parlia- 
ment might grant him something. With these data before 
him, Mr. Lee, who was a warm friend to genius of every 
kmd, with his usual energy entered fully into his merits 
and made an appointment with the late George Duckworth, 
Esq., of Manchester, who also took a livdy intere9t in the 
scheme, and gratuitously offered to draw up a memorial to 
Pi^iament in behalf of Mr. Crompton. This was signed 
by most of the principal manufacturers in the kingdom 
who were acquainted with his merits. He went to London 
himself with the memorial, and obtained an interview with 
one of the Members for the county of Lancaster. He 
remained there during the Session, and was in the House 
on the evening that Mr. Percival was shot, and witnessed 
the catastrophe. A short time before this disastrous 
occurrence, Mr. Percival had given him a promise to 
interest himsielf in his behalf, and in accordance with this 
assurance had brought in a bill, which was passed, for a 
grant of £ 5^000 in full, without fees or charges. Mr. 
Oompton was now anxious to place his sons in some 
business, and fixed upon that of bleaching; but the un- 
Ikvorable state of the times, the inexperience and mis* 
management of his sons, a bad situation, and a misunder* 

« in 1810 ib^at sevsB millions. 

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standing with his landlord, which occasioned a tedions 
lawsuit, conspired in a very short time to put an end to 
this establishment His sons then dispersed, and he and 
his daughter were reduced to poverty. Messrs. Hicks 
and Rothwell, of Bolton, myself and some others in that 
neighbourhood and in Manchester, had in 1824 recourse 
to a second subscription, to purchase a life annuity for 
him, which produced £63 per annum. The amount raised 
for this purpose was collected in small sums, from one to 
ten pounds, some of which were contributed by the Swiss 
and French spinners, who acknowledged his merits and 
pitied his misfortunes. At the same time his portrait was 
engraved for his benefit, and a few impressions were dis* 
posed of: he enjoyed this small annuity onl^ two years. 
He died January 26th., 1827, leaving his daughter, his 
affectionate housekeeper, in poverty.'* 

The history of other modem inventions and inventors 
is not less singular. Arkwright and Hargreaves have 
been generally ac4*.epted as inventors of two other prin* 
cipal machines, but the title of both is in dispute. 
Frequent mention has been made of the scarcity of 
weaving materiel, and there can be little doubt that those 
by whom the pressure of this ditficulty was most sensibly 
felt would be the first to turn their attention to the means 
of removing it Accordingly the broad outlines of nearly 
all mechanical discoveries fthe nidtf, ituUgestaque moles) 
have at least been elicited from the brain of working mecha- 
nics, whilst at the same time it may be probaUe tba( men 
of high powers have alone succeeded in bringing them to 
a state of operative perfection. But tlie entire and undi- 
vided invention of the same spinning-jenny and water* 
frame of which Arkwright and Hargreaves have been 
before called the originators, is claimed, by Mr. Guest in his 
history of the cotton manufacture, for a person of low oob- 
dition; and the narnitive« whether corroet or otherwise, is 

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so full of interest, and illustrates so forcibly the progtesk 
of almost every inveBiioD, that its perusal cauDOt be without 
vidue. Speaking of the difficulties under which weavers 
laboured in obtaining weft, the writer in question says : — 
" In this strait a means of obviating the difficulty was 
found in a quarter where it could be least expected. A 
reed-maker, of the name of Thomas Highs, residing in the 
town of Leigh, in Lancashire, one forenoon in the year 
1763 or 4, being in the house of one of his neighbours, 
whose son, a weaver, had come home after a long in- 
eSeciU9i search for weft, was by the circumstance roused 
to consider whether a machine could not be invented to 
produce a more plentiful supply of weft. He engaged one 
Kay, a clock-maker, to make him the wheels and other 
apparatus of his machine, and they worked together in a 
garret in Highs' house. The chamber door was kept 
locked, and they worked at over-hours with great assiduity 
and perseverance for several months. All their trouble 
and pains were, however, abortive, and one Sunday even- 
ing, in a fit of despondency, they threw the machine through 
the garret window into the yard. During their labours, 
they were often jeered by their neighbours with enquiries 
lor weft, and aAer the catastrophe of the garret window 
the derision broke out without restraint Kay was asked 
what wages his master gave him for making spinning 
wheels, to which he replied that he had done with spinning, 
and then joined in the laugh with his ndghbours. Highs 
was not so easily discouraged ; his persevering mind, though 
foiled, was not subdued He took the broken wheels once 
more to his garret, and after another effinrt produced the 
ingenious machine known by the name of the spinning-jenny, 
and which he so called after his daughter, her diristian 
name bemg Jane. The first jenny was about a yard square, 
and worked only six spindles, which he afterwards in- 
creased to twenty and twenty-five.'' — There is, without 

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doobt, a considerable degree of plausibility in Mm story* 
That Highs was an ingenious man is clear from the fiict 
that he invented odier machines, as for example a doabi6« 
jemiy, which haying exhibited in Manchester, he waa 
presented with a douoeur of two hundred guineas by tha 
merchants; and that Arkwright was truly derignaled as m 
''crafty^ man, eager for his own advancement in the 
world, is equally clear. It is, therefOTe, possible that he 
may have unduly availed himsdf of Highs' discoveries. 

At ail events it is strongly asserted that he possesses no 
claim to the invention of the water^frame, it having been 
ascertained that John Wyatt, of Northampton, took out in 
1738 a patent for the same machine which Arkwright 
attempted to appropriate in 1 769. The latter, however, was 
an extraordinary character. He was bora in 1739, at Pres* 
ton, and being brought up as a barber, he followed his oecn* 
pation there and at Kirkhanu Subsequently he travelled 
about the country to collect hair, which he dyed in an in- 
genioua manner and re-sold. In 1761, he was married at 
Leigh (the native place of Highs) to Margaret Binn^ 
and in 1767 meeting with Kay, a watohnnaker, at War- 
rington, he is said to have wormed out of him Highs* 
secret He hired Kay as his servant, took him to Pres- 
ton, and there getting into the favor of Mr. Smalley, a 
liqnor-merchant, he moved to Nottingham. Afler much 
difficulty he obtained the co-operation of Mr. Strutt and Mr. 
Need, with whom he entered iiRo partnership, and in 1761^ 
took out a patent for his spinning machine. Having stmg^ 
gled through various adversities, Arkwright now set about 
availing himself of the immense advantages accruing 
to the cotton trade from his and other men's inventions. 
Numerous mills, of which he was sole or partial proprietor, 
rose in various parte of the country. In 1780, there were 
no less than twenty water-frame factories his property, or 
the proprietors of which had paid him largely for permis- 

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sioa to use hh machines. The popalace, however, looked 
with an unfriendly eye npon ihem, and a mill of his at 
Ghoriey soffered the fate which attended many others — 
ihat of being demohshed by a mob. But a more formidable 
enemy than this arose in the master-manufacturers them- 
wdwes, who organized a resolute opposition to his patent 
Bghts. An association was formed in Manchester, by whose 
instrumentality his patent for carding, drawing, and roving 
machines was set asiik in 1781, and his second patent in 
1785* At the first trial Highs was in attendance as a wit- 
ness, but had not the opportunity of staling how far Ark^ 
wright had robbed him of the fruits of his genius. The 
poor fellow passed his latter days in indigence, supported 
by the bounty of Peter Drinkwater, Esq., of Manchester. 
But AriLwright had gathered his harvest before this stcnm 
came. He was a man eager in the pursuit of money, and 
that he bad been y gUy successful in his schemes is attested 
by the frict that in 1786 he was made High Sheriff of 
I)erbyshire, and was knighted by the King on presenting 
an address in Us official character. He died on the dOth. 
August 1792, aged sixty-twa His family still retain the 
works established at Cromftmi, whilst others at Bel{>er 
aie in the hands of the Strutt ftimily. Sir Richard Ark- 
wright was a man of strong natural endowments, which 
in early life he had not the means of improving. 
in later years, however, when he was following his mer- 
tantile pursuits with all the activity of youth, he contrived 
to snatdi, from the long hours given to business, a brief 
interval which he daily devoted to the removal of bis de- 
fects in education. He set out by learning to read and 
write ! Like others who have pursued a similar career and 
risen from small beginnings, he was irritable, overbearing, 
and perhaps too self-confident 

Hargreaves, from whose shoulders it is also desired to 
transfer the mantle of fame to tho^e of Highs, was, like 

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tbe latter, an operative at Blackburn, and driven to 
the exercise of bis inventive powers by the same difficulties 
which Highs had encountered. He lived at Blackburn, 
where he invented his spinning-jenny in 1764, confining 
its use to his own house and the supply of his own wants. 
In 1770, however, he took out a patent for it, and having 
.been expelled from Blackburn by the violence of bis 
townsmen, he in 1768 removed to Nottingham.* In tbe 
former year he entered into partnership with a person, 
named Thomas James, a joiner, but the fate of an adven- 
turer attended him. He was stripped of his patent rights, 
and died in 1 778. H is machine was not capable of roving: 
at first it had only eight spindles, but on the issue of the 
patent that number was doubled, and it has since been 
very greatly increased. 

Whilst on the one hand the manufacturers of Lancashire 
were breaking through the privileges of the early patentees, 
and thus expanding the powers of their trade, and Parlia- 
ment on the other was passing acts to protect the cotton 
manufacture, (one particularly against the import of cotton, 
goods, which was directed towards the Indian manufacturer, 
ot whom more anon) the fertile minds of our mechanicians 
were still busily at work improving old and creating new 
modes of production. A person named Stones, of Hor- 
wich, has the reputation of inventing a mule, with metai 
rollers, working upwards of one hundred spindles; and 
towards the end of the century Mr. Wright, a machine^ 
maker of Manchester, constructed a double-mule, for which, 
in 1812, Parliament granted him £5,000. Mr. Strutt, 
(father of the Hon. Member for Derby) Mr. P. Ewart 
and Mr. Knolls, of this town, and Mr. de Jough, of War* 
rington, made various modifications of the machine, until 
at length Mr. Roberts (of the firm of Sharp, Roberts and 

* Among otheri whom outrage drore tram I^Mficuwhlre (to Bmtcmin StaflbrcU 
Abt) WM Hr. Fed, ancertor oT a now very flluitrioua fiunily. 

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Co.) took oat a patent in 1826, and a second in 1830, for 
the mule now generally in nse. 

The throstle, an improvement on the water-frame, lias 
also of late years come into vogue for spinning warps for 
the power loom. 

Two other important inventions have yet to be named — 
tk^ fly-frame, introduced about 1817, which supersedes 
the roving-frame for middle and lower numbers; and the 
tube-frame, which roves much faster than the fly, but low 
numbers. Mr. Dyer of this town introduced them from 
America, and in 1 825 and 1829 took out patents. In 1833, 
it has been stated that no less than one thousand were in 

To these must be added, somemhat out of the order of 

its date, and still more out of place if estimated by its vast 

importance, the mighty machine which impels all those 

already named, and which may truly be said to give life 

nd motion to the factory system.* 

All machines, from the spindle and the distaff in manu 
factures, to the cobble-stones with which £ncas and his 
sea-sick associates ground their wheat into flour,f were 
oi^ginally worked by the hand; the young, the old, the 
blind, the lame and the halt, being so occupied. When 
the labour of asses or horses was substituted for human 
toil a great end was accomplished, and tiie substitution 
of water-wheels for animal exertion was truly considered 
a wondrous revolution. But all these advances sink 
into unimportance when contrasted with an invention 
possessing this, as well as numberless other advantages, 
that instead of rendering the people subservient to the 

* Mr. BabbAfft shows tfast a ootton spiniMr who In 1810 earned ^l 58. lod. 
hf fpinnlBgf 4/OmB. of cotton at is, s^d. per soorv. ooold in 183S, by means of 
fanproTed machinery, spin I200lbs. li 6d. per score, and earn jffl 138.; added 
to wfaieh he eonklpan^aae nearly twice as many actual oomloiti in tto latter 

t Fmgesqne receptas, 
Bt tQCTere pannt flammis et franfore aaxo*— VirgU. 

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power, and compelling them to migrate to the banks of 
the river, where their water-wheels might be erected, it 
made the inanimate power amenable to the people, who 
conld carry it whither they chose, and plant it in the 
eentre of their own habitations. 

As of almost every other mechanical invention, so of 
the steam-engine, it is impossible to trace its history by 
clear and successive steps. The improvements by which it 
gradually arrived at its present state of perfection were 
not the results of any regularly-defined plan, nor did they 
issue, like the goddess from the head of her parent, tall 
grown and prepared for action. On the contrary, the Ikint 
and feeble image of each limb of the machine, suggested 
probably by some unforeseen accident, required the skill 
and ingenuity of numberless contrivers to reduce it to 
practical and harmonious efficiency ; which being accom- 
plished, that achievement might in its turn suggest some 
amendment or extension in other subordinate branches, 
until at last the steam-engine of the present day was 
brought to maturity. Bat if it be impossible satisfactorily 
to travel, pari passu, with the iiiventioni certain epochs 
of its growth may be defined. To Hero, of Alexandria* 
is assigned the honor of having first discovered the expan- 
«ve power of steam, and attempted to apply it to the 
production of motion, an effbrt in which he was succeeded 
by Bmncas, an Italian, in the seventeenth century. The 
other great faculty on which the steam-engine depend^-* 
that of condensation, is by some believed (erroneously it 
is said) to have been the discovery of the Marquis of 
Worcteter, who at all events takes high rank among those 
whose genius was beneficially exerted upon it. An extra- 
ordinary instance of the seemingly trivial circumstances 
from which this and other great discoveries have sprung is 
recorded of the Marquis. It is said that whilst a 
prisoner in the Tow^ he was preparing some food on the 

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fire, when he observed that the lid of the impleiBent he 
used was forced off by the expanding steam. This afforded 
the basis whence his fertile mind educed the fundamental 
principles of the steam-engine. AAer Sir Samuel Morland, 
who invented an engine in 1683, Dr. Papin, a Frenchman, 
eats a conspicnons figure from the hct that Ms {dan 
embodied the condensing as weU as the expanding power 
of steam; and from, if not prior to, that time, therefore, 
(1696) most be dated the existence of the two pillars on 
which sabsequent appendages rest The floating piston 
Qod the safety-valve are also his inventiona Almost 
ootemporaneous with them were the improvements of 
Captain T. Savery, who, besides discovering (or combining, 
for it is difficult to assign the merit of the discovery to the 
rightful owner) many valuable amendments, was the means 
of still further and greater ones in connexion with a man 
of obscure condition named Newcomen, who is the author 
of the atmospheric engine^ an invention the great merit of 
which was, that it "separated those parts of the engine in 
which steam was to act from those in which water was to 
be raised, employing a beam between them, the steam 
beii^ used merely for displacing the air, and then forming 
a vacuno by condensation.'* Here again the fruits of 
accident strikingly occurred. In Newcomen's ^igine the 
process of condensation was effected by applying cold 
wsto* outside the cylinder, the piston being kept steaoH 
tight by water floating above it, but a hole having been 
casually made in the piston, water flowed into the cylinder, 
aad producing a rapid condensation caused an accelerated 
motion in the engine. The hint thus conveyed was fortii^ 
with adopted. Of the same character was another additioh 
to the sel]Pefficiency of this machine, which has immortalized 
an obscure boy named Humphrey Potter. It was his duty 
to open and shut the cocks by which steam and water were 
alternately admitted. Being idly disposed, he compelled 

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tlie ** insensate monster '^ to perfonn this process itself, bj 
attaching the cocks with strings to other moving parts of 
the machine, and his contrivance having been observed, 
the sabstitution of more workmanlike material for his 
twine almost sufficed to perfect the discovery. lo the 
year 1712, the essential attributes of the modem steam- 
eagiae had all been elicited and combined: *'only perfec- 
tion of workmanship and a better knowledge of the nature 
of steam were requisite to render it competent to the dis- 
charge of very important duties.'' Bnt before Watt gave 
the master-stroke to the invention, various fertile minds 
had been usefully at work — Beightonin 1717, Leopold in 
1720, who constructed the ''high pressure" engine. Halls, 
who in 1736 obtained a patent for rendering the power of 
steam available in navigation^ Payne, Blake and Smeaton, 
the last of whom has acquired his renown mainly " by a 
more judicious proportioning 4)f the several parts to each 
other than had been before practised, and not by any 
alteration in the nature of its action.'' He was a practical 
man, and under his direction the first portable engine, 
having its fire-place within the boiler, was constructed* 
To these and other individuals, whose names it is needless 
to record, Walt succeeded. In 1769 he took out^the first 
of his patents for those inventions which embrace "the 
grand idea" of condensing in a separate vessel called the 
condenser, to be kept always cold — of working the engine 
by steam, instead of atmospheric pressure, thereby 
keeping the cylinder always hot; in 1782 he registered, 
patents for an "expansive" and a ** doublensicting" engine ; 
in 1764 and 1785 he secured in the same way v^ous 
other inventions, among which was that of the "parallel 
motion." Upon these first principles numberless improve- 
ments have been grafted ; but as in its earlier so in its 
more recent stages, it is scarcely possible to record within 
reasonable compass the names of all who contributed their 

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Aare of theoretical or practical informatioii to diis great 
work. The steam-engine has now attained to a state 
approaching as nearly to perfection as can be hoped in 
any mere homan contri?ance* But the work has been 
slow and tedious, and the attempt to apportion to each 
indiyidnal the precise amount of inventive merit which is 
due to him must almost inevitably fail, since no contrivance 
of ancient or modem date has been indebted so much to 
acddent^ — ^in none have the crude conceptions of one man 
been more frequently made the stepping-stone for the 
success of another — aod in none has the mere improve* 
ment in mechanical skill and workmanship which practice 
induces formed so large an ingredient of success. If there 
be difficulty in fixing the quantum of merit due to 
Arkwrigfat, how much deeper is the obscurity which hangs 
over the . host of patentees who have brought the steam* 
engine to such completeness that it now stands almost 
independent of human aid. It is an extraordinary spec- 
tacle to witness this "great leviathan'' controlling its own 
powers by the movements of the various valves;— -ensuring 
continuance and extreme regularity of operation by sel^ 
supplying feeders, which administer fuel in the most 
economical manner, whilst the self-acting damper further 
secures safety and uniformity of combustion ; — ^regulating 
the opposite element, water, by the feed-pipe; — and in short 
satisfying all its appetites with the periodical certainty of 
raanhoodf The memory of Watt has been perpetuated, 
with equal honor to himself and to his country, by a monu- 
ment in Westminster Abbey. An inscription, said to haif% 

* Of Cro mp ton*8 inventlcm it h«B been said, *'if in the course of their 
working tiie machine there was any ttttto thing out of gear, each wortanan 
emleavonred to fill up the deficiency with some expedient suggested by liis 
fformer trade ;— the smith snggested a piece of iron, tiie shoe-maker a welt of 
leather, ftc, all which liad a good effect in improving the madiine. Each pot 
what he tfaooglit best to the experiment, and tiuit whidi was good was 

t We hare now st eam t o cook our meat, clean our chhnnica, grind our 
toflRBc, and print oor BcwspiQtert. 

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been prepared by three noblemen selected for the tuk% 
records his achievement:— 

Not to jMncCoate • name irUdi nuMt cndare 

WhUe the peaceftil arte floorish, 

BattotfAwttatmuikliidhATeleeraed to honor tboeewlio best deMrretMr 


Hie King, Ids Min)Bten,a&d menyoT the Nobles sndOonMiwmws of tts BealU 

raised this monument to 

Jamss Watt, 

Who, directinf the force of an oficinal ceninst 

Bazly exercised in philosophical research, to the improvement of 

The steam-sngine, 

Enlarged toe resources of his country, incieased toe powers of man, and fOie 

To an erafnent place among the most illustrioos 

Followers of science, and the real bendiustors of the wodd. 

Bom at Greenock, mdccxxzti. 

Died at Heatofleld, in Staffordshire, mococxix. 

Until nearly the close of the last century '' mules ^ were 
worked by manual labour in the houses of the workmen* 
Mr. Kelly, of Lanark, was the first to apply power to them» 
and the experiment, besides greatly increasing the trade, 
led generally to the explosion of the custom of domestk 
labour, and was the foundation of what is called "the 
factory system.'^ The united effects of those mechanical 
inventions which may be said to have given it birth were, 
00 early as 1819, declared to be such that ^the labour of 
one person, aided by them, can now produce as much 
yam, in a given time, as two hundred could have produced 
fifty years ago.** 

But another change* which promises to be even 
more wondrous in its effects than diose already enu- 
nierated, has been elicited in our own day, by the invention 
(or rather the bringing to perfection) of the power-loom, a 
machine of which Dr. Cartwright furnished the roagh 
outline so long ago as 1787, the date of his latest patent. 
Being previously quite ignorant of the practical details of 
such machinery^ it is not surprising that the Doctor was 
unable to complete his discovery; but so far as it went 
it was so highly valued that Parliament, in 1809, voted 
him £ 10,000. Messrs. Grimshaw, of Gorton, were the 
first to erect a factory at Knott Mill, in this town, for the 

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use of power-looois ; bul the experiment did not succeed — 
the power-loom still needed much amendment Its defects 
were gradually supplied by the improvements of Messrs. 
Raddiffe^ and Ross, Horrocks» and Peter Marsland of 
Stockport, and the machine is now capable of producing^ 
under the superintendence of a young man or woman, ibor 
times as much cloth as the hand-loom weaver can fabricate. 
Reducing these various changes, then, into a small 
compass, the raw material passes the following machines 
in the course of manufacture : — 


BcuTCHiNo, vckantlw cotton. 

■vBBADiiro, y 

BoTijro (OR Jack) tramb, •tretchM and iligfatly twines the cotton aad ram 
tt onto bobbins far Uie strctdier snd spinner. 

WrmmrcuivQ'TmAUE, draws oat the roving to a greater degree of Jmini— , 
prerioos to the operation of tbe mule. 

ttm MvLM, is gencnUy need in the spinning of Sne counts, in wUdi wnrinii 
the tbrtad is lengthened and rendered mudi more Uiin thui bj tiM 
stretddng-frame it can be. llie twist which is thus formed is cvahle 
of being used as warp and weft in tbe operation of tbe loom. 

The TnaosTLBy spins tlie coarser numbers wliich in weaving fonn the^iraip or 

Py these processed to Strip the subject of technicalities 
which to a novice in sticb matters are unintelligible, and lo 
an experienced man uninteresting, the materials for the 
weaver, called the warp and weft, are provided. The 
former is transferred by a winding-machine from the 
cops to bobbins— from the bobbins to a beam, on which 
the dressing machine sizes and dresses it, whereupon it is 
transferred to the Vreaving-beiUn of the loom, and the 
immediate process of manufactnrihg cloth commences. 

The improvements in bfeaching and calico-printing, 
the two arts by means of which the unsightly doth is 

* Mr; Baddiflb is entitled to a tegeritare of merit in the eoBpkillon of tta 
power-loom than perhaps anj other Individual, and yet, like too many of his 
«tass, he is living ki imttgenoe in me midst of the Immense wealth which he tew 
been the means of diflhsing over the Oonntry. He Is author, also, of the 
di esslnfc-machine-an inventton without whkh the power-loom would hava 
been useless. The Manchester Chamber of Conuneroe, and tbe most cmiaant 
of our manu£utures, have exerted themselves, but hitherto in vain, to obtain 
loc Urn lirom the national purse somo ranimcration for, or at kaat tome 
fvoogoltkm oi; his splendid services. 

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made white as the drifted snow, or myested with erery 
Variety of pattern that taste, fancy or caprice can 
saggest, ha?e fortunately kept pace with the advances in 
manofactore. Bleaching, formeriy a process occnpy- 
ittg weeks, might now be almost completed in the course 
of twenty-four hoars, so that the calicos which a Man- 
chester manufacturer dispatches to his bleacher on the 
outskirts of the town early on one day, he might receive 
on the next — they might pass through the hands of the 
manufacturer in the evening — be conveyed on the same 
night (as is by no means uncommon) along the railway 
to the docks at Liverpool, and by a rapid shipment be on 
their voyage to a distant country within little more than 
forty-eight hours ! The improvement in the process of 
bleaching affords one of the strongest examples of the 
benefits which the researches of sciendfic men are con- 
stantly showering upon the practical pursuits of mankind, 
the discovery of the properties of oxymuriatic gas, or 
chlorine, and its application in 1786 to bleaching, having 
rendered no longer necessary that long exposure to the 
air which cloths formerly required in the course of bleach- 
ing, and which made the workmen, (like the builder or 
brickmaker in these days) entirely dependent on the state 
of the weather. The operations could be carried on only 
during the summer months, so that during a third of 
the year bleaching by the old system was entirely sus- 
pended, and the capital of the manufacturers or proprietors 
of goods locked up, useless. Cotton goods, which re- 
hired from four to six applications of alkaline leys, con- 
sumed as many weeks in bleaching; while linens, which 
could not undergo the same process in less than from twelve 
to twenty applications, were scarcely brought into a 
marketable state in less than six months. 

Calico-printing, another branch, as it may be considered, 
of the cotton trade, was first introduced into this country 

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iibottt 1090, and ranks among those advantages which 
England reaped at the expense of France from the revo- 
cation of the edict of Nantes. Happily for the art. Par- 
liament early took it under its fostering care, protecting it 
in its days of weakness from the rivalry of India and 
the Eastern nations, with whose superb fabrics the English 
workman was then wholly incapable of competing. The 
era which added so much new blood to the cotton manu- 
facture of England gave birth also to a revolution in this 
branch of commerce, by the discovery of the system of 
printing by resists and discharges, as it is styled, coupled 
with the adoption, in 1785, of cylindrical printing. The 
latter was the invention of a Scotchman named Bell, and 
was first practised by the Me4ssrs. Livesey, of Preston. Mr. 
Lockett, of Manchester, father of the engraver of that 
name, now living, introduced into these districts a mode 
of transferring patterns from a small cylinder of steel to a 
copper one, thus reducing the labour and expense of en- 
graving and calico-printing to a vast extent I'he saving 
of labour in cylindrical printing is almost as great as in 
cotton-spinning, a man and a boy-assistant being now com- 
petent to as much work as would formerly have occupied 
one hundred hands. Blocks, however, are not superseded 
in the business of calico-printing, but are applied in an 
improved form, as auxiliaries, in the richer patterns. 
Surface-printing, by means of engraved wooden rollers, 
b also a modem discovery, having been invented in 1805 
by James Burton, engraver to Mr. Peel, of Church. 

The name of Peel is intimately blended with the early 
history of calico printing in this county. The grandfather 
of Sir Robert Peel lived originally at a place called Cross, 
whence he moved to Peel Fold, in Blackburn. He was 
aided and succeeded in business by his son Robert, who in 
1773 removed to Bury, pursuing business with Mr. Yates 
and Mr. Haworth. Mr. Thompson, F.R.S., of Primrose 


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Hill, near Clithero, of the house of Thompson and Chi])- 
pendall, is honorably associated with the advances which 
calico-printing has made in later years. 

Of the art of dyeing, so much as relates to its local 
history is recorded in connexion with the name of Mr. 
Thomas Henry, of whom mention is elsewhere made. 
This, and the art of bleaching, have long flourished in 
Manchester. In 1783-4, Government having signified 
its intention to impose a tax on bleached and dyed fustians, 
great consternation was excited; fifteen houses, employing 
38,000 hands in various branches of the cotton trade, 
petitioned against it; and the master dyers and bleachers 
announced that they were under the " sad necessity" of 
declining their present occupations until the next session 
of Parliament Tradesmen are not so desponding in 
these days ! 

The early series of inventions which gave energy to the 
English cotton manufacture may be said to have been 
completed about 1780. Before their introduction — namely, 
until the year 1751, — the import of raw cotton into this 
country had gone on increasing, but with a slow, heavy 
step; the supply being, in 1701, 1,9^5,868 pounds, and in 
1761, 2,976,610 pounds. In 1780, on tlie contrary, ithad 
increased to upwards of 6,700,000 pounds; in 1790, the 
import reached thirty-one millions and a half, and in 1800 
the import was fifty-six millions of pounds !* The official 
return of the export of cotton goods is equally striking : — 


1701 j^23,25S 

1780 SW.OdO 

1787t 1,101,45/ 

17»0 1 ,6G<:,:i8iJ 

1 800 5,406,501 

* In 1782 a panic was created in the town by U)e drcumstance of 7012 bags 
of cotton having been imported between the months of December and ApiiL 

t Immediately after the oyerthrow of Arkwright's patent 

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The manafactnrers of this county guarded with a natural 
jealousy those mechanical inventions the discovery of 
which had given such an impulse to their business. In 
1785, a German named Baden was tried and fined £500, 
for having visited Manchester and seduced cotton opera* 
tivesto Germany. In 1786, another person was tried at 
Lancaster and fined £200 for having had in his possession 
a quantity of machinery with a view to export it for the 
Emperor of Germany, and for having also seduced work- 
men to go abroad with it. 

The extraordinary rise in the amount of exports is 
equalled only by the change which occurred on the 
legalization of the export of twist in later years. In 
1785, Mr. Pitt estimated the population employed in the 
cotton trade at 80,000; in 1787, there was published 
a pamphlet, (not remarkable for its general accuracy, 
but which may probably be correct in the relative pro- 
portions it affixes) in which it is stated that there were 
then in Lancashire forty-one cotton factories; in Derby- 
shire, twenty-two; in Notts, seventeen: the total in 
England being one hundred and nineteen; in Scotland, 
Wales and the Isle of Man, twenty-four, giving a total of 
one hundred and forty-three. In 1790 the number was 
estimated at one hundred and fifty, shewing a further 
increase even in so short a period. Taking another term 
of ten years, the advance will appear still more rapid. 
The import of cotton wool to Liverpool, which in 1790 
amounted to about 65,000 packages, being in 1800 
92,580. In the interval of these years, however, the 
dreadful moral whirlwind which laid desolate the provinces 
of France, and threatened all the stales of Europe with 
political annihilation, had broken down our commerce 
for the time, and the import to Liverpool of cotton from 
foreign states was in 1793 only 24,971, or one-third of its 
former amount In 1810, the import to that place— which 

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has been selected as almost the sole avenue whereby 
Lancashire received the raw material and sent forth her 
manufactures, — was, despite the war, 3^0,600 packages* 
This enormous growth of a new branch of trade was des- 
tined shortly afterwards to receive an immense impetus; 
but before the Reader arrives at that period, he may 
peruse, probably with some interest, an estimate made by 
Mr. Kennedy of Manchester of the extent of the cotton 
manufacture in 1817. The calculation is as follows: — 


Raw cotton used 11 o,ooo,oeo 

Deduct estimated loss, one and a half oimce in tbe lb i o,8is,500 

Yarn produced M»687>600 


No. of banks, taking fortj to the pound 3,987,600,000 

** ** Spindles, (at two hanks per day per spindle, and 

three hundred working dajrs yearly) 6,645,833 

Persons employed. 
n u Parsons employed, allowing each to produce one 

hundred and twenty hanks daily 110,763 

Horses' power. 
" " Horses* power, taking four and a half ounces of 
coal to produce twelve hanks of No. 40s., and 
cslmlating one hundred and twenty pounds of 
coal daily, to be equal to one horse power .... 30,768 

Six years subsequently (1823) the import of cotton into 
Great Britain was 187,231,620 lbs., of which 161,993,160 
were imported into Liverpool, and may therefore safely be 
said to have been consumed in the circumjacent districts, 
of which Manchester forms the centre. 

In the early part of the year 1833, anodier estimate of 
the extent of the cotton manafacture in England was 
formed by Messrs. Greg and Co., of this town, for the 
iuformation of the Commissioners then making a tour 
through the manufacturing districts, with a view to ascer- 
tain the condition of the trade. These gentlemen stated 
that they were the owners of five mills for spinning and 
weaving in all branches; that they employed four 
hundred and fifty horse power in steam and water wheels, 
and consumed 3,586,000 of cotton yearly, or -^ per cent. 

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of the total consumptioo of Great Britain. They spun 
into cloth 3,260,000 lbs., weaving by power-loom 2,273,000 
lbs. of that quantity. With regard to four of these mills, 
they made following estimate: — 

Sank Floating Wages Pounds of Do. woven Yahie of 

CapitaL CapttaL Paid. Yam spun. Into dotb. Produce. 

4i £ £ £ £ ^ 

IStMOU 10,000 7tOOO S,600 803,000 ltf,000 

ad. Do. 96,000 18,000 6,800 877.000 86,000 

Sd. Do. S5,000 S0,000 14,000 733.000 733,000 46,000 

4ttLDo. 37,000 85,000 10,660 740,000 7^0,000 55,000 

Total . . jtfg8,000 ^0,000 i^S4,060 40S,718,OOO itf 1,473,000 ^157,000 

Taking this as their basis, Messrs. Greg calculated that in 
1832 there were employed in the cotton-spinning and 
weaving mills of Great Britain : — 

SonkcapitaL Floatingdo. Wages paid. Operatives. 

M £ £ d£ 

10,600,000 6,000,000 4,000,000 l60,000 

They concluded that there were 80,000 power-looms at 
work in Great Britain, producing on the average 30 pounds 
of cloth per loom weekly, or 124,800,000 yearly. In 1831 
there was — 


Yam exported 70,800,000 

Goods or doth ditto 76,200,000 

Home coDsomptioa. 84,500,000 

Total spun in Great Britain 831,500,000 

Clodi made as above 160,700,000 

Ditto by power-looms 184,800,000 

Leaving 85,900,000 to be mannfketared by hand- 
looms, and into stockings, tapes, laces, &c. &c. 

The import of cotton wool for home consumption in 
1820 was 152,829,633 pounds, the duty on which amounted 
to £426,957 U 3; in 1833 the import had increased to 
303,656337 pounds, but the duty having in the interval 
been reduced, its amount was only £473,011. A 
further idea may be formed of the extent of the cotton 
manufacture, from the fact that the printed cottons 
charged with duty in 1830 (the last year of the impost) 
were to the value of £ 147,650333. The cotton manu- 

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factures exported for the year ending January 6, 1834, 
were to the value of dE 13,782,376 17 6, in addition 
to cotton yarns, the export of which amounted to 
£4,704,024 9 1. For the same term, ending in January, 
1835, the declared value of cotton manufactures exported 
was de 15.306,922, and of yarn £4,704,824! The pro- 
gressive increase of exports is exhibited in the following 




Declared valae. 


Declared value. 






.. 365.492,804 





.. 303.328.431 





.. 402.517,190 





.. 414.678.498 




1831 .. 

.. 421.385.303 





,.. 461,045.503 





... 490,352.096 

1 2.451.060 




... 555.705.809 







1827.... i 


1831.... 37,164.372 

1828.... I 

16.81 2.756 

1832.... 36,450,594 

1829.... : 


1833.... 39,667.347 

1830.... 3 


1834.... 41.649,191 

The export of twist, which was legalized twenty-years 
ago, produced a wonderful change in the cotton manu- 
facture. Even yet many persons are disposed to dispute 
the policy which suggested this re?olution, (for such it may 
be styled) but without entering into so wide a question, 
when the highest authority in the country has passed its 
decree upon it, our object is merely to exibit the great 
impulse it gave to one branch of English (principally of 
Manchester) commerce. The continent had no sooner 
been thrown open in 1815 than the consumption of cotton, 
which then amounted to 99,306,343 pounds, increased in 
itco years to 124,912,968 pounds: as early as 1823 the 
import was upwards of a hundred and eighty-eight millions 
of pounds. Of the 668,000 packages of cotton imported 
into Great Britain, upwards of 578,000 went to Liverpool, 

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and were doubtless consumed in the districts of Lancashire, 
Cheshire and Derbyshire— though very mainly in this part 
of our own county. 

Connected with this miraculous growth of trade, there 
are a few circumstances so extraordinary that a slight 
reference to them cannot be without interest Prior to the 
period at which the genius of our countrymen first imparted 
life to the cotton manufacture (peculiarly so called) in 
England, our supply of the beautiful fabrics of which 
cotton is the germ was derived from the people of the East. 
To the poor native Indian it was the staff of life, and 
England was his principal market Our manufactures 
could not then rival those of the East In 1788, a meeting 
was held in Manchester, to consider the great depression of 
our cotton manufactures, arising from the "immense im- 
portation" of Indian goods; and Government was solicited 
to allow a drawback as an encouragement to the export of 
English products. At this time it was calculated Uiat the 
cotton manufacture employed 159,000 men, 90,000 women 
and 101,000 children. Shortly afterwards the cotton 
spinners of Lancashire and Scotland appointed deputies 
to hold an interview with the King's Ministers, for the 
purpose of ol)taining permission to erect themselves into a 
" Company of Traders,*' with privileges similar to those 
enjoyed by the East India Company, with whom, it seems, 
they coni$idered themselves otherwise unable to compete. 
So recently as the year 1814, when the trade to India was 
thrown open, the Benp^alese alone exported to London two 
millions worth of cottons. England now exports thither 
to the amount of eight millions ; and, of course, the 
exports hither have entirely ceased. The traffic in manu- 
factured goods, indeed, has been favorable beyond hope, 
as the subjoined figures will shew : — 

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PlftinGoods. Dyed. 



Yards. Yard*. 



1815 Exported . 

313.408 604,890 



1W9 .. 

27.008,170 IO,498.flM 



18S1 .. 



The following table of exports to all places east of the 
Cape, except China, shews more clearly the inroads made 
in the East : — 

Calicos. &c.. White or Plain. 

1814 1817 1830 1823 1826 1899 1882 

83.638 938.680 3,764,643 9.325,970 11.200,282 26.218,516 34.064.224 

Calicos, Printed, Checked. Stained or Dyed. 
597.59s 2.842,993 7.496.771 9.39I.I88 9,624,730 U.107.429 17.9»7.0e8 

Muslins. White or Plain. 

180.770 1.599.344 2.719.413 3.721,747 4.048.499 6.675.415 5,192,287 

Muslins, Printed, &c. 

7,205 5,712 12,229 40,512 125.346 108.814 884.569 

Even the Dacca muslins, which were considered to be 
unapproachable in beauty, have been superseded by Man- 
chester goods ; the shawls of Cashmere are pushed from 
the market, and employ now only about 6,000 looms 
instead of 30,000 as in bye-gone days. British manu- 
factured goods, afler defraying the original cost of the 
raw material, and other charges to which they are subjected 
— afler paying the heavy wages of the British labourer, and 
again traversing thousands of miles, — are sold in distant 
parts of India at one-sixteenth of the price charged upon 
them only a dozen years ago ; and it has been stated in the 
evidence of a highly experienced gentleman before a Com- 
mittee of Parliament, that one spinner by machinery in 
England will produce twist at one-fourth the cost to the 
Indian workman, supposifag the latter to be receiving only 
two-pence and the Englishman twenty-pence for his labour. 
If, in addition to the varied disadvantages under which the 
Indian workman, with his rude implements, labours, when 
in competition with the English produce, it be remembered 
that thirty per cent is charged in England on Indian cot* 
tons imported into this Country, and only a duty of two and 

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a half per cent, allowed to be levied on English goods im- 
ported into India, it may be believed that the complaints 
from the East are not unfounded, and that the hapless 
natives of our distant possessions are indeed ''without 
food/' The only palliative of this evil consists in the cir- 
cumstance that the Indian territory having been found 
capable of furnishing natural products, the cultivation of 
which has been comparatively neglected until of late years, 
the people may be enabled to turn to other pursuits than 
labour for which the usual market has been destroyed. 
Thus, for example, the import of cotton wool, "from all 
places East of the Cape," has increased, since 1814, from 
below three millions to nearly forty millions of pounds ; 
and an equally fruitful and increasing market for raw silk, 
coffee and sugar, may be opened and encouraged by 
judicious means. 

But to revert once more to our peculiar local commerce 
and manufactures, of the importance of which it was impos- 
sible to form a comprehensive estimate without taking into 
partial view the general trade of the country : — 

In the year 1834 the quantity of cotton retained in 
Great Britain for home consumption was 295,684,997 
pounds; in 1835 it was 330329,834 pounds, shewing an 
increase in the year of 35,144,837 pounds. In the latter 
year the export of cotton yarn amounted to 82,457,885 
pounds; in 1834 it was 76,478,468 pounds, shewing an 
increase of nearly six millions of pounds. The total 
quantity of yam spun last year in England alone was 
248,814,531 pounds; in 1834, 241,731,118 pounds, or 
nearly 7,300,000 less than in 1835. Of this quantity, it is 
calculated* that 97,822,722 pounds were exported in 
manufactured goods; 5,359,000 pounds sent to Scotland 

* 9fUi. Bom, In hU Oommerdal Glanoe, an excellent anmnl jrabUcalioa 
which oosht to be in Uie hands of every person direcUy or indirecUy iotcrettea 
in the in ogrc M o# BrittahouuMifBCtiires. 

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and Ireland ; 1 1,500,000 pounds exported in mixed articles 
or consumed in other ways, leaving for home consumption 
(and stock in hand on the Ist January, 1836,) 49,932,800 
pounds. The following table exhibits these details in a 
more exact form : — 






Cottoo I Cotton 
Yarn, i Iliread. 

78J 13,330, 
^7.358.351 1 


Printed ft' Calicos, 
Ojred. j Plain. 



VelTe- I 
teens. *QaUt 
Velvet ilnfs Ac 
Cords, &| Ribs. 

1,843.131 331,539.366 934.164,513 10.609,055 7,863,538,373,736 
1,983,736 197.199.076 3l6,66O,679,lI,544.0«4 7*304.933441.319 
1,187,601 143,573.899 l79,0S3,09.'i I3J54,S66 8,163.991 356,137 

.041,374 117.580.887 139.905.808 15,343,393 7.431,501406,435 
1.488.590 138,066.147 178,683.177 13.083,835;4,756,790 337,981 
1,074,931 159,433,5884190,863.9931 19 J05,633<4,909.930 93,857 

905.814 138.884.002' 179.966.5481 17.759,O80'5,9Oa.059 175J14 



Col ton 


hams & 

1,518.090 1,000,868 
11,683,9331 769.634 


Check- D!mi. 
ed& I ties. 








Lawns' Imita 

& I tiOD 

Lenoa. jSbawls 



17.604 78.1 
11,144 97,9741 


I Conn- 

IterpaneS' Ranker- 
Lace, &c. & chiefs, 
I Qoilts. I &c. 







79. 1 93.474 


I8/9 39.033.3101 











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The money value of the several articles specified in this 
table, Mr. Bum calculates as follows: — 

spimod) sEsi oi 

}0 ^UnOUTB IB40X 


JO ajijfi 3:;JBidAV 

•spoog a{ 
paundxa uxB.v 

o»A JO \hS]s}a 

t ta tn ta t^n w 

■>«iO«-"ao'oox- -- 

, '^ :?v a v-r -» ^ W 
( irt n ffs rt 

'aeoaeto«aB«akaakaDeaee«oe . 

t>.«o CT - 



qauj JO m^ua T 

.0"»« — — OOS— t: £ -> « O r^ .(^ X QD -^ 

m •!» 

• « 

to It} ■^ 
« ^ N 

:w ^ X 




3 5? to 

B If} r» 

O IT! r-n — ."5 — -» • % — J, X X — to iA o ^ 


"« a? 

The exports of yam last year contrast favorably with the 
reium for former years, given in a preceding page; and 
though there appears to have been a material decrease of 

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price there seems to be ooce more an amendment in that 
important particular: — 


Total Qiumtitx 



Average Price Of 


Cotton Yarn Exported. 


Yam per lb. 



1. d. 




1 10 15.10th8. 




1 10 0-l0tbi. 




1 11 9-l0ths. 


4i,l 73.099 


1 10 ll.l0ths. 




1 15.10th8. 




1 5 1.10th. 




1 4 3.4til8. 




1 3 5-l0th8. 




1 3 5.i0ths. 




1 3 3.4tht. 




1 Si 




1 4 6.10UU. 

Estimating the weekly consumption of cotton during 
1835 in England and Scotland at 17,750 bags, or 
6,165,000 lbs.; allowing 1} oz. per lb. for waste, and 
giving 8} oz, per week as the product of each spindle, 
Mr. Burn, in his "Glance," calculates that there were 
at the end of the year 1 1,152,990 spindles at work. And 
hence, he says, it would appear, from the usual mode of 
calculating the capital required for cotton-spinning — viz., 
building, power, and machinery, at 17s. 6d. per spindle, 
that in Great Britain it amounts to £9,758,864. 

In the year ending the 5th. January, 1835, there was 
an increase in the customs of about one million and a half, 
and every succeeding month indicates most clearly that 
this extraordinary national progression is not likely to 
undergo any abatement. The tables of revenue for the 
year 1835-6 shew indeed an increased activity in trade, 
particularly in the cotton manufacture, of which the 
declared value for the two last years has been — 

1836. 1830. 

Cotton MannCftctnred. ^16,303,571 4^10,394,690 

Yam 6,811,016 5,709|044 

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Id the former year the total gross receipts in the 
Customs department were £20^38,404, and in the latter 
£22,990^77. The returns of foreign trade furnish the 
following: — 



Year. Stalpe. Tonnage. 

1835 16,548 9,841,378 

1830 16,531 9,953,854 


Your. Ships. Tonna^ev 

1835 13,181 9.184,0g0 

1830 14,003 9,370,033 


Year. Ships. Tonnage. 

1835.... 199,440 9,874,715 

1836.... 191,399 10,188,916 



Year. Sh^. Tonnaire. 

1835 130,691 10,333,949 

1836.... 199,759 10,660,330 

For these distinct branches of commerce, Liverpool has 
become a principal port The following tabic, for the 
year 1835, has reference to the trade of that place, 
Lancaster and Chester: — 

1835 (Jan. 5). 

liverpool. Lancaster. Chester. 

Gross Receipts ....4^,846,306 9 H ^^46,359 10 11 4^95,003 19 8 
Re- payments for*) 

drawbacks, de- V 96,677 7 » •• 

bentores J 

Bounties 99*966 10 S 

Paymentsfbrsalaries 46.447 18 9,399 17 5 917 5 3 

Inddeots 47,541 8 7 1,389 17 7 339 3 3 

Amount remitted . . 3,699^ 1 1 43,899 18 10 94,387 11 3 

Gross Receipts .... 9,783,166 8 10 39.950 10 93,6i4 19 11 

Net do 3,540,479 14 1 35,591 6 11 99^1 1 & 

The sinews of England's strength appear at present to 
lie in her manufactures; and, unless some unforeseen 
catastrophe should overset the fair fabric of her prosperity, 
there is every reason to believe that she will yearly acquire 
strength from them. The great change recently effected 
in the trade to India and China has, beyond doubt, been 
the main stimulant to the augmentation of our exports, 
which have been the means of carrying back for the use 
of our own people a proportionably large amount of the 
luxuries of other climates. In the year 1833-4, the last 

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in which the East India Company enjoyed their ex- 
clusive advantages, the import of tea from China was 
29^92,310 lbs. ; in the subsequent year, 1834-5, the 
first of the open trade, the import was 41,041,843 lbs. ! 
In Lancashire, however, local causes have operated very 
powerfully to give an unusual, it is to be hoped not an 
unnatural or unhealthy, impulse to the cotton manufacture. 
The sudden rise of several Joint Stock Banks in Man- 
chester, the issue of their own notes, and the other 
facilities afforded by them, combined with a prosperoua 
season, have recently made money exceedingly plentiful. 
As was the case also a few years ago, the apparent facility 
with which fortunes are made in the Manchester cotton 
trade — the still growing demand for manufactures in old 
markets, and the opening of new ones, have induced the 
erection of many mills in Manchester. Last year it was 
asserted, on the authority of Dr. Kay, an Assistant Poor 
Law Commissioner, that mills would, within two years, be 
erected, which would require seven thousand horses' power 
to set them in operation. In order that the reader may be 
enabled to form some idea of this enormous addition to 
existing manufactures, it may be stated that, presuming 
one half of this power to be employed in producing yam,* 
there would be an addition to ihe present consumption of 
raw cotton of about 2800 bags, weighing about 500 lbs. 
each, per week, or about 15 per cent increase on the 
present sales. In preparing this cotton and spinning it 
into yarn, 19,600 hands would be required ; and, presuming 
the other moiety of the 7000 horses* power to be employed 
in aflerwards weaving the yarn into cloth, there would be 
needed for this process 26,250 weavers, making a total 
addition to the hands employed in the cotton trade, of 
45,850 persons, besides mechanics, warehousemen, clerks^ 
&c. &c. For the 3aK)0 horses' power supposed to be 

* No. 40*sma7 be taken as a general arera^ for the quanta of the yam spun. 

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employed in spinning^, there will be required 2,800,000 
spindles, which alone will be worth about half a million 
of money. Of the 19,600 persons working this horse- 
power, probably 8,400 will be occupied in the preparatory 
processes, and will earn, on the average, 10s. per week : of 
the remaining 11,200 engaged in the spinning, about one- 
fourth will be men earning from 30s. to 40s. a week ; the 
other three-fourths, children, receiving from four to nine 
shillings. The 26,250 supposed to be employed in 
weaving will earn, probably, on an average, not less than 
10s. a week. Extraordinary and improbable as the extent 
of this increase may appear, there is reason to believe that 
the estimate is by no means exaggerated. It is stated on 
good authority, that in Bolton alone one foundry has 
orders, to be executed within this year, for a thousand 
horse-power of steam-engines ; and with equal authenticity 
it is asserted, that in the district of Ashton-under-Lyne 
the increase in factories will cause a demand for at least 
7000 new hands. Nor is the calculated increase in the 
consumption of cotton so unprecedented as at first it may 
appear. Last year the weekly consumption was 17,750 
bags, whilst in 1812 it was only about 12,000: in one year, 
namely in 1834-5, the weekly consumption has increased 
366 bags, or about 19,000 bags in the year. Cotton^ 
indeed, is become an article of universal use, and new 
fabrics, in which it forms the sole, or a main ingredient,^ 
are daily brought into the market 

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Whilst the commerce of Lancashire is thus the means 
to this county of taking a lead in diffusing comforts over 
the world, it may safely be asserted that the trade is one 
which has for its basis the excellent principle of making 
its influence most beneficially felt at home. It has often 
indeed been asserted, and ignorant men have taken up the 
cry without consideration, that the cotton manufacture 
flourishes at the expense of the health, the comforts, and 
the bodily sinews of the people; and in the exuberance of 
their indignation, some philanthropists have placed the 
Lancashire (and especially the Manchester) manufacture 
lower in the scale of humanity than the Egyptian task- 
masters, who would compel the people to make bricks 
without straw. Fortunately the Government of the 
Country was carried away in 1833 by this outcry, and 
compelled to nominate a body of travelling Commissioners, 
whose appointed task it was to visit the district and to 
inspect Uie establishments thus maligned, for the purpose 
of ascertaining the condition, mental, moral and physical,, 
of the operative cotton manufacturers. The result of their 
enquiry,* which had reference to the abridgment of the 
hours of infant labour, was such as to satisfy all reasonable 
men that the aspersions thrown upon the British manufac- 
turer were grossly ill-founded; the fact proving to be, that 
though of itself the confinement in a cotton factory may not 
always be (as in certain cases it is) conducive to health, the 

« The Ccmunlnioiien mafte tfaTM reports, wtaldi have been abty a^ 
rednced to a imaa ooinpM* hy a roanberof the Mancheiter Statistical Societf^ 

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iajary so sustained woald^ in the conrse of even a long 
life, be almost imperceptible, were it not that the private 
habits of the operative (in small part, possibly, induced by 
the nature of his employment) are frequently gross, 
generally improvident, and always prejudicial to health. 

Evidence without end might be adduced from the 
immense folios published by the Factory Conmiissioners, 
in 1833-4, to shew that the alleged cruelty to younger 
hands in mills — the imputed immorality to which the un- 
restrained association of large bodies of men, women and 
children gives rise — the fearful inroads upon health — the 
frequent lacerations of limb, and deprivation of life, occa- 
sioned by machinery, — are highly exaggerated, not to say 
pure fabricadons. Thus, for example, as to the second of 
these charges, a girl selected by the Commissioners for 
examination, who followed her weekly, labour in a factory, 
and on the Sunday taught at a school, being asked whether 
she thought the boys and girls brought up in mills were 
" more immoral than those in the other various conditions 
of life,'' replied that she thought them ^much about 
the same;" whilst other witnesses expressed decidedly 
their opinion to the same effect One operative stated 
that tlie morality in cotton mills was equally as 
good ''as elsewhere, so far as he was acquainted with 
society;" adding, (and the remark should be noted by 
those who decry large towns, and extol the simplicity 
of rural life) that in country places the females have not 
that regard to decency in their conversation which females 
have in Manchester and in other towns, ''which he supposes, 
must be owing to their being better educated in towns than 
in the country." The state of morality in Lancashire 
generally may be tested in other ways. It appears that 
in the year 1830 the number of illegitimate children bom 
in this county was 2830, or in the proportion of one 
in thirteen to other births — a very small ratio if 

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the density and variety of our population be taken into 
account In Herefordshire and Salop, purely agricultural 
counties, the proportion is the same — one in thirteen. 
The evidence of Oswald Milne, Esq., Clerk to the 
Magistrates, given before the Factory Comnussioners, is 
important Being asked, "Are factory children often 
brought before the Magistrates?" — he replied, "Not more 
so than from other trades, and the greatest part of them 
that are brought up have been driven to the commission 
of crime from the neglect of their own parents." Of their 
character generally, he gives it as his opinion that " they 
are by no means worse than the rest of the labouring 
population." This evidence is corroborated by the tes- 
timony of several clergymen and other experienced 
individuals. The total number of witnesses on this 
branch of the inquiry was fifty-three; forty-seven of whom 
agreed that factory operatives were not more immoral 
than others, whilst six were of a different opinion. 
Again, the alleged cruelty to children, if it exist, reflects 
no' discredit upon the owners or principal directors of fac- 
tories, since the majority of children in mills are the 
servants of the adult operatives — piecing, as it is called, 
for them; so that should any undue severity be exercised, 
they have not only a ready appeal to the law, which in these 
districts is always open to their complaint?, but they may 
claim also the protection of their superiors in the mill, or 
in the last resort they have their natural guardian — the 
parent Unfortunately, however, it too frequently happens 
that this protector fails them; and it is not a little singular 
that the fact has been more painfully illustrated since the 
passing of that factory act, which was framed to shield 
the juvenile operative from oppression, than it had been 
before. In Manchester very many families depend solely 
for subsistence on the labour of their young members, the 
parents being base enough to pass their days in idleness or 

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debauchery, whilst their offspring toil to support them. 
A very few months ago some striking examples occurred 
in one of the Petty Session Courts of the length to which 
▼illainy can be carried to support this system. Some mill- 
owners being charged under the factory act with overwork- 
ing children not eighteen years of age, the Superintendant 
who laid the informations brought forward a number of 
diildren whose ages varied from ten to fifteen years, and 
who had been certified as of that age, but who within a 
few months, or even weeks, after the ages of their offspring 
had been set down at 12, 13 or 14, as the case might be, 
brought certificates declaring them to be ^' above eighteen.*' 
These children had been working more than twelve hours, 
(the legal period) but so unwilling were the parents to 
have the fact detected and punished, that they had drilled 
the children into a resolution not to take an oath, and it 
was with extreme difiUculty they were induced to give their 
evidence. This, no doubt, may in some cases result from 
fear of the employer, but such tricks are more probably 
devised by idle parents, anxious to extract from their 
children the utmost possible amount of profitable toil. 
The alleged injury to health accruing from factory labour 
is equally fabulous* the fact being proved to be that, apart 
from immorality and drunkenness— the vices of all large 
cities, mercantile or otherwise, — the rate of mortality is 
very considerably smaller in manufacturing than in agri- 
cultural districts. Dr. Hawkins prepared for the Commis^ 
sioners three tables of health, from the first of which it 
appeared that one-fifth, and from the second one-twelfth, of 
the factory children were unhealthy, whilst the result of 
the third (an inquiry into the health of several mills) 
appears to be that one-eighth of the male and one-tenth of 
the female operatives had bad health, and that the largest 
factories are the most comfortable and salubrious. The 
Doctor examined the attenders at several Sunday Schools, 
but could not perceive "the smallest difference" between 

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the children employed in factories and those otherwise 
occupied. Mr. Cowell adopted the novel test of measuring 
upwards of a thousand children under eighteen years of 
age, and he arrived at the following minute result : — 

Inches. Indies. 

BoyBin(iut)oriesme«rarad.. 55.S8 I Girls In Ftetories 54.9S1 

BoTsnoCinfikctories ^.. 65.50 j Oiris not in fiMlories. 54.970 

Difference in favour of boys not employed in factories, 
tVv P^ts of an inch, and of giHs, -jii^ parts. The 
children were weighed also ; the factory boys were found 
to be 3.51bs. and the girls 0.3lbs. lighter than the other 
classes. The Commissioners consider this result to be 
naturally attributable to the fact that their employment 
^requires no muscular exertion whatever; consequently 
many of the muscles are never fully developed, and the 
additional weight which their development would give to 
the body is lost" Of forty-three operatives examined, 
nine state that their employment fatigues the children 
much, whilst thirty-four are of a different opinion. As to 
the adults, one witness produced a return from a Bolton 
Sick Club, containing five hundred and sixty -three 
members, of whom one-half were factory operatives, and 
yet little more than one-fourth of the cases of sickness 
and only one-fiflh of the deaths were from that class. 
Another witness. Dr. Mitchell, prepared tables exhibiting 
the amount of sickness yearly among various classes of 
persons, viz.: — 

Dsjrs Sldmces. 

In the Stailbrdsbire Potteries, to the ace of 6l yews.. 9 . 3 per man. 

InSilk Mills 7.« 

InWooUendo 7.08 

InFl&x do 5.9 

In Cotton Mills in Glasgow .. 5.6 

Bast India Company's Serrants 5.4 

Labourers in Chatham Dock Yard 5.98 

In Lancashire Cotton Mills* 5.S5 

Ditto do. do. under 16 years of ace..... 8.14 

* ETidenee was given by three surgeons at Bolton and a physician at Staley 
Bridge, to the effect that the high temperature of mills is not iAjurioos, if there 
be proper YWifflafion ; Uiat scroftda is not frequent; that asthma and bronchitis 
are generated in the card-rooms; that pnlmonary complaints are of most fr«- 
qnent oc cur re n ce among fturtory operatlyes) bnt that they are not more liable 
to siclmcw thao ont-door labourers. 

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The same gentleman prepared the following more minute 
tables: — 



ouoMaax^ S&SS3K&8SS 


'Mo9n[0 % ^ ? S 

'■^ ^ « M* OD 

•MRiwan : ? § 5 

s s is; s Si ., 

s S S ^ IS s 

^ii l|-J-Mil*iOX«U.§ 5 § 5 ? 5 •? ^ 

fc 2 ? 3 8 8 

5 2 3^ 

I if 

« rf •! 

s a s 

s s 

s s 






s e s o 

2 *covio«aBOk«2ei2«2 



R32SJ 3 3 

M e t>. 

^ 1& 

8 «; s a 3 






8S = SSSSS&S^ 

b *aLimi«*>uri 

9 S 9 S S S 2 ^ S ^ S 

In an excellent work on " the origin and progress of the 
malignant cholera in Manchester/' the late Dr. Gaulter 

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adduces some Valuable eTidence — the more important 
because it is impartial upon this question : " It may be 
thought visionary, perhaps, (says he) but I am disposed 
to ascribe a large share of the exemption from cholera, 
iirhich the working classes of this town enjoyed during 
the epidemic, (an exemption which has been happily 
extended to the manufacturing districts generally) to 
the cotton factories in which they work. It was impos- 
sible, at least in this town, not to be struck with the fact, 
that of the whole number of the Manchester cases very few 
indeed were employed in factories at all, and that of these 
a pretty large proportion were at the time of their seizure 
out of work or detained at home from some accidental 
cause. Out of the two hundred tabular cases only twenty- 
three worked in factories; and of these, twelve were out of 
work or accidentally remaining at home. The answers 
that I have received from my medical friends at Wannng- 
toD, Stockport, Oldham, Bolton, and Hinds, to inquiries 
directed to ascertain this point, are uniformly of the same 
tenor — namely, that the factory people in actual employ- 
ment have scarcely ever suffered. Of Stockport, for 
example, Mr. Flint says 'It was observable during the 
prevalence of the pestilence here that the working inmates 
of our mills enjoyed a remarkable immunity from attack, 
an immunity which denotes the general comfort and clean- 
liness of these establishments. The patients, chiefly 
females, were nearly all employed about private dwellings.' 
Of the fiAeen hundred and twenty work-people in the 
larg'est cotton establishment in Manchester (that of Messrs. 
Birley and Kirk) only four were attacked. Not a single 
person was attacked in the cotton-mill at Hinds, though 
the disease raged in the hamlet In some places the 
singularity of their escape struck the work-people them- 
selves. Mr. Glazebrook writes to me £rom Warrington 
that ' persons employed in the cotton trade at home, viz.. 

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reelers, &c. itufiered, but we had few, if any cases, from 
the cotton mills. ' 1 have been thinking master/ said an 
intelligent spinner to Mr. Son den, (one of the proprietors 
of a mill situated on the eastern bank of the Mersey)-- 
* that the cholera is occasioned by insects so small that we 
cannot see them, and that they cannot live in factories on 
account of the heat and quantity of oil used; and I was 
talking about it last night with some friends of mine, all 
of whom agreed with me.' 'It may be so,' replied Mr. 
SSowden, — 'you are all safe at work; tell the rest so.' The 
man did as he was directed, and the consequence was that 
the work-people dispatched their meals as quickly as 
possible, in order to get back into the mill. Not one 
suffered, though the situation of the mill is close to the 
river.' I need not say that the spinner's theory is not 
cited here for the purpose of adopting it, but only with 
the view of shewing the impression which the fact of 
exemption had made upon the minds of the people them- 
selves. There is of coarse a difference in the mills, and 
the remark I am about to make applies with most pro^ 
priety to the larger and more modern, but the cause of 
that exemption is in all probability to be found in the 
vast superiority of the factories over their own wretched 
dwelling-houses, in the comparative spaciousness,^ light, 
airiness, uniformity of temperature, and ventilation of the 
rooms, and in the distance at which the work-people, 
especially those employed in the upper rooms, are placed, 
during the day, from the sources of malaria, which infect 
the confined courts and the narrow streets, without naming 
the crowded and 6lthy beds in which they pass their nights. 
Whoever should dispute the great extent of this difference 
of comfort and wholesomeness between the days and nights 

« Tn the mffl of Messrs. Birler and Kirfc, for etucdx person in the spinners* 
room there are Oiirtx-two square yards, aod fourteen for eadi person in the 
carding room. 

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of the cotton-factory popalatioo, will soon resolve hi$ 
doubts by following the work-people of MeaBre* Birley «Bd 
Kirk, from their large and commodious apartments in the 
Chorlton mills, to the low, dark, close and squalid cottages 
of Little Ireland, where so many of them are huddled 
together at night These indeed are lazar-houses, while 
in comparison (I speak of course without reference either 
to the hours of labour or the age of the labourers) it would 
be scarcely extravagant to represent the mills as asylums 
of health." 

But there are causes tending to the injury of health and 
the deprivation of life in this and other manufacturing 
towns which cannot be fairly charged as the effect of " the 
factory system." One of the most potent is the utter 
absence of domestic decency — the total ignorance of social 
comfort and economy which mark the operative class of 
Manchester, and the general existence of which cannot be 
better exhibited than from the same volume of evidence 
whence quotations have already been made. The following 
extract is remarkable in various ways : it exhibits the means 
of comfort (almost in profusion) without any of its appli- 
ances; and referring as it does to the family, not of a 
factory operative — though it equally pictures the condition 
of his health,— but of the hand-loom weaver, it shews that 
the evils of which so much is heard are not germinated in 
factories, but are common to all classes of manufacturing 
labourers; and that the remedy consists either in the ex- 
tinction of the system, or (and surely this b more feasible) 
in the adoption of efficient means for an improvement of the 
moral and social habits of the poor. The sketch is from the 
pen of Mr. Cowell, one of the Factory Commissioners who 
paid a visit to the house of a hand-loom weaver in this town, 
accompanied by an Overseer: — " We came suddenly into 
the house, where all the family but one was sitting round 
the table ; the father was reading in the British Biography, 

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the life of Bishop Bonner; two of the others were reading 
small books, which had been given for good conduct at 
BennetHitreet School ; a third child was netting a cap so 
assiduously, that she hardly looked up to answer my ques- 
tions. She said that she had been at factory work all day 
as a piecer, and was not tired. The father Y — took us up 
into his garret, where there were three silk looms, all be- 
longing to himself. At one he earned, he said, 12s. a-week, 
at another one of ' his wenches,' he said, earned him 8s. 
a-week, and the third he rented to a stranger, at 2s. 6d. 
a-week, who came and did his own work in it. The regular 
daily hours of work at those looms were sixteen out of the 
twenty-four. The income of this man's family amounted 
to 48s. 6d. a-week ; but as hand-loom weavers are some- 
times out of work, his annual receipts, at the lowest, 
will be £100. He paid 3s. 6d. a-week for his house, and 
complained of the deamessof it; all the family slept in 
one room, the measurement of which I could not take but 
by the eye ; I should say it was about twelve feet square, 
at the most There were three beds in it ; in one of which 
he and his wife slept; in another, five children; and in 
the third, which was on the floors three. It is to be re- 
m^mlbered that the larger part of the findly was adult. 
The room was extremely close, and both Dr. Hawkins and 
myself were satisfied that the temperature and exhalations 
an it during the hours which the ten persons had passed in 
it every night must be more detrimental to health than the 
temperature, &c., of a factory. In leaving the house, the 
wife asked Mr. Redman, who b overseer, to give her another 
bed. I asked Y — about the health of his whole family ; 
he said they were all in equal good health, all equally." 

With sudi means of comfort, how different would be the 
habitation of the agricultural labourer! 

Another stigma cast upon the factory system is, that it 
b the parent of ignorance. Here again, howevePj^ fancy 
has outrun fact Of three persons connected with Sunday 

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Schools whom the Factory Commissioners examined, one 
stated that, of one thousand children, seven-tenths were 
factory operatives; another, that of a similar number nine- 
teoths were of the same class; and a third, that of four 
thousand children seven-tenths worked in factories. The 
state of education among the operatives is further exhibited 
in the following table, the result of an examination of 
fifty thousand workmen, which was made by the Com- 
missioners : — 

pEOPomnoN in niB huitdebb. 

Wxita. GumatWMH. 
88 01 

83 17 

Cbediire. 90 10 

YorkBhire 86 15 

DefbyBhln 88 is 

StBflbrdahlre 88 17 

Leicestershire 80 90 

Notts 88 IS 

Norfolk, SoflbDc, Sssez. . 61 19 

WtttBhlre 85 15 

SomerBetshlre 89 11 

DevatL 90 4 

Okraoestershlre 9s 8 

Worcestershire 100 — 

WtfwickBbire 88 IS 

Avenge 85 u 

InSooOand. do. 90 4 

Ireland do. 90 10 

47 58 

48 59 

48 57 

61 39 





43 57 

53 47 

44 50 

This table does not place the county of Lancaster in an 
unfavorable light, if it be remembered how varied is its 
population. In Manchester alone the number of Irish 
has been estimated at 50,000, and among them a high 
degree of mental cultivation is not even expected: the 
town has also a vast annual accession of strangers 
from the agricultural districts, where, judging from the 
foregoing table, education is less widely difiused than 
among ourselves. For the ignorance of these people, 
therefore, the factory system is not responsible, nor, with 
the means of acquiring knowledge which the operative 
poisesses, has he any but himself to blame should he be 
(bund less enlightened than he ought* It must not be 

* Lord Broogbam hfansdf, when he Tiaited Manchester In the coarse of last 
year, took occasion to remark upon the extraordinary indiflbrence manifeated 

ky tte woiklng*plaiaes to the advantagea held out to them, at an imperceptibly 
•heap rata, by their own Mechanica* Institute, lliere were two of these 

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alleged that the toil of the day incapacitates the operative 
Sot mental pursuits in the evening; it is a flimsy pretence, 
and is rebutted by the fact that mechanics whose labour is 
more arduous than that of the factory, and of equal 
duration, do attend (though not in great numbers) the 
Mechanics' Institute. Again, it would be idle to assert 
that the operative wants the pecuniary means of acquiring 
the advantages of so much education as befits his station; 
Numerous are the families in which the accumulated 
weekly earnings amount to £3, £4, or £5, and surely 
from such a fund three or four shillings in the week might 
well be spared for the acquisition of equivalent mental 

To complete the foregoing sketch of the chief staple of 
Manchester manufacture, it is required only to exhibit, from 
authentic sources, the rate of remuneration to operatives. 
The wages of cotton-spinning and its dependent branches 

Inititations in Mancheftor, bat one at Uiem is defunct— another proof of the 
BstiessnesB of the lower class.— The state of education generaUj in Man- 
diester is mo^p exactly fiMMtH in a fbtare chapter of this work, deroted to 

I The fhct, however, seems to be that the working man rates these tUnga 
less hifhlT than bad been supposed, for the Commissioners in their Report 
inaortme following statement from a working man:—" He felt regret at not 
being able to state a s tro ng er opinion in favour of Sunday Schools, bat that, 
■pmlrinr from the extent of his own observation, he could notsaj that Snndaj 
Schools had produced aU the good that might have been hoped; that they had 
♦irtWMW the knowledge of reading and writing, but tliat, when people pos- 
sessing those acquirements do not turn them to good purposes, Uie acquisttion 
Itseif might be considered ii^urious. That as to women, it might have made 
them more agreeable in conversation, but that women in his own dass, who 
woald brew and coolc, and mend dc^hes, and do household work, were far 
more req>ectable and useful members of sodcty than those who merely read— 
tatUsopndon, atanynte. That he was very well aware that this opinion can 
now be of no service, as nothing can now stop the progress of education; and 
that aU that can be done is to give it a better direction. For my own part, said 
he, Ipcrceived very early that labour was not a thing to be liked forilsown sake^ 
bat merdyfbr the rewards or comforts that it brings; and if there should come 
a tima iroea tliis labour becomes expensive, and these comforts materially 
lessened, then men become discontented ; aud I mean to say, that education 
havtag in a greater or lesser degree sharpened and increased the inteUectnal 
power, I consider that it wQl make them much more willing, as well as more 
able, to enter into an investigation of the causes of these discomforts, and enable 
Uwm to *vM«m tt«i««»fr<» thdr opinions with much more rapidity through society 
than if they had not been educated. In this way a great mass of discontent ia 
geoented, and it becomes every one*s doty to see reasonable complaints 
attended to in ttane, and among these reasonable compfadnts, I consider, are the 
knc hoars of work. I vrish to say that I am no politician. I never attended a 
poBttcal meeting in my life, or belonged to any potttioal dub or ankm; and 
though I have signed a petitian or two about reform, yet they came to the 
factory wfaera I worked, and I did not go to seek for theoL*' ^ 

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are not subject to frequent Tariation: a few employers* 
scattered over the country, and located in remote districts, 
may make their own caprice or their grasping cupidity 
the measure of the remuneration meted to their workpeople ; 
but the trade of each town is generally carried on according 
to filled scales of prices, from which there is no great 
deviation, except by common consent The evidence, 
therefore, which was furnished to the Factory Commis- 
sioners in 1833, is applicable to the existing state of things, 
and is worthy of the best reliance, because it bears an 
official sanction : — 


Denomination of 
process In wliicii 

Qtm at Op mtS i t m . 

aasriflcatfon as rei 
pects age and sex. 


spreading cot- 





Osrders or Overlookers. 
Jack.frameTenten. . . . 

Bobbin-frame Tenters., 

Drawing Tenters. 


adults, and some 
non-adntts ...... J 

Frinc^Ndly fBwialei 



Scayengers . 



OveiSookerB . 

... .{ 


Do. do ..., 
Do. do 

Male adults 

Bfale and female 
adolts, bntpiincl- 
paUj the former.. , 

Male and female' 
adaMs and non- 
pallf the latter.... 

Male and fieniale 

Female adnlta andi 



Atbmdi ng the 

steam- engine 

and makf 


ng the*) 
.engine I 
nes.... j \ 

ReelcKs | 

Roller OoTeien 

Engineers. Flrenien« I 
merhanirs, te.... f 

Bfale adolts , 

Male and ftaiakr| 
adolti, male and I 
female non-adoRs, f 

BfaleadoltB .. 

Female adolts and*! 

non-adotta / 


■. d. 

9 8 



I » 

99 S 

SS 8 

» lOf 

9S 4 

7 9 

90 H 

It 8 

18 10 

V Of 

7 lU 

Sopplementarr Report d the Factory Onimniwinniifi, ptit U FP* IM-^ 
s«ppleinents B. and B. 

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Thus it appears that the lowest average of remuneration 
is that given to the '^piecers'' and '^ scavengers," of whom 
the majority are very young children. Of these Mr. 
Rickards has stated in a recent report:^^If there are any 
duldren now in cotton mills receiving less than 38. per 
week, they must be the youngest scavengers, and few in 
number; 3s. 8d. to 4s. 2d. being commonly paid to 
scavengers since the passing of the present Act, whilst the 
younger piecers are sometimes paid extra to do scavengers' 
work.** He adds:—*' It may be stated of operative families, 
that a husband gets 26s. to 30s. per week; the wife, if 
wmiung in a mill, 12s. to 14s. per week; with perhaps three 
children as piecers at 10s., 7s. 6d. and 5s. 6d. per week. 
These are common rates of earnings by mill-operatives." 

There can be little doubt that if employment be not 
found in cotton factories for the immense juvenile popu- 
lation of this district, they will become mere idlers and 
ramblers about the streets. Of such an opinion there is 
abundant confirmation in the following Parliamentary 

Bttani to an AddnM d the HonUe. the House ot Oommom, dated Sept 7* 
18SS, far a return d the nomber of chUdren taken np in the ■treets d Man- 
dierter, and the districts a4)aoent (distinfnlsbinff the districts), and deposited 
tai the FoUce-oAoes to be owned, to the year between Aorost, 183S, and 
Aofost, 18S3: the same for the correaponding years between igsa and 1894, 
and 1884 and 18M. 

FtomAnfost 1, 1881, to July 81, 1888 I,gft4 

1888, 1888 8,140 

1888, 1884 8,117 

1884, 1885 8,489 


^^^ ^ J. 8. THOMAS, Deputy constable. 

Ttnoe-ottee, Manrhsater, Sept 18. 

An Aeooodt of Children Lost, broocht to this Oflloa, from May, 1888, to Sept 

14, 1884| al«> Children foond. 

LOST. Fovin>. 

May 81 l888^May i.. 85 

J«UM 188 June 80 

Jnir no Jaly 3i 

Aornst 188 Aoffiist 38 

September, qp to the 14th. 85 September, up to the 1 4th. ii 

Total. "471 TotaL "188 

Pr>Hca.c « c e, Sept 15, 1885. 

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Employment for females is also abundant and productive 
of reasonable profit, as the annexed short comparative 
table will shew: — 


1M3 1806 1813 1818 1888 18S8 18SS 
■.d. t.d. a. d. t.d. 8.d. u, d» 9, d. 

•1 8 44 

perweekofTf > 9 1 MlT«noed 9 10 9 1 9 1 8 10 

honn J 9 8 

HonzB worked .. 79 00 75 77 74 78 09 

^^..T^. }*• '* ^ »*«»Tw»oediO 6 9 94 9 1 e «* 

Wages in cotton factories are not precisely of the same 
amount in the whole country, but are increased or lowered 
according to various local circumstances, such as the 
supply of hands or of water, the rental and local taxes, 
the facilities of communication by land and water, or the 
abundance of coal. These considerations have had the 
effect in recent years, combined with the pernicious 
working of "Trades' Unions/* to scatter the cotton trade 
over the surface of this county, of Cheshire and Derbyshire, 
occasioning frequently the location of mills in spots the 
most remote. Thus for example, Preston, " proud'* Preston, 
is becoming a large depot of the cotton manufacture, the 
price of labour and other considerations uniting in its 
favor; another ancient borough, Lancaster, is rising into 
manufacturing importance, labour being thero 25 or 30 
per cent cheaper than in Manchester. Coming much 
nearer home, at Wilmslow, (twelve miles hence) where 
labour is plentiful, a spinner will only earn 6s. 6d. weekly. 
Still nearer home, in towns whose natural advantages have 
tended to foster the trade, but in which there is no 
redundant supply of labour, it appears from the following 
tables that wages are higher. *' I cannot avoid concluding, 
(says the Factory Commissioners' First Report) that tlie 
rate of wages is higher out of Manchester than it is in it 
The earnings of a fine spinner are nearly fitly per cent 
higher than those of a coarse spinner, and fine spinning is 

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almost entirely confined to Manchester ; consequently, the 
average earnings of a Manchester spinner should be con- 
siderably above those of a spinner of the surrounding 
district But if the earnings of coarse spinners in Man- 
chester are compared with those of coarse spinners in the 
country, no such superiority appears to exist '** — 


18S8: wrra the aggreoaie amount of their wages for 



Children noder 



for the' 
month end- 
ing 4th. Ma7, 



Stnylef Bridge) 
i7de.Brinning ^ 
too, Dlilef , &c. / 














£ t. d 

40,838 t 4 

18,405 5 9k 

19.409 7 H 1S0*8S 


80,587 14 11 



49.55a|lO4,085 10 5Ml9gJ5 

And 990 whose age and eex are not given in the retome.— Factory Oommif- 
■iooers' Report, D. 1, page 125. 

By total namber Is meant the total nomber of which the Commiwrfon at 
Mancheeter obtained retoma, and not the total nomber of ootton-workert at 
the places indicated. 


Name of 



Aggrecate weekly 
net earnings. 



I. K. 




48r s. d. 

818 8 9 
384 14 8| 
50 11 
18 13 7 
280 19 11 
158 19 04 

iff 8. d. 

10 3 73«100ths. 

1 13 1 I6.l00ths. 
1 8 6 05.1OOttlS. 
18 lO3O.100U>t. 

18 816.100ths. 

1 8 119-100018. 
1 9 5 91-lOOtbs. 

Stockport ... 


N. B.— The above are all spinners of the same quality of yam, and conse- 
qoentiy there can be no olOeetion to the return on the score that the work is 
dilferent. The first two manufacturers are both in Manchester, within a few 
yards of each other, and one master pays double the rate of wages that the 

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The wages paid in this county, thougfi Varying ocoit- 
•ionally in favor of this or that locality, hear a higher 
general average than those ohtainahle in the city which is 
the chief rival of Manchester in the cotton trade. The 
difference is in part attributable to the greater employment 
of females in Glasgow, but probably more to the cheaper 
rate of living among the Scotch. For the purpose of easy 
comparison, two tables, publi^ed by the Factory Ck>ni- 
missioners in their Supplementary Report, have been 
thrown into one: — 








Number lAyenge Wed4f 
Employed. waces. 

Fkom 11 to 

.. 10 to SI 

.. SI to 

.. S0to8l 

.. sitoSfl 

.. 96to4l 

.. 4lto46 

.. 40to5l 

.. 0lto5C 

.. Mto6l 

.. 0lto(M 

.. 06to7i 

.. 7ito7fl 

.. TOtoftl 

















8. d. 
1 111 
4 7 

S70 tl 

117 10 

' 10 




10 10 

8 a 




10 U 
17 7 
16 04 
10 11 















18| 8 44 




8. d. 

3 H 


7 H 
7 1 




6 » 


These figures afford sufficient evidence that the factory 
operative, if moderately prudent, possesses abundant rneasa 
of living in present comfort, with the added satiafaeticm 
that hereafter he may have in store that which will meet 
the exigencies of old age or premature decline. It would 
be vain to deny that, in return for these means of subsis* 
tence, he has toil to undergo^ the toil, namely, of 
persevering bodily activity (without great eiLertion*) con^ 

* Mr. Fldden, M.P. for Oldham, has aaaeited, howerer, tliata girl, attwidlm 
A wheel, traTeraes groand eqoal to a distanoe of twenty rnOea per day^ 

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tinned for a series of hours, under the pressure of an 
atmosphere which in its worst state does not exceed 80^ 
Fahrenheit The extent of injury inflicted upon the health 
of operatives who are subject to this temperature may 
be judged from the fact (stated to the Factory Com- 
mismoners) that the deaths in a well-regulated factory are 
as one in fifty. 

Surely, then, a trade which gives subsistence to a million 
and a half of persons — which is daily extending, and 
promises an unlimited expansion — a trade, too, in the 
success of which the prosperity of this nation may now be 
said to be irremediably bound up — demands to be care- 
fully and considerately protected, rather than that its 
ibllowers should be made the butts of unmerited obloquy 
and senseless contempt We are all apt to sail heedlessly 
and insolently in the sunshine, despising the staff on which 
we rest* and spurning the ladder whereby we have mounted 
to comfort and independence — and so, perhaps, it is with 
the working man, who has not perception of the unfathom- 
able depth of privation into which he will fall should 
adversity overtake the manufacture be is engaged in. 
Though not a popular, it may nevertheless be a sound 
doctrine, that the vices of the poor laboring man are 
the principal source of his alleged sufferings; — such, at 
least, is the opinion of those to whom the operatives of 
these districts are best and most intimately known. A 
manufacturer, before the Committee on "Manufactures, 
Commerce and Shipping,** in 1835, was subjected to the 
firflowing examination : — Q. " Do you think that the habits 
of the working classes are as prudent as they were in 1814 
or 1815P — A. The further we go back the more simple and 
mde were the manners of the people, more vulgar and illi- 
terate Qpon the whole. At the present time there is a more 
marked distinction betw^n the working classes than there 


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used to be. There are now a portion of them who devote 
a great deal of attention to reading and schools, and who 
are economical in their habits, and do well; there are 
others that have little or no economy in the management 
of their money, who spend much of their money and time 
in a public-house, and they always keep themselves very 
poor by a system of credit and pawnbroking. — Q. Do you 
think Uiere is a larger proportion of those who are prudent 
in their habits and given to reading at present than there 
was many years ago? — ^A. I have doubts whether that is the 
case or not — Q. Do you think in that part which is not 
prudent that their imprudence is greater than it used to 
beP — ^A. I think it is. I think that must by indicated by the 
number of public-houses there are in the town, and the 
number of pawnbrokers. About twenty-five years ago 
there were but four pawnbrokers in Stockport, at present 
there are sixteen; not only have they increased fourfold 
in number, but I should think that every one upon the 
average has increased threefold in magnitude. There used 
to be only four doing a little business, now many of them 
are upon a large scale, and the capital invested in them is 
thousands of pounds. There are, I think, not less than 
one-fourth of the population of Stockport who make a 
practice of going to Uie pawnbroker's weekly, and taking 
almost all the clothing they have upon the Monday 
morning, and fetching it away upon the Saturday night. 
The way in which I estimate is by the number of pawn- 
brokers, and their crowded state on a Saturday night 
* * * Q. Are they [who go to pawnbrokers] generally people 
who receive low wages or high wages ? — A. In general they 
are not the poorest; those that are tlie poorest are obliged 
to make the little they have go the greatest way, and they 
have not much to take to pawnbrokers' shops ; it is generally 
those who earn good wages) but are improvident. The 
pawnbrokers charge 4d. for a month's interest, and they 

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charge a month^s interest for a week, and they charge 2d. 
for a ticket for a pound. Id. for lOs., and a halfpenny (6t 
5s. Many persons take a great number of things together, 
and they will go betimes to get a quantity out, and then 
the pawnbroker will charge something for opening the 
bundle. I know a family, there may be more, I know a 
pawnbroker, there may be more, that do business on a 
Sunday morning, or at least they did so a month or two 
ago. I will not say that that is a general practice, but I 
know it has been done." 

There is a peculiar tendency in all large masses of 
people to submit themselves to the guidance of venal 
demagogues, who drive them to and fro with the breath of 
their own passions, to the injury of their interests, and the 
oltimate destruction of trade. Herein, if anywhere, will 
be found the canker which may at a future (though it is 
to be hoped a distant) day reduc^ us to a level with — and 
thence inevitably to an inferiority to — those foreign states, 
the rulers of which look with an envious eye upon the 
unexampled exaltation of England. It is too much the 
habit of the people of this Country, unused to adverse 
circumstances, to despise the rivalry of foreigners, and to 
anticipate, in a bold spirit, that the glory and greatness of 
England, like that of no other nation under Heaven, shall 
be without decay. From what sybilline book these pleasing 
prognostications have been gathered, the world has never 
been informed; facts and experience are certainly against 
them. No eternal empire has yet arisen, and it is some- 
what presumptuous to imagine, because there may not 
exist in Etagltod precisely the same elements of decay 
which have wrought the downfall of others, that Providence 
should have intended to make this kingdom a special 
exception from the universal rule, and keep the body 
politic constantly purged of every destructive or pernicious 
element A century ago no man would have dreamt that 

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England would become the sucoeufinl mal of France 
in the silk trade; fifty years age no man could ha?e 
anticipated that India would be pauperized by the rivalry^ 
in the cotton manafacture, of a nation many tbonaaiid 
miles removed from her; whilst, on the other hand, who 
could have foretold, a brief space ago, that even m one 
kr€meh of manufacture, America, Russia, Prussia, Austria, 
8axony, Switzerland, Savoy, or Italy, should have entered 
into competition with us* — ^that we should have thrown 
wide our ports, given them the immediate use of our best 
and daily-improving machinery, or furnished them with 
twist, by the further working of which to give employment to 
their pauper population, and thereby increase theirnatioiMd 
wealth? To say that, when the British manufacturer has 
already been beaten in the production of at least one kind 
of goods, his superiority in others may not hereafter be 
successfully contested, certainly betrays more boldness 
than wisdom. There would be some difficulty m pointing 
out any material advantages now possessed by the English 
manufacturer over his foreign competitor, which he is 
likely to retain. Wages are lower, living is cheaper abroad 
than in England ; the foreign workman is as industrious 
as our own ; the foreign merchant is every day gaining a 
share of that skill and experience in trade which formerly 
characterized only the British merchant; America, at least, 

* Mr. W. Oraham, Jan., of GlMgow, in hit eramination before the Committer 
on Commerce, Manateetnree and Shipping, gave the following evMenoe :— *' Do 

ri find Uie competition d the American mannfttctorers increasing upon yoo 
the placea to which tou ezpoiit?~ETer7 where.— In what parts of the 
world?~In Mexico for the last fire or six years laifehr j to the Brazils con- 
siderably; Buenos Ayres and Cape Horn also ooasidvahly, and at Valpn«lsO} 
I think tiieir imports of the stouter manafhctnre are larger than oars : and in 
MazdDa and Singapore they hare also made their appearance. AlsomnnSt. 
Domingo, where we have done considerable bosineis, we have lately had 
letters, expressing great sarprixe that the Americans shoaMbe competing wtth 
as."— A work recently pabUshed gives affidavits from mercantile men of the 
first respectability, to the efllsct thatthey themselves have actnally enooantersd 
American rivalry in the marketo of Mexico, TamptcoL Maranham, Bahia, 
Femamboco, Caithagena, Hondoras, Pai«, La Onira, Kio de Janeiro, Port 
Alh^TCf Buenos Ayres, Valparaiso, lima, Batavia, Stngapore, ManUhL Canton, 
Calcutta, Bombay, St. Thomas, (West Indies) Anx G^res, QSL Damingo) 
Malta, Smyina. Constantinople, See. See. 

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Mfojsthe most esaeiitial of the nataral facilitiet possessed 
liy England, and the superior ingenuity of the English 
meehftfiic — fonnerly so much boasted of-Hiow no longer 
exkte.* One only advantage remains— Hiamely» the vast 
capital accunnilated by this Country, and concentrated in 
hat commerce. It is asserted, indeed, that the natural 
difficulties under which foreigners ldM>ur are such as they 
can never overcome. The advocates of British superiority 
point to the great scarcity of coal or the inadequate supply 
«l even irood-fuel, — ^the high price of iron, — the insufficient 
inland communication, — ^the want of capital, — and other 
less weighty considerations, as insurmountable barriers to 
the success of French competition. And as with France, 
ao say they it b to a greater or less material extent with 
other countries. But these parties do not see that the 
weapon they wield is of a double edge. If France, 
America or Switzerland have, in spite of these obstacles, 
succeeded in rearing an infant manufacture, surely every 
step of its maturer progress will diminish those difficulties. 
The very arguments which go to prove that natural and 
artificial obstructions interpose themselves insurmountably, 
are also arguments in the hand of the foreigner, who may 
point to that which he has done as an unanswerable assur- 
ance of what he can yet do. 

A valuable document, founded on actual observation, 
has recently been submitted to the Public by Dr. Ure, 
with a view to shew the' rapid advances which our cea- 
tinental neighbours of France and Belgium are making 
upon the English manufacturer. The annexed tabular 
statement, intended to illustrate the same point, b extracted 
from the Reports of the Factory Conmiissioners: — 

* ThK evidence before the Fkctorf OommlBslonen and the Committee on 
Oommerce and Mannfhctures is condnaive on this point. Mr. Greg saya, 
** Four of the most ratuahle and Ingeniona machines have been introduced 
Cram America.** On the continent "thej liave all the newest inrentions: 

even in the remotest parts of Germany they obtain them as soon as we do in 
England,** — Mr. J. Kempton : '* I liave not seen any madiinery here 0n 
Bngland] that I woold call Srst^rate American madainery.*' 

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5 jtiis 


^I;I i II illl 



8 8 

•00 .o 

• I : I 



: ? :77^^ 

ill illfs 






I §1 :l§ 

§; 1 1; ill* 

2* rC dl ; W lO 



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The following tables, extracted from recent official papers, 
exhibit the extent of the manufactures in cotton, worsted, 
silk, wool and fiax of this parish and county, the number 
and ages of the persons employed, with other useful facts: — 



^ 9 





S 3 3° 





^ o mio 











A 4M 




ei «o M01 


a^ 5S ^5 


r|— ff 






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The followinp^ U a return of the hancU employed in that 
part of the pansh superintended by Mr. Tnmmer, which, 
added to Mr. Heathcote's, will give the complete numbers 
for the parish of Manchester: — 

cinder IS. mider I3.*under M.loiuler l s.lander ls.«bove 18, 





Cotton ...t 

IS lOS 114* SSI 

I n 



S0«| S80, 801 


15531068 S40rSO^ 
a 41 4n 63; 47^ 



13 I 106 114 888 3481803 

901^ S8S 30fl|l504S003S530Sgeo' 



Bkckboni.. 0089 




Eodes ..... 
Ghoilef .... 
Gsnteng .. 
Hulton .... 
Klrkham .. 
Onnakirk .. 






Ulversfeon .. 
Wlgan .... 



Kendal .. 
Bnrton .. 



* llierafcamnotreceited. Last year the total in all the mills was 9t0OO. 


DeMx^yttoB or Mills. 




Cotton.. , 
Woollen . 
Wonted . 
















831634 S1807i 

— isisl 







83084 B69184 830994 


Of whidi tiiere were') 
in the pariah d] 







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CASTER: Maif, 1886. 



Oottoo. IWooUen. 





Satford ...< 






Fuiiwoith.. n* ... 



























* One inoomplete. 

Hie power here itetad It incomplete, terena flMtoriee bdniT TCt v 

Of the total nnmber oi mills giren above, five ot the cotton and one of the 
1 have merehr been enlarfed : aU the rest are new. The actual power of 
fUa iraiiea lUghtiy firomtbe " avaitable*' amoont, which is S,M7. 

The next official Table shews the number of power^ 
looms employed by manufacturers in the parish :— 

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. . . 

: : : 


: io ; ; ; ; .ii : io : : 

. .M (%ei . .« . . 

... .0 


»^ • . .o«e«e«ee 

e . . .^ODOIA'^OIOIOI 

.PBOOiao AM e 

: :.;:: :| ::;;;: : 
..2....I >fi .. 

: . : : : 15 : :eee : 

. . lo . . . . e . . cQ cQ 01 • . 

«o ^ cow 


^-9 ' ' ^-^ 

: : : : 


:::::::::::::::::::: :9 :: :':8S ::::: :« 


:;::::::::::::::::::::::::: :8 ::::: : 


: ::::::::::::::: :•::::::::•::::: 





.«...«•... ..-----A- --.-.---- -ia .... - 

. . 

:2 : : 

:::::::: •.'^ :•.: : 


5 :2«55S5g»aiS««8 


S : :S 

: iZasZ : : : :SS§S : 





• : • ; 1 



^ .^ipi 

1*^ 9 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 






Power Looma. i 





































Borf ^ 


Rochdale, put of.... 








Dean.. .. ......^.* 


OcaDd Total 









In addition to these, Mr. Trimmer and Mr. Bates 
return the ibllowiog from their respectire superin- 
tendendes: — 

In Mr. 'MBBMi'e DIatarict of LancadiJre. . . . 
In Mr. Bataa'a ditto (Aal1ton.nndcr.L7ne) . . 


No. or No. or 

Power Mills. Power 

Loons. Ixxms. 

78 14,187 6 88ft 

II 4,018 — — 

TotaL 89 18,lftft 6 

or whkh about 48ft are in ttie parish Of Manchester. 


The following document, published under the authority 
of the Statistical Society in Manchester, may form an 
useful addition to the preceding: — 



Bf am Agent empl^p^d Af the Mmteketter StatUUeml SoeMg t0 viaU the 

dmeUinga mmi deeerttitm the condUion of the popuimtion te PoUee DUtrM 


Hie population of tlds poctkm of the town is (according to tlie censas oT 1831) 

4S,18ft or 8988 ftuoBiUea. It is a district inhabited more than sny other in the 

town by the working rlssses, and by those of the poorest description. It waa 

on that aoooont determined to commence the inirestigatian in ttito qoartor. 

Tlie A(ent having been reAised admittance into some honses» and the oecnplflra 

or others being abeent and tlieir dweHinga dosed, his report only extends to 

4188 funilies, but which nomber comprises all the Isbooring population within 

this district into whose houses he obtained access. Hw report on tteoondlttab 

orUiedweHinfs most Iw eonsidend meielT as Uie general imprflnn qf the 

jlgcot^ an hiteOigeBt bMuBiD, who was hiflMeif a " 

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nbo, in tUs ftewtftration, has been piinc^efiy Ridded by tbe appeenmoe ot 
ckanlineM or ottMnriM in tlie dwellings. M the other tables are stated ihnn 
the aneweiB given by the parties themselves. 




Bcoldi ••• •• 
Vardgners. • 








ReHginn as Professed to the Aient by 
thepartiesT*-*-- '^^^'^ 

Professing no religion . 

.. 591 

Report of the Viaitor on the Oondltion 
of ttie Dwellings. 

Comfortable ,... 1551 

N.B. or these booses fleg are 
reported to be vrellAxmidied. 
Not comfortable sui 

Bent ci Houses, Cellars and Rooms, per Week. 

Not exceeding Is. od. 45 

Above is. Od. .... is. Od. 890 

as. Od. Tt; 

is. Od. 998 

8S. Od 831 

8S. Od. 484 

48. Od 837 

4S. Od. 84 

5s. od. 60 

5S. Od 9 

Os. Od. 

Average not exceeding ss.9d.... .8844 
Not ascertained 858 


IB. UO. 




8S. Od. 





5s. Od. 

Qassiilcation of Imttvidoals. 
4188 P a milie a visited c on s is t of 

psnooB 19f8<)9 

Lodgers i,i05 


Of this nomber. Children living in 

Above 18.. 


iWri a Wi i g D«y gchocis tss 

*^ " pSondajSdiools... 4,080 

Classiiication of the Employment of 
7789 Forsons in receipt of Wages. 
BmplOTed in FactQcisB. 

Spinners 141 

Carders. ,, 147 

Fieoers IO87 

Throwsters.. O9 

Reders O9 

Fower-loom Weavers..... O08 

Dressers 00—9181 

Smplojedin WaMhooaas. 
Warpers 80 




Hand-loom Weevers. 
Fancy and SOk Weavers. . 80 

Flahi (Cotton) 8040-^8000 

Building nadea. 
Briddayers 17 

lAboorers . • . . ........ 

Joiners. ......•..•••••. 

Calenderevs and Dyers. . 
Fustian Shearen 


Other occnpatioiis. . 

> 018 


. 140 




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The extraordinary qualities of the silk worm are said 
to have been discovered nearly three thousand years before 
the Christian era, by an Empress of China. From 
the celestial Empire the precious secret was conveyed in 
process of time into Persia; the proud city of Tyre and the 
island of Cos, in the Archipelago, w^e the next recipients 
ot the manufacture; and in the ordinary course of traffic 
it found its way to Greece and Rome. In the ear- 
lier days of the republic, however, such apparel was pro- 
hibited by the censors in the eternal city, as too effeminate a 
species of clothing for her warlike children, although the 
fabric then in use was only of mixed cotton and silk, the 
pure manufacture being almost too expensive even for the 
imperial shoulders. Upon its subsequent introduction at 
Constantinople, the Emperor Justinian fixed the price of 
it at £4 15s. 9d. the pound avoirdupois: his subjects 
continued in profound ignorance of the mode of obtaining 
the raw article or of manufacturing it into clothing, until 
the secret was conveyed to Justinian by some missionanes, 
who were sent back to Chma, and A.D. 552 contrived to 
smuggle some silk worms from the sacred empire. For 
the time the inttt)duction of the manufacture at Constan- 
tinople had the effect of greatly augmenting its price, 
and although it spread to the Peloponnesus, and thence 
over to Greece, it was still regarded as so costly a com- 
modity, that in 790 Charlemagne is recorded to have sent 
two silk vests as a regal gift to Offa, King of the Mercians. 
For some centuries a knowledge of the manufacture was 
very slowly diffused, until Roger, King of Sicily, having 

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invaded the Greek empire, carried back with him, and 
settled in the city of Palermo, a number of silk^weavers. 
Here it quickly attained to considerable excellence ; in the 
thirteenth century it employed many thousand Italians, 
and it was a traffic in which the nobles were not ashamed 
to engage. From Italy it passed to Spain, thence to 
France, and eventually to this Country. In France it 
received a favorable impulse fix)m the Italian wars of 
Francis the First, that Monarch having conveyed to his 
own realms some weavers of Milan, who were the principal 
means of establishing the superiority of the city of Lyons. 
An extensive traffic was carried on between this Country 
and France at an early period, but the price of silk goods 
must then have been enormously high. Queen Elizabeth 
having worn silk stockings as a great and almost exclusive 
luxury, which her father, Henry the Eighth, could rarely 
enjoy. The introduction of the stocking-frame in England, 
and its general, though very slow, application, established 
for our manufacturers a decided superiority in this produc- 
tion, until its inventor, the Rev. W. Lea, being neglected 
at home, accepted an invitation from Henry the Fourth, of 
France, and settled at Rouen. After the death of his 
patron. Lea did not escape the common lot of inventors — 
he was neglected and died in penury at Paris. Henry the 
Fourth may be almost considered as the father of the 
French manufacture, to encourage which, he held out 
the lure of patents of nobility. He attempted, but with 
no permanent success, to carry the rearing of silk worms 
into the northern provinces; and the celebrated minister, 
Colbert, distinguished himself at a later period by his 
efforts, which ultimetely were successful, to extend the 
culture of the mulberry tree. 

James the First, incited by the proceedings in France, 
issued a circular letter, in which he urged their cultivation, 
believing from partial experiments that the silk worm might 

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flouriah in England: the suggestion was acted upon with 
some yigour, but unsuccessfully. The attempt was after- 
wards renewed in 1718, by a Joint Stock Company, who 
selected Chelsea Park as the site of their operations; two 
thousand mulberry trees were planted, and for a time glow- 
ing hopes were held out, but eventually the experiment 
failed. It may be mentioned that so recently as the year 
1826, a Company styling itself The British, Irish, and 
Colonial Silk Company*' ooce more made experiments on 
English and Irish soil. A royal charter was obtained, no 
less than four hundred thousand white mulberry trees were 
planted on an estate in the county of Cork, in Ireland, and 
seventy or eighty thousand on lands in England. They 
flourished for the time, but were abandoned by the Com- 
pany, who fixed an establishment in the island of Malta. 
There are exhibited in the National Repository, as great 
curiosities, some stockings manufactured from native silk. 
In addition to his attempts at home, James the First strove 
to substitute the culture of ulk instead of tobacco in the 
American colony of Virginia, but the attempt failed, as did 
also subsequent experiments in Georgia and Carolina. 
There is, however, some reason to hope that in the southern 
States of America a judicious effort might prosper, and in 
Pensylvania so much success has attended a recent trial as 
to attract the favorable notice of Congress. 

Various experiments have been made to obtain a substi- 
tute for the silk worm. In Prance an adventurous gentle- 
man formed an establishment of spiders, but it was found 
that idien fifty or a hundred of these insects were placed in 
cells together, the larger swallowed the smaller ones, until 
only one or two remained ! An insect called the Pinna 
has also been discovered, which elaborates very delicate 
material used for stockings; but the extreme heat of the 
fabric would prevent its coming into very general use, even 
if it were less rare. Italy and France, India and China, 

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are now ihe chief producers of raw silk. In Prussia, the 
growth of the mulberry tree has been exclusively pursued 
since the days of Peter the Great ; in Bavaria and other 
parts of Germany, as well as in Sweden, partial success 
has attended its culture. The magnitude of the establish- 
ments for the production of raw silk may be estimated 
from the fact that, calculating the consumption of raw 
materia] in England alone at four millions of pouuds, no 
less than ** fourteen millioos of animated creatures annually 
live and die to supply this little comer of the world with an 
article of luxury." 

The revocation of the edict of Nantes was the means 
of giving a permanently beneficial impulse to the silk 
manufacture of England, at the expense of the French 
nation. In Lyons alone the number of silk looms was 
reduced from 18,000 to 4,000. No less than 70,000 
of the French people emigrated to England and Ire- 
land, many settling at Spitalfields, and establishing a 
knowledge of various fabrics (lutestring especially) hereto- 
fore almost exclusively possessed by France. In 1629 the 
Company of " Masters, wardens, assistants and common- 
ality of silk throwsters" was formed, and an Act passed in 
1661 speaks of them as employing 40,000 men, women 
and children. In 1691 the chartered " Royal Lutestring 
Company" was erected, with exclusive privileges and a 
prohibition of the import of foreign silks. An article in 
the treaty of Utrecht, which established our trade with 
France on low ad mlortm duties, was fiercely and success- 
fully opposed by the manufacturers, who, in their repre- 
sentations to Government, set forth that between that year 
(1731) and 1664 the trade had increased twenty-fold under 
the protective system — that our ** black and coloured silks, 
gold and silver stuffs and ribands" were equal to those of 
France — that black silk, for scarfs, &c. was now made 
annually to ihe value of £300,000, whereas it used all to 


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be imported — and that, by the exchange of our commodi- 
ties for their raw silk, the trade with the Turks and Italians 
had greatly augmented. At this time, then, the silk trade was 
of considerable importance ; but a few years subsequently, 
in 1718, its growth would be materially quickened by the 
adventure of a person named Lombe, who, having contrived 
to carry from Piedmont designs of the silk- throwing 
machinery used in Italy, erected a throwing mill at Derby. 
He obtained a patent for fourteen years, and in 1731 
applied for a renewal of it, but his application was refused, 
Parliament granting him in lieu £ 14,000. "This grand 
machine was constructed with 26fiS6 wheels and 97,746 
movements, which worked 73,726 yards of organzme silk- 
thread with every revolution of the water-wheel whereby 
the machinery was actuated; and as this revolved three 
times in each minute, the almost inconceivable quantity of 
318,504,960 yards of organzine could be produced daily. 
Only one water-wheel was employed to give motion to the 
whole of this machinery, the contrivance of which, con- 
sidering the then state of mechanical science in England, 
speaks highly for that of the constructor, who possessed 
the means of controlling and stopping any one or more of 
the movements at pleasure, without obstructing the con- 
tinued action of the rest'' Great difficulty was still expe- 
rienced in obtaining the raw material, the export being 
prohibited in foreign countries. To mitigate Uie various 
disadvantages under which the English manufacturer 
laboured, and to encourage "so novel a manuftictare," 
George the First granted a bounty on the export of British 
silk goods; the duties on the import of drugs used in 
dyeing were repealed; and whilst additional facilitieB were 
afforded for the importation of raw silk, the manufactured 
article was almost wholly prohibited. In consequence of 
frequent disputes between the workmen and their employers, 
an Act was passed in 1773 (which, being re-enacted, con- 

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tiDued in operation till 1824) authorizing the Aldermen of 
London and the Middlesex Magistrates to fix the rate of 
wages in Spital fields, the masters being also forbidden to 
have more than two apprentices. Ten years after this 
enactment, the British silk manufactures were estimated to 
produce the large annual sum of £3,350,000 — an amount 
which certainly appears to be exaggerated. Be that, 
. however, as it may, there is no doubt that the trade had 
already attained considerable importance, and that succes- 
sive years witnessed upon the whole a progressive im- 
provement up to that period, comparatively recent, at 
which, by the intervention of the legislature, a complete 
revolution was effected in it 

The processes of throwing and weaving silk were exten- 
sively carried on at Macclesfield for several years before 
they permanently reached Manchester. The throwing 
mill of Mr. Vernon Royle, erected in 1819-20, was the 
first to be completed and brought into operation here : it is a 
very extensive establishment, not less than dOOO persons 
being dependent for subsistence upon the work which it 
supplies. The Messrs. Tootal commenced business in 
1816, silk handkerchiefs and mixed goods being then 
almost the only articles fabricated. Mr. W. Harter under- 
took silk-weaving about the year 1825. Though in the 
last century there were professed silk manufacturers, who 
eventually removed to Macclesfield, these undertakings 
may be considered as the germs in Manchester of a now 
extensive branch of manufactures. 

The recent changes of duty which have operated so 
powerfully on the silk trade are shortly given in the fol« 
lowing table; — 

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THE YEAR 1824. 




Pktnn Britlah India. From other Places. 

Prior to S5th. Mardi, 18S4. . . 
From SSth. March, 1834... 

= 5th. July, 1830 

= 5th. Jaly, 1630 

per lb. 
48. Od. 
08. 8d. 
08. Id. 


per lb. 
3s. 9d 
08. sd, 
08. Id 
tpercwtls. Od. 

per lb. 
58. Od. 
08. 3d. 
08. Id. 

per 1b< 
48. Od 

08. Sd. 
08. Id. 
18. Od. 




and Crape. Tram. 


Singlea andCrape-j Tram. Singles 

Not Dyed. 

Prior to 95th. Mar., 1884. 
From 25th. Mar., 1 824. 

= 5th. July, 1825. 

= 5th. Nor., 1835. 

= 6th. July, 1826. 

=x 5th. July, 1899. 

Per lb. 
jfs. d. 
8 6 

Per lb. 
i^s. d. 
2 6 

Per lb, 
j^s. d 
3 5 ( 


Per lb. [Per lb. Per lb. 
^e 8. d. [jg 8. d. ^ 8. d. 
14 8 14 8,0 14 8 
7 7 60 7 « 

5 2 



060 10 50050 

3 00 3 

030i0 200lO 

Thus the duty, which ia 1824 amouated on thrown silk 
to 148. 8d., and on raw to 5s. 6d. (he \h., is now, deductiiig 
the debenture, only 2s. 8d. or 2s. lOd. And yet the effect 
of thus casting open the door to the foreign throwster has 
been, that the import, which in 1765 was 363,000 lbs., 
was, taking the average of 1829-30-31, only 37^000, 
whilst the import of the raw material has increased from 
352,000 to nearly three and a half millions of pounds ! 
The scarcity of thrown silk (or of what may be called 
silk yam) prior to the alteration of duties was ?ery 
similar in its effect to the deficiency of cotton yam 
experienced by the English manufacturer before the intro- 
duction of machinery. Since the change, the silk trade in 
Manchester has been a flourishing one, and it is recorded 
upon the authority of a most influential manufacturer, 
that if Mr. Hnskisson's regulations had not been adopted 
"we should have had no silk trade to talk of." No- 

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thing remained, in fact, but to rely upon our own 
energies. Neither the French nor the Italian — the two 
nations which produce the best silk — allow any export; 
the wages of the throwster in Italy are only one-third of 
those paid in England — the English manufacturer has to 
endure the pressure of taxes unknown to his competitors;^ 
and although we are now on an equality in our tlirowing 
machinery with foreigners, the latter possess so many 
countervailing advantages that an eminent silk throwster, 
in his evidence before a Parliamentary Committee in 1832, 
said — ** I think if I had a mill in Piedmont, and you had 
mine in Manchester, I could ruin you in a few years/'f 
In the teeth of such advantages, then, it surely is not a 
little remarkable that the trade of silk*spinning and weav- 
ing should have had a constant and almost unintermittent 
progression; and that judging from the history of the cot- 
ton manufacture, it is now in a state which bids fair to 
raise us at some future day even to a superiority over our 
neighbours of France and Italy. In 1819, there were in 
Manchester about a thousand weavers of mixed silk and 
cotton, and fifty of pure silk goods. In 1823, there were 
2500 looms employed on silk, and about 3000 on mixed 
goods. In 1824, the reduction in the raw material caused 
a great increase : in 1828, there were 8000 looms for silk, 
and 4000 for mixed fabrics: in 1832, there were from 

* It Is stated tiiat if a ttirowing mffl cost £A9W, one-fom^ of the amoant 
will go to the Government in taxes. 

t The liberaUty of the English mannftctorer cannot be better fflnstrated 
than in the following statement of the same gentleman:— The best English 
machinerjr (be said) has been exported to Lombardy :— ** A silk throwster came 
to Manchester in, I think, 1890: he had no letter of introduction to me, bat 
called upon me; I was dvil to him, having been received very politely by his 
comatrytnen. His ot^ec^ in coming to En^and was to obtain maichinery of the 
best deKnription } he brought a correct plan of his mill, and came prepared to 
ptn-dtase machinery— he pnrdiased sevoral frames of Uie first descfi[Ai(m, 
whidi were sent to IxHnbardy : lam mcX iniepared to say that Uie Government 
gave him permission to export them, bat he did export them, and they are 
now there/'— It will be remembered that when the Italians were in advance 
of OS in their machinery, we were compelled to smuggle patterns of it from 
their coontry. 

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12^000 to 14,000 looms, and the throwing mills (twelve in 
number, but of which two were not then in operation) 
gave occupation to about 3600 hands.* There are now in 
the county (Manchester being their principal locality) 
twenty-two throwing mills, employing about four thousand 
persons. At the former period the raw silk consumed in 
Manchester was to the extent of seven to eight hundred 
thousand pounds annually — a fidh part of the national con- 
sumption ; and the mills then in existence were calculated 
to turn off, if fully worked, 350,000 pounds per annum. 
The price of throwing varied from four shillings to one 
and sixpence ; and the general rate of wages, as stated by 
a manufacturer, was as follows: — 

No. 1, under 9 jmn ol age, u penont, firom is. 0d. to ss. Od. per week. 

S,*bove9 and under 16,148 Ss. Od. to 58. Od 

3, 50 .. . at. od. to 88. Od. .. .. 

4, 59 .. .. S8. Od. to 98. Od 

5, aboireitf, .. ss. od. to lot. od 

0» &7 .. 08. Od. to 108. Od 

7» fl .. 1S8. Od. to 108. Od. .. .. 

8, 8 .. .. 188. Od. to 278. Od. .. .. 

Thej commenee woric at six in the morning, and leare off at aeren in the 
evening; allowing for meals one hoar and foitjr minutes. 

Classes:—!. Engine Piecers) 9. Do.; s. Cleaners and OouUerB; 4. Throwing 
lads as weU as Spinning; 5. Oo.^ 0. DoublerB, Danters, ftc; 7* and 8. Sundry 
Men, Orerlookers, &c. Average under 48. 9d. eadi— a less average than in a 

The evib of the factory system, real or imaginary, 
apply very slightly, if at all« to silk mills ; there is little 
in them to which any person could object; the labour 
chiefly performed by young persons is light and easy; the 
temperature of the rooms is more moderate than that of 
cotton factories; and the work is cleanly. The processes 

\ * The oorrectnesB of these calculations is brought into question in the evi- 
dence of an operative named Thomas Cope, given before the Silk Committee 
of 1839. In the preceding year he and another, it seems, were sent firom 
Macdeslield or the neighbourhood into Lancashh^, in consequence of a 
"prosperity" speech of Bfr. P. Thomson, and be states that they found in 
Manchester (including Salford and Harfieldsay) 9M looms; in Middleton 
district, including Boardman Lane, Jumbo-Tongue, Chaddeiton, Whitgate, 
Moston, and the town of Middleton, ai9l ; FaHswoith district, indudinir 
Failsworth, Hollinwood, Taunton, Droylsden, Woodhouses, Newton, Ooiton, 
Swinton and Ecdes, 9093; in the district of West Leigh* indnding Leigh, 
Pennington, Beafbrd, Atherton, Tildsley and Astley, S,000, making about 8,700, 
of which not quite 0,000 were employed in the *< neat silk trade.** 

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through which talk passes in prqparatioii for the loom 
are, in their nature and result; similar to those used in 
cotton factories, — though the machinery employed is some- 
what different Of the simplest character, it is adapted 
with wonderful beauty to its object The two main articles 
sent forth from the throwing mill are "tram'' and 
" organzine/' which differ principally in the latter being 
more tightly twisted than the former. The processes are — 

RnLiKo: done by fenuOee, requires considerable skill: it is the process of 

wliidiDr the cocoons into a thread. 
WiJTDiKo: mnn skeins to bobbins. 
SnifirtNo: requires two or tliree soccessiTe operations :— " Singiles^ are fturmed 

by sUgbtly twisting the raw silk. "Tram" is the next state, formed by 

twisting threads together: «tram*' oonstitates tlie hm/I for the loom. 

*< Organdne*' is the warp. 

The English silk trade was originally limited to the 
supply of a home demand : now, however, we have a con- 
siderable and growing export trade, as is shown by the 
following table of British silks : — 


inr 18S8 1899 1830 1831 1833 1833 1884 

^S36,11S 4e355,871 4^307,930 j^ftSLOlO jff578,874 jff689,091 JfWiU ^037,196 

In the infancy of the trade in Manchester, silk handker- 
chiefs and mixed goods were principally made; in 1822, 
die manufacture of Gros de Naples and figured sarsnets was 
introdaced. A few years ago the Queen accepted a dress 
of the former fabric manufactured here, and Manchester 
had also the preference over Spitalfields in the selection 
of a silk damask to furnish an apartment in Windsor 

It will be seen, then, that though the silk trade in Man- 
chester is of comparatively modem growth, it has already 
in the manufacture superseded Macclesfield, and is gaining 
rapidly upon it in the throwing department also, both of 

* The English mannfttcturers fbnnerlr were most apprdiensiye of the Sgnred 
dks fkom France, and the contest in them was thooght hopeless> but there is 
now executing in Spitslflelds a considerable order for ligared sUks fbr Amalca» 
where of coarse they most meet the French, under no drcomstances of pro- 
tecting duty.— CsMmcf btfw the Seltci Cowmitiee on ArU and Mamtfaeturea: 


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which branches of industry the latter place monopolized — 
(so far as the districts of Lancashire and Cheshire are 
concerned) — for many years. 

In 1834-5 there were in the parish of Prestbury — and 
chiefly in the township of Macclesfield — 6784 hands em- 
ployed in the throwing mills; and in 1835-6 the number 
has been increased to about 7,000, shewing an advance of 
upwards of^two hundred hands; which, however, arises 
from the occupation of mills before empty: one new mill, 
indeed, is now in course of erection, bnt others have been 
converted to different uses. In 1834-5 there were employed 
in the mills in Manchester, Salford, Broughton, Newton, 
Harpurhey, Heaton Norris, Eccles, &c. &c., — in other 
words, in the Manchester district — about 4520 hands; in 
1836 that number has been materially augmented. In 
Manchester it was 1664 — it is now 1864; in Salford it was 
967 — it is now 990; in Broughton it was 450 — it is now 
534. In Harpurhey, last year there were none, there 
are now 113.* The total number of persons employed in 
throwing in tlie parishes of Manchester and Eccles 
will be at least 4700. As compared, therefore, with the 
hands employed in throwing in the parish of Prestbury, 
Manchester ihews a deficiency of perhaps 2,300. Against 
this, however, must be set her great superiority in the 
manufacturing processes. In 1826, the period of her 
greatest prosperity, Macclesfield employed, according to 
the evidence of her own manufacturers, 5325 looms, which 
had decreased in 1832 to 3500. They have again risen, 
according to the testimony of the same witnesses, to 6000, 
shewing an increase in eleven years of 500 looms. At the 
same period Manchester employed about 9000 looms, and 
in 1832 from 14 to 15,000, She now employs, in the 

* These numben have been obtained from a return now in coone of 
preparation by the Factory Sapedntendants, who have been most obliging in 
their communications. The figures are not perhaps in eadi case minatety 
correct, bat the eircn, if any, are slight. 

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broad silk trade only, about eighteen thousand Jive hundred 
looms. TaluDg the trade average, therefore, of four 
persons to each loom, there were in 1825 — 

In Macdesfleld Sl»300 persons. 

In Manchester. 30,000 do. 

Excess in fkyoor of Manqhester In 18S5 14,700 persons. 

In 183C Mscdesflcild woold emptoy, according to\ Q^nAnT^^r^n. 
the same accepted standard r: / »**^vm>iiM, 

'.attiieleast 7S.00O do. 

Excess in fkvonr of Manchester. 48,000 

This estimate is taken upon the supposition that each town 
has the throwing of its own silk. It appears, however, 
that Manchester uses, of English thrown, probably about 
23,000 lbs. weekly, which is obtained in the following 
proportions : — 

Manchester, thrown 8,000lbs. 

Macdesfleld. 8,ooo .. 

Congletcm [under] 4,000 .. 

*, Newcastle, &c 3,000.. 

TotaL 33,000 lbs. 

Macclesfield probably throws 24,000 lbs. weekly, of 
which, as stated above, 8000Ibs. or one-third comes to 
Manchester. A deduction must consequently be made 
for the throwing, in estimating the number of hands to 
each loom. The calculation may therefore be taken as 
follows:— of the 18,500 looms, say one-third, or 6000, pro- 
vide their own thrown silk, which, at four to a loom, will 
give 24,000 hands. Take the remaining two-thirds at 
two hands to each loom, (a low average) and it will give 
24,600 hands, making a total of 48,600 hands employed 
in the general silk trade alone of Manchester. Here, 
therefore, is an excess of upwards of 20,000 hands in 
favour of Manchester, in comparison with Macclesfield. 
Consideration must also be given to the smallware trade. 
Formerly it was confined almost entirely to Maccles- 
field; but it now has its seat in Manchester, and the hands 


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in the former town are actually furnished with work to 
some (though not to a great) extent, by houses having their 
establishments in the latter. A thousand looms are em- 
ployed in this department of the trade. 

Printing is another branch of the silk business, chiefly, 
if not exclusively, carried on at Manchester. Dyeing is 
also extensively pursued : 462 hands are employed by ten 
houses, which dye 21,6001bs. weight of silk weekly, or 
upwards of 500 tons annually. In fact, Manchester is 
becoming the centre of transactions in the silk trade. 
The class of silk brokers is a large one, and although 
Macclesfield throws more silk than Manchester, a con- 
siderable proportion of the raw article comes first 
hither, and is bought by throwsters from the former 
place. The import of raw silk is about six millions 
of pounds annually, of which one million goes to Maccles- 
field and one is retained in Manchester. Liverpool is now 
rising into importance in the raw silk trade, the import 
having commenced there with vigour since the abolition 
of the Indian and Chinese monopoly. Taking an average 
of the last three years, the import thither has been 

Whilst the silk manufacture has been the means, in 
combination with other causes already named, of adding 
immensely to the growth of Manchester year by year, 
Macclesfield has been nearly stationary. During the last 
foiir years the number of houses built in that township 
has been one hundred and fifly-nine, or only about 
thirty yearly. In Sutton and Hurdsfield, the other town- 
ships within the borough, the increase has also been 

In 1834-5, Congleton gave employment in the throwing 
trade to 2,910 persons, and since that time the mills here- 
tofore vacant having been occupied, there is this year an 
increase of a few hundred hands. The manufacture. 

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however, is to a very limited extent, only 300 weavers 
being employed. The silk not manufactured there is sent 
to London, (to the extent of about 3,4001b8. weekly) 
partly also to Manchester and Coventry, and a very little 
to Derby. The raw article is chiefly obtained from 
London, whither four-fifths of the manufactured goods are 
sent In Sandbach the throwing trade, which is entirely 
for the Manchester market, is on the increase. In 1835 
there were two mills empty — they are now employed. A 
new one has also been built in Wheelock, and another on the 
" Moor," by which, when they are filled with machinery, 
the throwing trade of Sandbach will be increased one-fiflh. 
Sandbach does not manufacture any of her silk, but sends 
the produce to Manchester. The trade is a thriving and 
growing one — all the mills (on which the town depends for 
support) having sprung up within the last ten or fifteen 

The following is the last official return of hands em- 
ployed in the throwing mills of this county:^ — 

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Zi 'ansuiaj 


;; 'diviiiad 



CO CI t^» 


1 i R" 

i « g 


ODCQ mO«*« « 





s s 





's • 

• In Heaton Norrls there were in 1835, IM hands emploTed in silk, (and one 
mill empty); there were aso hands in Ashton; 75 In I^elgli. 

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The following tables of the silk and cottou hands employed 
at Macclesfield, Congleton, Sandbachj and Leek, though 
not quite complete, were obligingly furnished by Mr. 
Trimmer before the official document, in preparation for 
Government, had been perfected : — 






-tana ib:>oj, 






uroa J22X 
















s I 

r a 


•A «0 

"g 5 


I 3 

5^1 1 j 

^''-^^3 1 


-oma nooj. 




1 § ^ 





s t ! 





1 S R 


S » ^ 



5 S s 


8 2 2 



t tt it 


2 Jj J^ 



s ^ ^ 


Si « 2 


s ? s 


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With a view to preserve the document complete in its 
official shape, the number of power looms employed in 
silk has been given in the chapter on the cotton trade. 

The following is a table, furnished to the Silk Committee 
in 1832, by Mr. Doxat, of the amounts of wages and 
duties paid at successive periods. The average labour of 
manufacture is in silk goods equal to about 80, and in 
mixed 150, per cent : — 







Per oentages in respect to 
Amoant6f Wagee. 


1881-33 \ 
1824.25/ •• 














8. d. 

S9 8 

89 9 

80 S 

29 3 
88 8 

SO s 

81 3 
19 4 

17 1 

18 8 

t. d. 
81 8 
SS 7 

as 4 

SS 1 

14 11 

15 11 
11 9 
13 8 

SS per cent over 1815-17 
74 per cent, over 1815-17 

108 per cent oirer I815.17 

148 percent orer 1815-17 
53 per cent under 1824-5 
18 per cent under s 
SO per cent under s 
55 per cent under s 
S3 per cent under s 



19 « 

13 6 

84 per cent under 18S4-S5 

(5 yean) 


16 8 
18 8 

11 8 
13 a 

• (5year») 

40 per cent under ditto 

35 per cent under 18S4-S 

(6 yean) 


• • (6 years) 

The author of the foregoing tables also drew out another, 
in which is exhibited the comparative progress of the two 
great manufactures — silk and cotton. Accustomed to re- 
gard with amazement the gigantic expansion of the latter, 
the Reader will be disposed to consider the growth of the 
former as still more wonderful. It appears that taking the 
average of three years, 1815-16-17, and the three succeed- 
ing years of 1818-19-20, the increase in the cotton trade is 
22 per cent and in the silk 31 1 per cent ; the increase of 
1821-22-23 over the same period was, in cotton 48 and in 


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silk 70 per cent.; and in the years 1824^, the cotton trade 
increased 83 — the silk 156 per cent The tables have how- 
ever since been turned, as the statement itself shews : — 

1816-90, 1881.SS, 18S4-95» AND 1890-30:— 


AmooDt of Duties, Wages, &c. 


1810-90 ....9,461,000 
Medium oTj 

1891-93 .. V 3,888,000 3 58 ^ cnt. incr. 
1894-95 .. J 
1896-80 .... 9,705,000=30 ^ cnt. deOT. 

Decrease, SOk in Cinrersion. 

Duties, Wages, &c.. . 88 ^ cnt. dear. 

Qoantlties (of Italian Standard). 


1816-90.... 1,989,000 
Medium on 

1891-93 .. V 9,315,000=704^ Ct. inCT. 

1894-95 .. J 

1896-30.... 9,710,000=17 1^ Ct. incr. 

Decrease in progress 

of quantities 694^ ct 

1816-90 . . . . 107,000,000 
Medium of ^ 

1891-98 .. y 165,000,000=45 »Ctincr. 
1894-96 ..J 
1896-90 .... 919,000,000=361 ^ct. incr. 

Decrease in progress 

of quantities. 8i^ct. 


1816-90 ....94,637*000 

Medium of) 

1891-93 .. ^98,483,000= 154 ^Ct incr. 

1894-96 .. J 

1896-30 ....90,849,000= 5 ^ Ct. inCT. 

Decrease in progress - 
of duties, wages, «c. . . 104^ cent 

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Before the iavention of the By-shuttle in 1738 by Joha 
Kay, of Bury, and of the drop-box in 1760 by his son, the 
English weaver possessed no superiority over — perhaps in 
skill he was scarcely equal to, the industrious weaver of 
India, who erected his temporary machine beneath the rich 
foliage of his native plains, with the open fields for his 
chamber and the sky as its roof. It has been seen that at 
an advanced period of the last century, yam was an ex- 
ceedingly rare commodity — ^that it was chiefly produced in 
the intervals of agricultural pursuits — that the weaver 
wasted days in traversing the country to procure the 
necessary material, and that the supply from abroad — 
chiefly from Ireland and Germany, (which was linen and 
not cotton yam) was not so abundant as to cover the 
deficiency of our own production. At this, as at a 
more recent period, the weaver was a man " well to do 
in the world ;" he worked moderate hours, eamed good 
wages, and by consequence partook the fat of the land. 
There are those still living who remember thb as the most 
favored class of operatives. Owing, however, to one or more 
combined causes, as to which the world differs, an afflicting 
change has come over that still numerous body. 

It is at present almost impossible to state, with accuracy, 
the earnings of hand-loom weavers. So much depends 
upon the quality of work upon which they are employed — 
the kind of material they have to work up— the locality in 
which they reside — the season of the year — the character 
of the employer, (it being the constant aim of a few petti- 

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fogging manufacturers to screw a farthing out of the wea- 
ver, whilst the honourable master pursues the very oppo- 
site course) — that correct results can scarcely be arrived at 
Even the evidence before Parliamentary Committees, which 
ought to be worthy of entire reliance, is subject to this 
objection, that whilst one witness seeks to depict the con- 
dition of the weaver as worse than it is, another falls into 
the opposite error, and between the two extremes truth is 

It has been estimated that there are - from three to four 
thousand hand-loom weavers in Manchester. Taking this 
(which will probably be found tlie extreme) number as 
correct, it forms a very small proportion of the cotton and 
silk weavers in the employment of Manchester houses. 
The latter class reside for the most part in the out-districts, 
— at Gorton, Newton Heath, Harpurhey, Middleton, Stand, 
Radcliffe, Pendlebury, Worsley, Eccles, &c. &c., and at 
more remote distances, such as West Leigh. The manufac- 
ture of cotton by the hand has latterly been very much 
circumscribed. Nearly the whole of our calicoes, coarse 
jacconets, twilled cloths, and fustians, are now woven by 
power; and pollicats, romals, ginghams, fine jacconets, 
cambrics and muslins, with their variations, are all that 
remain of our domestic cotton manufacture. The three last 
descriptions are chiefly produced at Bolton and Stock- 
port. At Ashton and the neighbourhood considerable 
quantities of excellent ginghams are still woven by hand, 
though steam-power has made an immense stride in the 
production of every cotton fabric to which it has been 
hitherto applied. At Oldham, Roy ton, and Crompton, 
fustian, which was the first stapFe manufacture of cotton, is 
now, with few exceptions, woven by power: loom-shops 
have been deserted, looms sold or broken-up, and whole 
families have gone to the mills for employ. Some dozen 
or two, perhaps, of families still remain, ragged, starved 

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and gaunt, at the fustian-loom; whilst numbers have 
changed to stripes, tickings, and a reed of coarse silk, shot 
with worsted. At and in the neighbourhood of Rochdale 
the Oannel manufacture competes with the cotton ; a 8Cor«> 
or two reeds of silk were a few years since introduced, but 
they have disappeared, and have been succeeded by a 
manufacture of coarse cotton shawls for printing. Bury 
presentB greater vari^y of employment with greater acti- 
vity; the mills, the foundries, the bleach and dye works 
employ nearly the whole of the labouring population, and 
the hand-loom cotton weaver is now only found in some of 
the neighbouring townships, in one of which (Walmersley) 
a superior gingham is manufactured by the jacquard. At 
Raddiffe, Pilkington, Unswonh, Pilsworth, Prestwich, and 
the Heatons, handkerchiefs, checks, and ginghams prevail, 
woven by hand : some excellent goods of each description 
are made, the colours fast, and the weavers experienced 
in their business. At Blackley, coarse cottons are found ; 
at Moston, silks; at Newton, Failsworth and Hollinwood, 
silks and a few cottons; at Alkrington and Tonge, silks and 
some cottons, chiefly table cloths; and at Middleton, 
scarcely anything except silk is manufactured. The earn- 
ings of weavers vary exceedingly. The weaver of Mar- 
seilles toilet covers, a Manchester manufacture, will earn 
from 7s. 6d. to 10s. a-week nett, and the weavers of fancy 
waistcoatings, &c. (at Huddersfield) can earn 15s. weekly, 
whilst the weavers at Bolton — from seven to eight thousand 
in number — are said to average only 4s. Ifd. weekly, for J 
60 cambrics, which constitute a staple article in that town. 
Wages fell there twenty-one and a half per cent between 
1827 and 1834; the general rate and average decline are 
given in the following table presented to a recent Parlia- 
mentary Committee: — 

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». d. 

Boltnn 4 U net 

Manchester 6 to 7 6 do. 

Stodcport 9 gross; m smaller net arerage. 

8. d. 

Ftom 1794 to 1804 Weaver earned s6 8 weeklf. 
1804 to 1811 so 

1811 to 1818 14 7 

1818 to 1825 8 9 

1835 to 1833 6 4 

1833 to 1834 5 



Belatiye proportion of floor, oatmeal, potatos and butchers* meat. 

881 lbs. 131 Dm. 83 lbs. 

838 lbs. 108 lbs. 83 lbs. 

Since 1815 wages have Mien sixty per cent, whUst the necessaries of life 
have fidlen only 80 per cent 

The weekly expenses of a weaver earning so little as 
4s. l|d. are thus calculated: — 

8. d. 
Forlodging 9 perweek. 

— Washing and cooking .. . . o 3 

— - Porridge o o 

<— Potatos 

~|lb.8Qgar 3 

^41b.botter 4^ 

— 1 lb. bread per day o lo| 

— Teaorcoflbe o 3 

— Mak 4 

— Bntdiers' meat, l^d. per day 9 

~ Looming his warp, &c o 3 

~ Candles to work by 3 

— Tobacco 34 

5 5^ or Is. 4d. more than he earns. 

Fortunately, in the class thus gradually falling in the scale 
of social comfort, there is a rapid transition to othei 
employments. In Stockport, for example, there were, in 
1818, 5020 hand-loom weavers— there are now only 300 
or 400. Fnstians alone, which formerly employed 6000 
to 8000 hands at least, do not employ above 200 in the 
county. Within ten years hand-loom weaving has been 
reduced one-third, and the general scarcity of labour 
throughout the Country is a sufficient evidence that the 
weavers have all been absorbed in other branches of 

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industry. It is calculated that there are not in England 
above 200,000 workers by hand-loom, of whom 30,000 are 
receiving an extremely low rate of wages, whilst the main 
body are in a considerably better condition. They work, 
perhaps, fourteen hours of the day, (including meal-times) 
and very many of tliem seem to prefer their independent 
mode of life, with this remuneration, to the confinement 
of a factory, which may afford better wages. 

Silk weaving, which was introduced in the town and the 
wide circumjacent district of Manchester fifteen or twenty 
years ago, came providentially to break the fall of the hand- 
loom weaver. The starving producers of cotton goods 
abandoned that impoverished and glutted market for labour, 
and had recourse to silk weaving, which varies chiefly in 
requiring greater skill and care in tlie workman. One 
great improvement in the machinery of silk has been 
effected, Uie history oi which, as told by Dr. Bowring, is 
most remarkable. " I was extremely desirous (says he) 
having seen the beauty of the machine and the simplicity 
of its operation, of some conversation with its inventor, 
and, accompanied by a number of gentlemen, I went to 
visit Jacquard. and was very much gratified on hearing 
from him a history of its invention, which is now generally 
recognized as one of extreme importance and value. He 
told me he was originally a straw-hat manufacturer; his 
attention had never been turned to mechanical topics till 
the peace of Amiens opened the communication of France 
with England. At that time an extract from an English 
newspaper fell into his hands, in which it was stated that 
a society here offered a premium to any man who should 
weave a net by machinery. He told me that his thoughts 
were thus turned upon this subject, which, by the way, if 
there had been any interruption to intercourse, would never 
have taken place : he did produce a net, which he threw 
aside for some time, and afterwards gave it to a friend as a 

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thing' of mere indifference. The net, by some means or 
other, got into the hands of the authorities, and was sent 
to Paris. When some time had passed, and Jacquard had 
completely forgotten his production, he was sent for by 
the Prefect, who said, ' you have directed your attention 
to the making of nets by machinery P* He did not imme- 
diately recollect it, but the net was produced to him, and 
that called it to his mind. The Prefect said, < I require 
you to make the machine which led to this result' He 
asked three weeks for its completion, and brought it to the 
Prefect and desired him to strike it with his foot, by which 
a knot was added to the net It was sent to Paris, and an 
order came for his arrest It was in Bonaparte's time, 
when things were done in a very rash and arbitrary way. 
He found himself under the keeping of a geud'arme, and 
was not allowed even to go home to provide himself with 
the necessaries of his journey. He was required, at Paris, 
in the Conservatory of Arts, to produce the machine in 
the presence of inspectors, which he did. He was intro- 
duced to Bonaparte and to Camot, who said to him, with 
a menace of incredulity, ' Are you the man who pretends 
to do that which God AJmighty cannot do— to tie a knot in 
a stretched string ?' He produced the machine, and showed 
its operation. This was Jacquard's first mechanical ex- 
periment He was afterwards called in to examine a loom 
00 which twenty or thirty thousand francs had been ex- 
pended for the production of articles for the use of 
Bonaparte. He offered to do that by a simple machine 
which they were attempting to do by a very complicated 
one, and, improving on a model of Vaucanson, he pro- 
duced the mechanism which bears his name. He returned 
to his native town, a pension of 1,000 crowns having been 
granted to him, but so violent was the opposition made to 
the introduction of his machine, that he had, three times, 
the greatest difficulty in escaping with his life. The 

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CoQseil des Prudhommes, who are the conservators ex 
officio of the Lyonnese trade, broke up his machine in the 
public place> and the iron, to use his own expression, was 
sold for iron, and the wood for wood, and he, ite inventor, 
delivered over to universal ignominy. It was only when 
the French were beginning to feel the effect of foreign 
competition that they were forced to employ this machine, 
which led to such great improvement in their manufacture; 
and, as every body knows, it is now extensively employed 
through the whole of the manufacturing districts in 

These machines are now generally used both for mixed 
and neat silk goods,and by means of them the workman may 
earn, in the best summer seasons, as much as 14s. or 15s. 
in the week. Winter, however, makes a considerable 
difference with him, candle-light being unfavourable for 
silk weaving. The wages of weavers of plain goods fall 
short of those in figured and, fancy work, in which the 
Jacquard is employed. Within comparatively a very few 
years, earnings have undergone a serious reduction, the 
price for ''plain twenty-hundred three-single Gros de 
Naples" being as follows :— 

In 1883 9<i. 

18S8 Od. 

1839 44<1. 

An active workman, with twelve or fourteen hours' labour, 
may, it is said, weave six or seven yards daily, making his 
earnings 12s. or 14s. in the week ; but from this amount 
must be deducted Is. 6d. for " winding," and at least the 
loss of half a day in going to the warehouse for his work 
and returning it when completed. At Macclesfield, judg- 
ing from the following table, the weavers are in a much 
worse condition:— 

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16S1 166. Od. 

18M 168. Od. 

1893 I6f. Od. 

18S4 169. 6d. 

isas I6e. 7d. 

1826 78. 9d. 

1827 7t. 4d. 

1888 76. 4d. 

I82g 7i. Od. 

1830 69. 6d. 

1831 6«. Od. 

The power loom has been introduced with partial success 
in silk-weaving. In the coarser fabrics, such as hand- 
kerchiefs, galloons, and other « narrow goods/' it has been 
found to answer tolerably well, and a short time ago an 
extensive manufacturer of Manchester was making an ex- 
periment in weaving sarsnet with power. According to 
the Parliamentary Return published in February last, it 
appears that the power-looms in Manchester and Salford 
employed in silk are — >by Messrs. Royle and Crompton, 
40; Smith and Thorp, 60; Mr. William Barter, 184; 
Messrs. B. Williams and Co., 22. Total, 306. There 
are also 60 employed by Messrs. J. and J. Clegg in the 
adjoining parish of Eccles. In other parts of the Country 
they are used to a considerable extent In the district 
of which Mr. Sandars has the supervision, as one of 
the Inspectors under the Factory Act, there are 676. 
In that of Mr. Howell there are 139, and he intimates that 
'* twenty-two power-looms are about to be used in War- 
wickshire, in the manufacture of galloons, doubles and 
black sarsnet ribbons.'' In Cheshire alone there are 414; 
in Staffordshire, 119. The total number of power-looms 
now used in weaving silk throughout the United King* 
dom is, according to the return, 1716. The advan- 
tage of these looms in silk is, however, by no means so 
great as in cotton. In the former, so much more constant 
and close attention to the course of the weaving is re- 
quired, that one weaver can only superintend two looms, 
whilst the cotton weaver manages three or four. The 
power-loom silk weaver earns exceedingly good wages — 
from 12s. to 238. weekly. 

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Having closed this sketch of the maaufactures of 
Manchester, there are still a few general facts connected 
with the subject which possess considerable interest. 
Among the witnesses examined before the Hand-loom 
Weavers' Conmiittee which sat in 1834 and 1835, were 
Mr. Marshall and Mn Martin, gentlemen of considerable 
note as statisticians. 

Mr. Martin estimates the annual taxes on a labourer, 

in his food, clothing, &c. at £] I 7s. 7d., and calculating 

his income ^for 300 days, at Is. 6d. per day) to be 

£22 10s., he considers that 100 per cent of his wages go 

to the Government The Excise he calculates to be paid 

thus: — 

2,000,000 Rich pay ^^990,000 

8,000.000 Middle class — 7tO00,000 

14,000,000 Working cUm — 8,000,000 

Of the Customs, the first class pay £ 4,000,000, the second 
£6,150,000, and the third £7,500,000. In a table, pur- 
porting to demonstrate the causes of the variance of 
wages, it is stated that there are — In 

Square Miles. Popolation. 

England 8,866 34,691,396 

France 161,376 39,500,000 

Rassla 6,000.000 apwards of 60 mlliona 

Austria 194,448 33,838,900 

Prussia 80,000,000 13,000,000 

^r^ton^'} ^^^*^9^ 98.000,000 18,500,000 47,609,004 

Mr. Marshall states tliat there are now fewer persons 
subsisting on manufacturing labour in Great Britain 
than forty years ago, although the cotton manufac- 
ture alone has increased, since 1792, from thirty to 
three hundred miliums of pounds, and although our 
exports of mechanical production amount annually to 
about thirty millions. Our domestic manufactures; he adds, 
formerly employed about a million families, here and there 
perhaps eight or ten looms at the utmost being congregated 
in one building. This primitive state of things has been 
entirely superseded within forty years. Hampshire, 

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Sussex, Essex, Norfolk and the West of England were 
the 'chief seats of manufacture, and the farm-house was 
the scene of alternate farming and manufacturing labour. 
There were then 100,000 fam^ouses, each of which had 
at least three female domestics, who filled up their 
intervals of leisure at the spinning-wheel. To the 
withdrawal of this labour, and its concentration in the 
schcalled manufacturing districts, Mr. Marshall attributes 
the great depression of agricultural wages, and the super- 
abundance of hands in those counties, from which 550,000 
have migrated northward within the present century.* 

The plan of migration has been tried upon a new 
system within the last eighteen months. Several 
manufacturers who felt a deficiency of labour, which the 
population of our own districts was unable to supply, 
obtained a number of agricultural labourers from the south, 
whose improved condition the Poor Law Commissioners 
thus referred to in one of their reports: — ^"The results of 
this experimental measure are stated in detail in the letters 
of Henry Ashworth, Esq., R. H, Greg, Esq., (our first 
correspondents) in a letter from R. Beard, Esq., and also 
in a Report from Dr. Kay, our Assistant Commissioner, 
to which we would direct your Lordships' special attention 
for the information it contains relative to the Lancashire 
cotton district These results are, in substance, that nearly 
the whole of the individuals who have migrated are now in 
constant employment in Lancashire, and earning, collec- 
tively as families, three times the amount of wages which 
they had at any time earned in the districts which they had 
quitted. They have been provided with superior cottages, 
which they have been able to furnish by means of advances 
of money from their employers, to be repaid by instalments 
firom their wages. They have abundant supplies of fuel, 

* Mr. Martfianftdds^wliat few. persons wm be dlspoMd to beUeve,t^ 
1919 Bi^taBd bM kMt ftixn 150 to MO miOioos in her foreign 

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at Buch low rates as to be oDabled to enjoy the luxurj of 
a fire to an extent unknown to the labourers of the southern 
counties. The head of the first family who migrated 
declared that not all the horses in Buckinghamshire should 
draw himself and family back to his parish. Similar 
expressions of satisfaction at the change were made by 
others of the heads of families to Dr. Kay. The employers 
of the work-people have expressed themselves well satisfied 
with the conduct of these southern families^ and have 
declared their intention of seeking families from the same 
districts in the event of their requiring additional hands. 
On the other hand, the migrants have been cordially 
received by the established manufacturing operatives. 
This circumstance is accounted for partly by their mutual 
preference for their own countrymen, and partly from the 
fact that the adult operatives participate in the advantages 
of a supply of young working hands, as the increase is 
requisite for the advancement of their own more skilled 
labour. It* has been reported to us, that so sensible have 
been the adult operatives of those districts of die necessity 
of an increased supply of hands, that although they have 
sometimes been guilty of acts of riot to prevent the intro- 
duction of new machinery, scarcely any instances are on 
record where they have taken steps to resist with violence 
the influx of new hands. The effect of the migration upon 
the parishes has been a proportionate reduction of the 
rates. It has been reported to us that in the parish of 
Bledlow, where the experiment was first tried, the rates were 
reduced one-half, mainly in consequence of the migration." 
These bright prospects dazzled the agriculturists, who, in 
the last autumn, unfortunately so far over-stepped the 
bounds of prudence as to send hither, on their own respon- 
sibility and without due precaution, a number of farming 
labourers and children, who found themselves without 
resource, among strangers. Fortunately they were properly 

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cared for by the parish officers, bat it it to be hoped that 
no such unauthorized experiments will again be tried. Last 
year a gentleman was sent down to Manchester by the Poor 
Law Commissioners, for the express purpose of superintend- 
ing and keeping within due bounds the location of new 
labour, and the public have the promise of the Commis- 
sioners themselves that "to whatever extent it may be 
found expedient to promote further migration/' they will 
'' in no case promote a removal of any labourer to the 
manufacturing districts, where there is not a clear and 
specific demand for the labourers to be removed; and in 
all cases they will deem the gradual absorption, family 
by family, preferable to the removal of considerable 

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It if coiioas to obtenre tlw mfahapi wUeh htm occ of T w i in die ootton tnde 
since it» ftNmdatiaii. Looldnff to the Gazettet. the lint benkrnpt described m 
a *' cotton-spinner" appesn in the jmr 178O. The subsequent jrambcn hi 
endi year shew that, great ss is the capital cmbsriced end fanmense the number 
of flMtartes, the business is not always a flonrishinf one. An JnrtefaHgahle 
Mend of the Author has compiled for him the IbOowing paper- 
No. of No. or 

Year. Oommis- IndiTi- ' 
aions. doals. 

1804. 18 S4 

18M 84 83 

1886 80 81 

1807 19 84 

1808 10 10 

1800 8. 8 

1810 13 88 

1811 9 14 

1818. 15.. ...17 

1813 8 S 

1814. 8 8 

1815 19 18 

1810 10. 18 

1817 8 18 

1818 8 10 

1810 17 98 


1891 13 17 

This, of course, is not indnsiTe ot the prlrate co m promises eflbcted with 
cre dito r s , of which the nmnberis great. Another item of loes of capital in the 
ootton trade— and it is an important one— arises flrom the destmction bf fire. 
Within the memorx of the gentleman wlio furnished the above table, not less 
than fbrtjr fi^tories hi Manchester and the district hare been burnt down. 

No. Of No. oA 

Tear. Oommis. IndiTi-l 

Bioners. duals 


... 1 9 




... 9 8 




.. 1 1 


.. 9 4 


.. 1 1 


.. 9 13 


.. 5 9 


.. 8 8 


.. 7 11 


.. « 9 


.. 3 5 


.. 7 


.. 7 9 


.. 5 5 


.. 7 


..19 14 

No. of No. of 


Oommis. Indivi. 

siont. duals. 


3 8 


1. 1 


18 18 


10 13 


S3 48 


11 15 

1898 .. 

10 ....18 


7 8 


7 9 


19 99 


13 14 


11 13 


15 91 


9 9 



In tiie days of its infiuicy, the cotton trade of Mandiester was greatly de. 
pendent on the Chester and Wrexham fUrs, whidi are now only known as 
boyldi holidays. Hie continaital fidrs hare assumed the in^Mttance wfaidi 
fcnnerly attached to those in England, and it is therefbre material to know 
the dates of their occurrence. Tliey are here subiJoined:— 

January 1.— Leipdc oontinnes 14 days. 

February 4.—Brunswick „ 3weeka. 

„ 98.— Frankfort on the Oder.... „ 3weeka. 

March 14.— Cassel „ Udays. 

„ 98.— Nanmberg „ Udays. 

April 5.— Frankfort on til&e Mahi. sweeka. 

M 94.— Lelpxic „ Udays. 

July 17.— FranklbrtontiieOder.... „ Udays. 

August 11.— Brunswick 3weeks. 

„ 99.— Csssel Udays. 

September S.— Nanmberg , 3weeks. 

** 11.— Frankfort on the Mahi. 3 weeks. 

October 9.— Ldpzic „ Udays. 

Noyember 13.— Frankfort on the Oder 3 weeks. 

December I.— Naumberg >• 3weeks. 

In May and June there are no fUrs, and by consequence the Mandiester, 
Rochdale, Leeds, Bradford and other principal markets are fiat and duD during 
tbewholeof Mayandapartof June. Great anxiety used to be fdt as to the 
goodness or badness of the Chester and Wrexham ftdr markets} and the same 
anxiety, heightened of course in proportion to the increased extent of the trade, 
■ow attaches to the Gennan fidrs. 

N.B. Goods intended for one of the above fUrs ought to be forwarded fhmi 
Manchester at least four weeks prior to the fUr. 

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The foHowiDg particulars of the population of Man- 
chester and its environs, are derived from the returns 
published by order of Government, from tables drawn out 
by Mr. Rickman, and from other authentic sources. 

IN 18Ift:— 

Ardwlck Chapdry.. 
Betwick Township. 
Bbtddey Cbapdry . . . 
Bradford To ymh ip^ « . 
Broncihtoii Township. 
Bvnuige Township. . . 
Cheetham Chapdry 
CharltDD-wfth-Hardf Chapefary. 
Cbartton Row Township 
CnunpsaU Township 
Denton Chapdnr. .. . 
Didsbmy Chapeiry . . 
Droylsden Township . 
FaQsworth Townshq», 

Gorton Chapdry 

Harpnrbef Townsh^ 
Beaton Nonis Chapdry 
Houghton Township . . . , 

Holme Township 

LereDshnlme Township 
Manchester Township 
Moss Side Township) 
Moston Township .. 
Newton Chapdry . . . 
Openshaw Township. 
Reddish Township . . 
Roshalme Township 
Salford Township . . . 
Stretford Chapehy • • 
Wlthington Township 

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* A '* large portion** of these are indirectly employed in commerce and trade: "in 
"•hnndreda oj Salford and Wert l)erby, in Mancherter and tivciyool,** not l^aitJian 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


The returns state that the tofwnship of Manchester contains about is,000 
men engaged in the cotton and silk numofActnres; Salford, 3,500, indndlng 
xnanf makers of madiinerj} Pendleton, 850) Chorlton-npon-Medlock, 1,000; 
Heaton Norrls, 1,100; .and other townsh^ of the parish ahoot 4,000 ooaDa> 
lively; Oldham, 4,000, and Crompton in that parish, 4,SO0j Great and little 
Bolton, 0,100; Bury, 1,600; Totthigton, 1,500; Spotland and Castleton, (Boch- 
dale parish) 2,000 ; Middleton township, 1 ,I00 collectiyely. In addition to these 
there are 18,000 persons employed in the nnmeroos mann&ctaring townships 
ig the populous Hundred of Salford. The manu&cture of woollens is said to 
be "comparatively unimportant;" the number of men employed in worsted 
mills, and as fuUers, makers ci baize, blankets and flannels being about 2,700, 
chiefly at Newchurch, in WhaUey parish, in Bochdale, and at Bury. In Chorl- 
top'Upon-Medlock there are 1,000 woikers in iron and brass (in foundries and 
so forth); there are 550 men employed as hatters in several of the adjoining 
townships— 300 at Oldham. 

SHIP OP MANCHESTER: Jfi^28M., 1821. 



No. 1 District . 
No. 2 „ . 







No. 4 
No. 5 
No. 6 
No. 7 
No. 8 
No. 9 
No. 10 
No. 11 
No. 12 
No. 13 
No. 14 

Totalof Manchester. 16653 22869I116I 604! 22 I 22161 686 51520 56496 108016 
















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I'Le following tables present an amusing and not alto- 
gelber valueless contrast to these numerical results: — 







Mancheiter .. 










Msnchester.... 7782 muter 16. 8262ibOTe60. 44 Emptf Hopses. 
SiJford 1793 „ „ 640 „ ,,26 „ 

PenoDstoaboQse, mora Uian6^} Indhldiiali Id a ilunily, 4|. 

Psiish of Manchester. 


































































































1 • 




SJSIK"' ** 
















Harrarfaer ............ 

SSSSo .;:!;::!..:: 










I^W * •• * ■ 








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Population of the principal manufacturing towns of 
England and Scotland at the same period, (taking the 
suburbs as arranged by the Reform Bill) shewing their 
relative increase per cent: — 


BUncheiter, Salford-i 
•DdSnbaibs .... / 

Otamgaw (dtf) aadi 
■abuilM / 

ptr m^£ >h^in and \ 

Sttborbt / 

Norwich (dty) 

Paialef, with the\ 

Abbey Pwish.../ 
Nottlnghain (town)... 

»487«j 22 

77385 30 

73670 10 

30832 1 

31179 18 

28861 19 







47 237832 
38 202426 









In liropoolt tnrinding Toztetfa Paxk, the incresM per cent, in the lint 
period was 26; in the second, 81 ; in the third, 44. Extraordinaiy m is tlie 
tncKMe in same of these towns, the growth of the fiisliionable watering pisoes 
hM been still more magical. Brighton, in 1 801, had a population of only 7>3S9; 
in 1831 it was 40,808. Cheltenham, hi 1801, had 3,076; in 1831, 23,046. 


AshtonPariah 83,697 

Bolton 630.34 

Bary 47.829 

Dean 22,944 

Ecdes 28.083 

FlUton 2,099 

Manchester , 270,963 

Mifidleton Parish 14,879 

Oldham 67,579 

Raddlffe 1I9>04 

Rochdale 74,427 

Wigan 44,486 

Total 429.602 

Aooording to an actual surrey made by Mr. W. Johnson, the parish of 
Manchester contains 84,607 statute acres, ris. :— 

Ardwick 496 

Beswldc 95 

Blackley 1811 

Bradford 162 

Brougfaton 1338 

Bumage 677 

Cheetham 898 

ChorltooRow. 632 

Cborlton-witb-Hanly.... 1249 

Cruaapeall 708 

Denton 1708 

Didsbnry I6I6 

Droylsden 1693 

Failsworth 1118 

Gorton 1488 

Harpnihey 166 

HeatonNorrit 2126 

Houghton 868 

Holme 488 

Levenshulme O02 

Manchester 1577 

MossSide 416 

Moston •. 1948 

NewtonwithKirkmans.\ ,._ 

huhne / ^^^ 

Opensbaw S6S 

Reddish 1678 

Rusholme 960 

Salford i860 

Stretfbrd 8OII 

Withington 9489 

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Puidior Manchester. 

Yearly Valae, according 
to the Rate of 
1815. 1839. 

Ardwtdt.. .. 
BraiUord ... 
BronghloD , 

Chorltun-with.Hardy. , 

Chariton Row 

Crampeall.. ...».....■ 



Droylsden , 





Hanghtion . 




M ow Si de 

Moeton ........i 





Totel of Maacheeter Parish. . 

Total or Mandieetar Division. . 
Ditto or Mftddleton Utrisioii. .. . 

Total or SaUbrd Handled. . 






















1059859 . 
1886654 . 

98 per cent increase. 
87 M t» *• 
87 ». .» n 

The area of the county contains 1766 square statute 
miles, and consequently 1J90|240 acres; whilst the 

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proportions ascribed to the several parishes make a total 
of only 1,117,260. This disagreement occurs in the 
returns for many counties. — Lancashire is very thinly 
peopled in some of its more remote districts: thus the 
chapelry of Bleasdale in the parish of Lancaster has 8490 
statute acres, with only 236 inhabitants.* The most 
densely populated hundreds in the county, after that of 
Salford, are the following : — 

statute EnploTMl In 

Acres. Fexsons. Trade, &e. 

Amoondemes Hnndnd, witii U5,110 has only 09*967 ofwhldi are 8,191 

Blackbara. 176,690 106,067 S3,469 

WestDerby S28,0oo 170,003 10,S80 

It is, unfortunately, quite impossible to obtain a correct 
table of mortality for the town of Manchester. The 
frequency of baptisms and burials at the numerous 
Dissenting chapels in the town, from which no complete 
register can be procured, renders this impracticable, and it 
has therefore been deemed most advisable, in the first 
place to give the following calculated rates of mortality 
from the population returns, and to append a calculation 
(founded upon the register furnished to Chester) of the 
rate of increase in the population as shewn by tlie most 
correct data to which access can be obtained: — 


1801 07S.731 I 1881 lA»Sa,8S9 

1811 818,809 I 1831 1,330,664 

The annual proportion of baptisms, burials and mar- 
riages to the population of Lancashire, calculattd upon 
an average of the totals in five years preeeding the enu- 
merations of 1801, 1811, 1821 and 1831, was, in— 

1790-1800. I 160^-1810. I 1810-l8tO. | 1820-80. 
Bap. Bar. Mar. Bap. Bar. Mar. I Bap. Bar. Mar. Bar. Bur. Mar. 

34 47 lU I 31 61 116 I 37 66 110 | 88 67 117 

* ChesUre, containing 1,058 sqoare rtatote rnOes and 073,880 acrea. badm 
popidation in 1831 of 334,391 : 34,997 being employed in trade and I0»a97 in 
afriootare : tiie hundred of Macdeafleld, containing 148,030 atatoto acres, 
lias a popaiation of 183,849; whilst the bandied of Bocidoir, witti 107,710 
statate acrea, oontaina only 48,943 sbids. 

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One One One 
Population. Bapticni Burial Mmlage 

in in in 

1800 177.669 .... 38 .... 40 .... 130 

1810 264,190 .... Sy .... 44 .... 134 

18S0 333,503 .... 38 .... AI .... 140 

1830 499,603 .... 30 .... A3 .... lAO 


One One One 
Population. Bi^pdsm Bwial Maniage 

in in in 

1800 84,030 .... 31 .... 41 .... 03 

1810 98,573 .... 30 .... 69 .... 71 

1830 133,788 .... 41 .... 71 .... 67 

1830 183,813 .... 87 .... 88 .... 64 

By reference to the copies of registers required to be 
returned periodically to Chester^ it would appear that 
during the last ten years, namely, from 1826 to 1835, 
indusiYe, there have been in Manchester, of 

Marriages 31,837 

Baptfsms 05,481 

Borials 64,449 

Taking the marriages as the only infallible standard (the 
register of baptisms and births being always incomplete) 
and estimating the average according to the London bills 
of mortality, which alone are correct, it would appear that 
the proportion of baptisms and burials in Manchester, 
from 1825 to 1835, was as 4} to 3; and that excluding 
still4x>m infants and unregistered baptisms (of which the 
private baptisms form a most essentiakingredient, none of 
them being registered) there were three children bom to 
each manriage« The increase of population in the last ten 
years would therefore be 31,032. By reference to pre- 
ceding tables, however, it will be seen that between 1821 
and 1831 there was only in the township of Manchester 
an increase of 34,000 souls; and it is therefore probable 
that between 1825 and 1835 there-has been an increase of 
at least ten thousand beyond the amount indicated by the 
register. Deducting, then, the increase as shewn by the 
register bom the actual increase, the difference must con- 

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sUt of settlers from various quarters of England, from 
Ireland and Scotland. This fact is both important and 


IncTMM In croMo Increaae 

1801. percent. 1811. percent. 18S1. percent. 16S1. 
SoglUld.... 8^1,434 14| 9,561,888 17i 11,101,437 10 13,080,888 
Gt Britain.. 10UKS,040 15| 19,609,864 14 14,391,631 IS 16,037,396 

■ .... 8,498,354 14-15 6,969,650 15-71 7.954,613 15-45 8,375,700 

The increaw of pppolation, aooardincto tbe ordlnuy olrnlaHon, far tlie 
whole ooantry, is l) per cent, per annum. In this and other mana&ctiuinff 
(ttatricte, however, the growth nuut be infinitely more rapid. Part of tho 
popwl rtlon of T juicawhire waa not comprized in the retuna of 1891, the militia 
fotoB being out on training. 


For England «049,744,081 

Walea 9,153,801 

Scotland 6,659,655 

Total.... 58,551,078 

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Few topics of local history possess so mach interest as 
those relating to internal improvements, their nature, ex- 
tent, cost, and the fluctuations in the value of property 
which they induce. Such details have indeed an actual 
marketable importance, superadded to their amunng 
curiosity. The speculator may be assisted by them in 
pointing his enterprizes to a successful issue, whilst to those 
who love to revert to the days that are past these memorials 
of bricks and mortar, flagged paths and paving-stones, old 
court-ways and new squares, may furnish as much amuse- 
ment at least as can be gathered from the study of exploded 
costumes or antique architecture. Surely, too, the magnaiet 
of the present day must be solicitous to know in what 
quarter of this growing metropolis their fashionable ances- 
tors had their domiciles — ^where the penates of provincial 
aristocracy were planted, and how, when driven by the 
encroachments of trade from one favored locality, they 
reared the standard of gentility in another. 

Not to range too far into the maizes of the past it may 
be stated, that the erection of the modern Collegiate 
Church, in the reign of Henry the Fourth, gave birth to 
the district of Fennel-street, the upper end of Long Mill- 
gate, Toad Lane, and Hyde's Cross. In ''Aston's Guide ** it 
is mentioned that within the memory of persons then living 
(1814) Hanging Ditch was literally designated, the water 
flowing copiously down the centre of the narrow cartway, 
and a raised causeway, guarded by a battlement, being 

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necessary to prevent foot-passengers from falling into the 
current For many years this was the centre of the town, 
but the erection of St Ann's Church, about 1 709-10^ opened 
new regions: a Square was formed from existing com fields, 
and about 1735 die garden ground of the inhabitants was 
encroached upon by buildings, which now form the lower 
end of King-street, not then communicating directly with 
Deansgate, but terminating at Police-street St Ann'« 
Square also was similarly cut off from the present Market 
Place, to which the only avenue for passengers was a dark 
entry, and for carriages a gateway, adorned by a cobler's ' 
stall ; a narrow flight of steps led to the fashionable coffee- 
room of the town, which overhung it The passage 
for pedestrians was appropriately designated as the Dark 
Entry. About 177&>7, Exchangenstreet was formed; 
Cateaton-street, St Mary's Gate, Old Millgate, then mere 
lanet, sufficient only for one carriage to pass, were widened 
to an extent marvellous for those days, but very insufficient 
for present necessities. These alterations, sanctioned by 
Act of Parliament, were effected by public subscription* 
In 1792, the centre of the town was further improved by 
the demolition of the old Exchange, which stood on the 
land, oppotdte the Commercial Room, now dignified by 
the i^ipellation of Pennyless Hill, from the circumstance 
of the unemployed labourers congregating there daily in 
readiness for hire. This structure, on the exterior of 
which in former days had figured the heads of rebels, whilst 
its interior was devoted to the administration of justice and 
to other objects, had of late (says Mr. Aston) seldom 
been used for the purpose its name seems to designate, but 
was a harbour for vagrants and dirt This writer adds, 
that the whole of the town, north-east of Scotland Bridge, 
Long Millgate and Shudehill, east of Market-street Lane, 
Church-frtaneet and Tumer^itreet, and west of Deanisgate, 
from Star Inn Yard, has been built since the year 1770, 

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and Salford has experienced a similar increase within 
that period 

Subsequently to the improvements under the Act of 
I79I, no material alteration was effected for many years. 
Early in the present century, Mosleynitreet and Lever's 
Row were the ^west end'' of Manchester. The more 
wealthy had already begun to reside on the outskirts, 
which ''propensity contributed much to the inci'ease of 
Manchester, for situations which twenty years ago were 
diosen for their rurality, are now enveloped in the sur- 
rounding bustle of the town." Thirty years before this 
time, the neighbourhood of St Ann's and St James's 
Square, or King-street, were the best situated for ware- 
houses. Peel-street was almost an outskirt of the town, and 
nearly the whole site was rented for £14 a-year. Sir 
Robert, then Mr. Peel, by erecting a warehouse, in what 
was a "retired situation," first drew budness to that 
quarter. At the same period, Cromford Court, Hodson's 
Square, &c., were covered by mean cottages or pig-sties; 
Pool Fold, before it became a market in 1781, was filled 
with gardens, bams and cottages— the latter, of which the 
Three Tuns public^iousewas a part, formed a small group, 
known by the name of Hyde Park. At the date of these 
remarks (1804) Grosvenor Square was being laid out and 
one house had been erected. Ardwick Green " which thirty 
years ago was a distant village" had becmne a conspicuous 
part of the town : and the Salford Crescent, then rising into 
existence inspired the pen of a cotemporary writer with 
glowing eulogies of its circumjacent beauties: — ^''the fertile 
valley" enriched by the ''meandering Irwell, and studded 
with rural cots," formed a landscape (says Mr. Aston) 
^ whidi never fails to create an admiration that will reiterate 
as often as the eye looks over the fascinating picture." 

These changes were no doubt wonderful in those days, 
but how insignificant are they when placed in comparison 

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with the alterations which the last five and twenty years 
have witnessed. For every one of the elegant squares or 
spacious streets upon which this author dwelt with so much 
rapture, we may now exhibit vast suburbs, each of which 
might take rank as a town. 

The great increase in the population of Manchester 
rendered it necessary to effect more extensive changes in 
the principal thoroughfares than could possibly be achieved 
by private voluntary subscriptions, and accordingly^ in the 
year 1821 an Act of Parliament was obtained, which 
authorized the widening of Market-street Lane, King-street, 
Nicholas Croft, Toad Lane and Pool Lane. These im- 
provements were not effected without a great outlay of 
money, but the expense has been amply compensated by 
the increased accommodation the inhabitants have derived 
from being enabled to pass with ease and safety along 
avenues (streets they could hardly be called) which were 
not unfrequently the scenes of serious disaster. Market- 
street was previously a mere " lane ;** along which two car- 
riages could scarcely move in line: the houses were of 
antique structure, for the most part in a dilapidated 
state, and the flag-way was in many places hardly a yard 
wide. The taking down, widening and rebuilding, occu- 
pied many years: it was completed in 1834. Toad 
Lane was one of the filthiest suburbs of the town, so con- 
fined that the winds of Heaven could scarcely penetrate it 
King-street was of its present width, but bounded at the 
bottom by a carrier's warehouse, which was removed to 
make the existing junction with Deansgate. Ten or fifteen 
years ago the footway of this street and other principal 
thoroughfares was paved like the carriage way, from which 
it was distinguishable only by a slight elevation. Toll Lane 
was a narrow avenue, through which a cart could hardly 
pass, connecting Police-street with Deansgate : a fine wide 
thoroughfare^ in continuation of St. Ann's-street, has beea 

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substituted for it. All these alterations are now completed; 
their cost is stated below in a succinct form : — 


















moot 90-^^ « 

SS -g 

II 's 


O w 



a 9 

; o e e « le 0* 

1 -^^U 



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iDcorrect statements haying gone forth in regard to the 
planning of these improvements, it is merely an act of 
justice to state that their most zealous promoter was Mr. 
Fleming, who for many years filled the office of Treasurer 
to the Commissioners of Police. He was for upwards of 
twenty years one of the Surveyors of Highways of Man- 
diester, on his retirement from which office a handsome piece 
of plate was presented to him at a dinner very numerously 
attended at the York Hotel. Through his enterprize> and 
only by taking considerable responsibility upon himself, 
the Market«treet Bill was originated, and in carrying it 
through and superintending the working of it up to the 
present time, he has undoubtedly had the principal share. 
In Baines's history of Lancaaliire it is stated that the 
merit of concocting the Gas Bill and the improvements 
effiscted under it is due to Mr. George William Wood. 
This is not the case; the merit of the origination is ded* 
dedly due to Mr. Fleming, who, for several years previous 
to the Gas Bill being applied for, perseveringly endeavoured 
to compass its being taken up by the town, and in conse- 
quence drew much odium on himself from the low radical 
party. To Mr. George William Wood, as one of the depu- 
tation in London for superintending the progress of the Bill, 
and subsequently, after the Act passed, as one of the most 
active Conunisnoners under it^ credit is due, but in both 
these points Mr. Fleming is deserving of equal notice, while 
the entire merit of the origination, as before stated, is exclu- 
sively his own. Mr. Fleming was one of the individuals, not 
more than three or four in number, who originated the 
Natural History Society and Botanic Garden. Mr. 
Fleming has now for several years gratuitously given his 
exertions as a trustee on nearly all the turnpike roads out 
of Manchester, on none of which has he had any personal 
interest from possessing adjoining property, &c. 

SubsequenUy to the passing of the Act which authorised 

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these chaDgeSy more pennaaeot means of carrying forward 
the improvements which are essential to the comfort of a 
crowded and increasing population have been devised. 
The profits of the gas works are now applicable (in a way 
more particnlarly detailed elsewhere) to these purposes, and 
under the administration of an Improvement Committee 
the revenue has been applied to many useful objects, 
some of the more important of which may be briefly stated. 
It will of course be understood that these improvements 
have been confined to the township of Manchester only, as 
distinguished from the town. Salford has its Improvement 
Committee also, but as yet they have had no funds to 
cairy out the purposes of their appointment; whilst the 
suburban districts of Hulme, Chorlton-upon-Medlock and 
Ardwick have neither Conmiittee nor money, nor have they 
benefitted by the Manchester fund, except in so fkr as the 
improvem^ts in the trunk cannot fail in some degree to 
beeefit the branches. 

The Manchester Improvement Committee was first 
formed in the year 1828-9, since which time a great number 
of alteraUims, mxae or less extensive, have been efifected 
through its mediation. The first step of any mag- 
nitude was the removal in 1830 of a toll-gate» on Ducie 
Bridge, iHiich was accomplished by a compromise at an 
esqieme of £800. This was a great accommodation to the 
inhalMtanls^ and affords a good precedent for a similar 
arrangement in regard to the Blackfriars Bridge. In 1831 
the widMiing of Cross-street, intended eventually to be con- 
ttnued to Harketrstreet, was commenced, and Cateaton- 
stre^ was improved by pulling down and re-building an 
old-fiishioned edifice occupied as a tin-shop by Mrs. Ford. 
In 1832 parts of Long Millgate were widened, but that old 
thoroughfare is still very inadequate to the wants of the 
community : extensive changes are, however, in contem- 
plation there. £1401 16s. 8d. were also spent in widening 

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Todd-street or Toad Lane. Id 1833 the improvement oa 
Hunt's Bank commenced : it has been pursued ever sinc^ 
and is now in progress. The expense of carrying for- 
ward a spacious road so far as the Exchange will be very 
great, but the advantage will be fully proportioned to the 
outlay. In this year the purchase of property for the great 
improvement now progressing in London Road was com- 
menced. In 1834 opportunity was taken to purchase land 
opposite the Town Hall in King-street, for tlie purpose of 
carrying back the line of buildings to range with the wider 
part of the street, and the widening of Store-street was com- 
pleted, so far as the requisite purchases were concerned. 
In 1835 and until the expiration of the Act in April, 1836, 
these improvements were pursued, and many others of 
minor extent in Liverpool Road, Spring Gardens, Friday- 
street, Great Ancoats-street, Fountain-street, Little Peter- 
street, Parker-street, Albion-street, fwhere a toll-bridge 
existed,) Miller-street, Police-street, &c. &c., have been 
effected, if consisting only, as in many cases, of the re- 
moval of projecting buildings or the rounding of comers ; 
whilst those of greater extent have of course merely been 
initiated. The expense of each of these alterations cannot 
be separately ascertained from any accessible document 
Hereafter it may be a matter of curiosity to know the rela- 
tive value of property in the various quarters of the town, 
which is ascertainable from the records of purchases made 
by the Improvement Committee. In Store-street 96^ 
yards of land sold in 1831 for £63 14s. ; land in' Liver- 
pool Road sold (at twenty years' purchase) for a shilling, 
and in Brazennose-street for eight-pence per yard. In 
Cross-street a plot of 31f yards sold for £187 6s. 8d. ; and 
in Little Peter-street 471 yards were purchased at sixpence. 
In 1832 60} yards of land in Long Mitigate sold for 
£120 138. 4d. : in Nicholas-street land was bought at 2s. 6d. 
per yard. £295 were paid for 46^ yards of land to im- 

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prove the avenue between the New Market and Market- 
street In 1833, 222 yards of land in Parsonage were pur- 
chased for £444; 55^ yards in Lower Mosley-street were 
bought for £82 10s.; 7| yards in Great Ancoats-streetfor 
£10, and another plot of 45^ yards for £45 lOs. ; 1 74 yards 
in Little Peter-street sold for £59 8s.; in Pool Fold d^ 
yards were purchased for dC50 ; 7 yards in Fountain-street 
for £30; and 21 square feet in Spring Gardens were 
obtained for £100. Id 1834, 71 yards of enclosed areas 
in King-street were bought for £354 19s. lOd.; 33 yards 
in Albion-street for £16 10s.; 49 yards in Liverpool Road 
for £73 10s. ; and 450 yards in Store-street for £318 I5s. 
In 1835, 208 yards of land in Long Mitigate were pur- 
chased for £521 ; another plot of 50^ yards at the comer 
of Todd-street for £280; 250 yards in Smithy Door were 
purchased for £2000; land in Hanging Ditch was obtained 
at £5, in Parker-street at £9, and in Deansgate at £4 per 
yard. The last purchase under the authority of the Act 
was made early in the year 1836 from Messrs. Mallalieu 
and Lees, who received for a plot lying between Cateaton- 
street and the river £4 7s. 7d. per yard. Many other pur- 
chases have of course been effected, but as generally the 
price of the land includes also compensation for build- 
ings or other considerations, no sure criterion is afforded 
of the fluctufltions in property. 

It is difficult to ascertain, with exactness, the pecuniary 
extent to which modem improvements have been carried 
in the town, but the following table details minutely the 
operations of the Improvement Committee during the three 
most active years of their existence, as well as their obliga- 
tions at the commencement of the year 1836: — 

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No. 1 
s 8 
s 3 

a 4 
= 6 
= 7 
s 8 
« 9 
B 10 
= 11 
a IS 
c= 13 
ss 14 

08 9 S 



309 8 

88 10 

itfS066 6 8 
748 19 7 

1010 6 
1499 8 8 

874 14 

78 10 

^10C 6 1 
71 6 

6409 13 7 




^^19183 7 8 

jtf768a 8 6 

^^30067 3 8 

Works mdA Propertf Contnctcd for, bat not Pftld for:— 

No. 3. 

No. 0. 

No. 7. 

No. 8. 

No. 9. 


No. 18. 


















The Act under which the Committee were aathorized to 

effect improvements having expired, a renewal of its powen 

was sought in the Session of Parliament 1836, and granted 

for three years, after a strong opposition. The new law 

embraces some additional important provisions, which will 

obviate the necessity for future outlay of money in improve 

meuts, by compelling parties to erect new buildings, and 

to lay out new ground, according to rules specified by the 

Commissioners. The * schedule*' contains a sunmuiry of 

improvements in the following localities: — 

Hanginf Ditch tram Peond-shreet to the Intended stto of Ihc Cora Rrrtiangei 
also flrom the Corn Exdwnge to Ghnrch Getes. The itfupaty flrom tiie end d 
Cumon-street to Old BfiUgate. The two comers in the street leeding ftom St. 
Mary*8-8tTeet to Back Sonth Parade. The comer between Deansgate and St. 
Mary's Gate, on the sootheriy side ofthe latter street Smutay properties In Long 
IfiUgate between Mr. Heath's property and Rawson*8 new line, and firom Messrs. 
doggand NoRi8*8 mill to the BarooghreeTe>s Charity land, and from tfaenoe to 
the gateway of the Grammar School ndU: also from College Gates to the New 
Grammar School. Mr. Oowbmm's premises In Todd-street. Mayea-street to 
SbndebiU. Ihe sooth-^ast side d Croesotieet, from and indncUDg the pre- 

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inliM ktrlj ooeoiiM ^ Mn* Pickup, padcer, to PriiieeM.itre0t OaaMt^ 
street from FMnitain-street to Back Modey-street Tfae inp}ecliof hpntet on 
the natOuaHj Mt of Aahtan-ttxeetfrom Chadwick Oonit to London Boad.— - 

Tke above Propertiet were ittcimded In Me Seked ul et of former Aeie, 8<ich 

properties aa maybe neceesaiy to complete the opening from the narthertr tad 
of Meavs. MaUaliea and Lees*8 premiaea, OoUegiate Church Yard, through 
Smithy Door, to the Market Place, oppoeite tlie Exchange. St Mary's and 
Parsonage, from Water-street to Blackfnars. From Deansgate to Water-streel^ 
throng the Star Inn Yard. The properties protecting on the sooth-eastedy 
aide Gf Long Bfillgate, from MiUer-street to Todd-street The projecting part 
of Mr. CcdUn's warehouse in Todd-street, and the Lamb public-hoase, Todd* 
BtreeL Edward^straat on both sides to Tlmber-street, and Croas-street from 
the court leadinr from Cross-street to Back Balloon-street, to Hanorer-straet. 
Hie widening of Garden-street, near ShaddiiU, and an extension of that street 
at the nartheily end, acroas Back Balloon-street and Back Hanorer-street to 
the end of Dantdc-street FenneLstreet. Ftom the end of Bridge-street to 
Owss street. Xactenslon of Brown-stzeet from its Junction with Chancery Lane 
to Booth-atreet The p t op e iiy on the south-easterly side of King-street from 
ITisiii MUtti to Pan MalL The portion of Mr. Holford's house at the oomer of 
Brown-street, which p ictfec ts Into King-street. Hie house oocni^ed by Mrs. 
ff^i— miimt^ ff lii t iii ff ii eaad the warehouse occufdedby Mr. Crossley and others, 
Tock-atieet. Parker-street, so Hsr as may be necessary to make the street Una- 
able with the Plne-street oomer of Messrs. Potter's new warehouse. Sugar 
Lane and Duke-street to Cannon-street, and Broom-street to ShudehiU. Oreen* 
wood-«treet to Duke-street Tlie comer of Roger-street at Red-bank. The oor> 
ncr of the lata Duke of Bridgewater's warehouse, Knott MilL Dafid-streel^ 
Mr. Bdlhouse's land, and Canal Bridge, and the areas in front of the houses in 
Brook-sfreet, at the oomer of Hunt-street Mr. Blair's land, in TraTis-street. 
SonClv-sida of Pctar-street tram the new Chapel to Deansgate, and south-side 
of Qnay-streetfrom Deansgate to Longworth-street The opening of Poole- 
sbeettoSoath-stxeet Mr. Laing*s stables, Poole-street That part of Jack- 
eonfa Bow, caDed U»e Mount The properties required to make a suitable street 
ITomLoiig IfiUgate to Old BtiDgate, commencing at the foot of Todd-streel^ 
and tennuiating at the p ropert y purchased by the Commissioners, now occu- 
pied by Mr. Caadelet Tlie property on the northerly side of BfiUer.street from 
Beewick'a Bow to Blackley-street The Red Lion public-house at the Junction 
oftteaooth-eaalertyomer of Travis-street with London Road. So much of 
the tend and bnO^nga in Whittle's Craft as will be required to make that street 
ttw same width aa Dode-street, and of the land adjoining the street leading 
fimn Whittle's Craft to the end of Mather-street, as win make that street the 
same width aa Mather-street The property on the north side of Bridge-street 
fimn New BaUey-street to Water-street The property in Booth-street from 
lib Lane to Cooper-street The property in the Apple Market from Dr. Smith's 
kooae to and inrtwHag the okl Burial Ground at Hunt's Bank. The prop ei tv 
belonging to Dr. OQham and Sirs. Clegg and others, in Cannon-street, which 
wfll be r e qui red to make a straight line from the comer of Smith, HiU and Co.'8 
ww^Moam, to the oomer of Bfr. Hankinson's warehouse. 

It willy of coarse, be long ere the extended changes con- 
templated in this schedule can be, if within the memory of 
living men they are ever, completed. The utmost facility 
should however be afforded to all efforts, public or private, 
of which the object is to ameliorate the internal economy 
and police of a town rising so rapid]y that the increase of 
each year is overshadowed by that of the next 

The growth of property in the two boroughs of Manches- 
ter and Salford has never been shewn in any authorized 

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form. The following tables, which have been prepared with great 
labour, give an exact view of the progressive increase for a series 
of years : — 







■I«)aaH JO 

-SV roox 












9 m 2 M cQ eo ^ 


5 S-S J 

^fia = < 

* a II II 11 n - 




ee m eo<o 







gj oooeeeeeee 

. iipiiiiii 

«o<o m u> eo o e ^ e<o ooto ^ t^ I ^ lO e? oo k) 

go r>»£3 p»-* « « 52 « -^o i-i » ^ .«ooe«co» 

*. r . « ? S - - 


tH II II 11 II II 11 ii li II II 11 II II II II II )i iiin ^ ^. 

« W « M « CO frl W « CO « CO W « Z CO « CO-* -v 


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fV Wox 







•IRS- 1 sSuipiina 
'f pnrc 

'J0O *}iia3 
lad 01 p oB I 

M e e o o o o'e'o 


-tV TB¥KL 


' il II II II II 




'«M)l 1*6 )noq« 33cj9ab 

^oooioooeooMX^ o~o ©«©'o©ooooo "cTo"© 6 

• oo|Qi>.i2*Q<ooe(ec(*2eeceio>niooeeoN9eee 

• C«CS'^«>«t>..00OO-«»»c^. ^i-j«C l»XO. : 

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The returns for the three towiuhips of Newton, Bradfiml 
and Beswick, and Harpurhey, have not been received— the 
first because a pcnrtion of the town's books have been lost; 
the second owing to an oversight; and the thirds in con*' 
sequence of a disinclination on the part of one individual 
to afibrdthe desired information — a disinclination for which 
it is impossible to account, except upon the supposition 
that the assessment of property in Harpurhey is so low and 
made upon such bases as, if known, would cause an inter- 
ference by the county assessors. In 1829 the county 
assessment for Newton amounted to £9325 — that for 
Bradford and Beswick to £1480, and that for Harpurhey to 
£1148. All these districts are growing in population; in 
Bradfiord especially, which till of late was a bleak and 
desert region, new edifices are rapidly springing up. — In 
othm* respects the tables are nether so complete nor so 
minutely correct as could be wished, although much time 
and labour have been expended in collating them. The 
various, irregular modes of assesang property — ^the unsatis* 
factory management of accounts in some of the smaller 
townships-^the unwillingness to furnish information whe^re. 
the assessments are very low or unequal — ^the impossibility 
of arriving at correct data as to the rule of aggftgging dif* 
ferent kinds of property — these and other impediments 
have occurred, and in one or two instances have been 
found insurmountable. In Salford, for example, the 
fluctuating bases of assessment during five«nd-twenty years 
are now inexplicable. In Chorlton-npon-Mediock, no 
absolute standard of assessment can be specified. 

The tables exhibit an extraordinary increase in the two 
towns of Manchester and Salford. In the former, there 
has been an augmentation in ten years of the annual value 
of property from £ 334,737 in 1825, to £ 573,085 in 1835; 
in Uie latter, the annual value was in 1825 £74,979; it is 
now £114,769. It further appears that in Manchester 

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the assessments were in 1816 £406,966» and that they 
ware last year £573fi86, giving an increase, in twenty 
ysw^B, of nearly one hundred and seventy thousand 
pounds.* In Ardwicic, property has been nearly doubled 
in the short period of eight years. In Hulme the 
increase in ten years has been from £23,038 lOs. to 
£37,893. But the township in which the growth has been 
most extraordinary is that of Chorlton^ipon-Hedlock : 
here a town has actually been created within a few years 
1^ the erection of factories. The following 6gnres illus- 
trate the point very strikingly : — 


■ in 1818 ^19 


Population io 1801 075 

„ 1811 9581 

M 1891 8910 




In Pendleton, Broughton and Pendlebnry, though 
those townships do not contain many manufactories, there 
IMS been a very material increase^ In 1835 the total 
annual value for the borough of Salford was £ 185/^43. 

As regards the township of Manchester, the annexed 
statement shews the districts in which the increase of pro- 
perty is chiefly to be found : — 



1889. 1 1833. 



No. 1 

a u 

a 14 

^49087 5 
99904 15 
90000 15 
98795 15 
41040 5 


19074 5 
14900 15 
94519 15 
11903 10 

99500 5 
90035 10 
98188 10 
99955 15 


90045 10 
49009 5 
14897 10 
9«004 5 
11004 15 
15487 5 

^49909 5 

95999 10 
90599 15 
99137 10 
90593 10 



17033 15 
90044 10 
118S0 10 
10450 15 
93830 10 

jtf5348S 5 


99784 10 
90519 10 
40105 15 
I9O8O 10 
99308 5 
MOOf 5 
17119 10 ^ 
97599 10 
19099 5 
10098 8 
99735 5 



997O75 10 


4990U 1 

• tt It 8l3ted in Um iMOntty foldiohad DIrectorT or MandiHtw tlMt ilBoo 
Uie iMt nmrtj, four yean aco. Mm bnndrad new rtrecU l»Te been ftjimed 
inUie town, wUcb. eelcnletins eacb itreet to contain ten booeei, and eacb. 
bonae tix InmaOca, giTea an addttloii ot aeren tbooond bonaea and forty- 

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In the reign of William and Mary, the taxable property 
in Manchester was rated at £4375, and the first assessment 
for the laud tax at 4s. in the pound produced £875. How 
great is the contrast now, as shewn in the payments from 
this town for assesed taxes: — 

Amount of ABiened 
Yew. Taxes charged. 

18S8 1^25^90 • 

|8t9 383,87 • 

1830 177»67 • • 

1831 990,08 • 

I83S 300,09 • 

1833 901,94 • 

1834 108,99 

In 1794* the poor's rate, at five shillings in the poond, 
produced only £9270 148. In 1834 the poor's rate assess- 
ment, on a rate of half-a-crown, realized JE A4fi96, In 
the first-named year (1794) the post-horse duties for 
this district were let for only £7640; at a recent letting 
they produced £20,720. In 1790, it was mentioned as an 
extraordinary fact that Manchester paid in postages 
£11,000, heing a larger amount than any other provincial 
town. In 1834 this sum was nearly trehled, as appears 
from the following comparative tahle : — 


1839. 1833. 1834. 

Manchester jffS3,sio 8 4 4^50,987 10 11 4^00,09119 6 

London 039,090 17 8 049,871 7 000,41111 4 

Birmingham 98,085 1 II 98,819 4 99,958 1 7 

Bristol 83,884 14 10 89,949 13 8 83,910 17 8 

Hall 14,007 14 4 14,853 19 9 14,859 15 I 

Leeds 90,310 10 11 91,331 18 90,070 ft 

Liverpool 70,01117 7 74,080 11 l 77>333 1 4 

Edinburgh 49.759 17 0| 41,804 10 «1,08O 10 9ft 

Glasgow 30,053 19 11 30,481 8 80,483 8 5 

DabUn 80,011 19 10 09,090 9 8 70,344 I I 

But the importance, in more pcMnts than one, of the town 
of Manchester — the great aids wMch its extended popula- 
tion and commerce are the means of throwing yearly into 
the national Exchequer — the various branches of industry 
in which its teeming thousands are engaged — the rapid 

* At this time the Chmrchwardens nerer thonght of keeping the town's cash 
apart: it was deposited in their ownmoneybozeowitta their own prhntemooieaF 

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advance of its trade and manufactures in extent and pros- 
perity — are perhaps most strikingly shewn in the following 
returns, which have heen obtained from the Excise Office 
in Manchester, and which convey an amount of statistical 
information not often comprized in the same limits. The 
return of duties paid in bricks during the last ten years is 
almost startling, and the columns headed paper, glass, 
printed goods and licenses, present results not less gratify- 
ing. In those articles the proceeds of which shew a de- 
crease, it will of course be borne in mind that there have 
been various alterations and reductions of duty: — 

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g § 

i & 

! s 

at z 

M B 





*nPFlS VBPa 

••pooo imnpd 










*9daqs J^a 


« S ^2 ^ 2 J* - !> 2 2 

^ : 


fsSSg'SSJ . . . . 
^^^«.n«5t*i : : : : 

^ « -r — «• * ^ 


»<0 9«tD — Ok 

e ?« ••« «2 «... 
S22S2ft£ • • • 

aim « OB ^ "* jt 

S OD 9) n I«o S S t t 


•2^91 •vt^.rN.MQo 



CommenoediS S ^S S 




5 '^-3 SB 

SJ O C H ^ 

^x: a o 

9 ^ Ji s .2 

^ 5^ £ '^ ^ 
S'B T. S u b^' 



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This table affords no very clear data for estimating 
the increased consamption of exciseable articles in Han- 
diester, many taxes having in the course of ten years 
been either wholly repealed or greatly modified: it is never- 
theless a very important document^ and one which has 
never before met the public eye. The next paper is of 
equal novelty and far more curious: — 










rf e« • e «« 2 «<o n r^« <« o M • m <« 

^ o 4^^ »>o o <e 2 e o oom^ mod 







N 2 

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The former table gave the amount in money of the 
various taxes ; the next furnishes the number of charges 
under each head : — 










of or 

Chartta Chargeo 

1634. 1 183ft. 

1 Wiodowt 
















































































































Ibbmbtted House Datr 

Servant*, C. No. 1 

Under Ounekeepen. 

Stewards, BailUh,&c 

TrsTcUera '. 




Coachmen and Guards. 

Foar. wheeled Carriages 

Ditto, byOneUorsa 

Ditto, to Hire 

Poet Chaises. 

Two- wheeled Carriages 

Dttto, by Two Horses 



Horses by Batchers 

Ditto, to Hire 

Other Horses 



Other Dofs, Us 

Ditto Ditto, 8s 

Horse Dealers 

Hair Powder 

Armorial ss. 8d. 

Ditto is. 4d. 

Ditto .*' . * i2d* 

GameCertillcates d! 

Gamekeepers b. 

Game Dealers 

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Lancashire claims special praise as having set the ex- 
ample to the country in the great modern arts of internal 
communication by land and water. With the exception of 
some petty cuttings to promote a purely local object or 
to obviate some trifling defect in river communication, no 
attempt was ever made to improve upon the resources of 
nature by means of internal canals, until the splendid 
genius of Brindley was called into life by the late Duke of 
Bridgewater. The Irwell and Mersey Navigation had un- 
dergone, so early as 1720, various improvements under the 
direction of the Proprietors, and it is said that even a cen- 
tury previously the project of similarly improving one of 
our classic English rivers, the Avon, had been brought 
to maturity in the mind of an individual named Sandys; 
but the design was lost in the tumult of civil war, so that 
the Company trading from tlie Old Quay were probably 
the first to effect any extensive amendment, even in river 
communication.* Every body is now familiar with the 
achievements of Brindley, which, originating in a design to 
bring the coal of the Duke of Bridgewater from Worsley 
to Manchester at a cheaper rate, have been the means of 
rendering England inferior only to Holland in her inland 
resources. The aquaduct at Barton was in the day of its 
achievement one of the wonders of the world ; the design 
was regarded as the day-dream of a madman. Equally 

* Hw Mcney, tbe Wmtw and Um Doufl^ ars the only nayig»bte ilT«n 
In thii comity. 

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woadeffol intluit day WCTe«the emhankmenti whidi earned 
the canal through the ndghbonriiig piaim of Chesldra^ 
upon an elevation greatly aboTe the natoral level ficrnd^ 
ley was a natoral gemot; it is onderstood that» onableie 
work oot resolts opon paper^ he formed and compkted his 
plans mentally, whilst lying in bed, where he freqaenfly i«*> 
mained daring continooos days and nights. He was 
langhed at, opposed, ridicoled ; and it is an evidence of 
mental greatness scarcely inferior to his own, that the Dnkae 
of Bridgewater never appears to have withdrawn his ooi^ 
idence from him, even when his plans (as for the construe* 
tion of the Barton aqoaduct) appeared the least feasible. 
On the contrary, he held with him so enthosiastically as to 
Umit his own personal expenditore to £400 per annum, in 
order that every available penny of his resources might go 
to the accomplishment of the great and novel wori^. 

Upon the completion of the whole undertaking, Man- 
chester possessed the convenience of water oonmiunicaUoa 
with Warrington, Runcorn and Liverpool, by means of the 
river and the new canal. The least of the advantages 
arising from the latter was that it reduced fraghtage by 
one-half. Plans of new canals, rapidly concocted, 
were as quickly achieved, and Lancashire now possesses 
almost direct means of intercourse with every part of the 
country, ^uing immediately from Manchester, there is 
a canal to Bury and Bolton, (projected 1791) another to 
Aditon and Oldham, (Act obtained 1792} another to Roch- 
dale (authorised by Parliament, 1794). These canah 
branch to various counties. The Grand Trunk Canal, 
twenty-six miles long, (designed by Brindley) interseols 
Cheshire, Staffordshire and Derbyshire, and fails into the 
river Trent in Leicestershire, which, besides being itself 
navigable, has communication by canals and partial rail- 
roads with Warkwickshire, Northamptonshire, Linodnshin^ 
tike river Wash, and the port of Boston. The Bolton iusd 

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Bwy enal, by the Hadingden extension, oomnmnicatet 
with the Leeds and Liyerpool, which carries the adTantages 
ef inland traffic to Blackburn, Burnley, Colne, Onnskirk, 
kc^ and thence by a branch to Wigan. This latter town 
also communicates with the Lancaster canal, which runs 
by West Broughton, through Ghorley, Preston, Oar* 
stang, lAocaster to Kendal, (a distance of seyenty-fiTe 
miles and a half) in its progress to which place seyeral 
minor branches connect it with the interior districts. The 
Ashton and Oldham Canal (the latter town being reached 
by a branch from Fairfield) runs eleven miles, and at As|b* 
ton a branch has been formed, through Stalybridge wid 
Saddleworth, to Huddersfield, nineteen miles and three- 
quarters. The Rochdale canal branches from the Duke 
of Bridgewater's through the coal districts lying between 
this town and Rochdale; thence it proceeds to Todmorden, 
Hebden Bridge and Sowerby Bridge, thirty-nine and a 
half miles, where it falls into the Galdcr nayigatioQ* 
Thus LiverpooL the great out-port of Lancashire, has 
direct communication with Hull and Goole, in York- 
shire^ whilst almost all the towns in the two counties §re 
linked with their neighbours and with each other. By 
By the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal, uniting 
the Grand Trunk and the river Severn, easy inters 
oourse is held with Bristol; the great towns of Bir* 
mingham, Wolverhampton, Oxford and Coventry have 
been brought into similar communicadon; and London 
has been added to the great chain by means of the GramI 
lunctioa Canal, The Chester and Shrewsbury canal 
affords also an avenue to the rich counties of Salop, 
Gloucester, &c, and gives another opening to Bristol. la 
diort it may be said, that there is not a town in Lancashiie 
which does not possess the advantage of almost direct in* 
tercourse by water with the principal mercantile depots 
and ouCports, and that though every county in England 

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may not be as fortunately circumstanced as out own, 
scarcely a town of any magnitude is wholly unpossessed of 
facilities similar to those enjoyed by Lancashire. If 
any be, the evil is likely to be remedied by that new 
species of inland commerce which railways are now 
rapidly supplying. An immense amount of capital has 
has been embarked in canals: the number of shares in 
these speculations in 1833 was from 25,000 to 30,000, the 
nominal value of which varied from £1820, (the Lough- 
borough) £705, (the Erewash) £610, (the Stafford and 
Worcester) £750 (the Mersey and Irwell); down to £5 5s., 
(the Basingstoke) £1, (the Croyden) and £5 lOs., (the Wilts 
and Berks.) In general the original shares were dE50, 
£100, or £150, and in numberless cases the "average 
cost per share" greatly exceeded the original subscrip- 
tion, so that taking the value of all these shares at the low 
rate of £100 each, and taking into connderation several 
Scotch and Irish woriu not enumerated here, the money 
embarked in all the canals of the empire cannot fall short 
of thirty to forty millions. — It may here be mentioned that 
England is unsurpassed by any other country in the extent 
and excellence of her tumpikenroads, which like her canab 
and railroads have been in a degree the effect and the 
cause of her commercial greatness. In 1829, when a Par- 
liamentary Committee was appointed to investigate the 
subject, it appeared that the paved streets and highroads 
in England and Wales were 19,798 miles in length, whilst 
thfe cross-roads and highways were to the extent of 95,000 
miles: of these, the income was in 1829 £1,455,291, which 
fell short of the annual expenditure by £44,277, exclusive 
of the outlay on public roads by parish labour, which is 
calculated to amount to £lOO/)00 per annuuL The tunip 
pike trusts are burdened with upwards of £7,000,000 Of 
debtB. In Lancashire there were at the time of this inquiry 
fifty-one trusts, representing an extent of 631 miles of road; 

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the annual income frgm the tolls and compositioo labour 
was £74,724, the expenditure £72,574. 

In the years 1822 and 1825, two projects were broached 
for adding to the commercial facilities afforded by canals 
and turnpike-roads. The first of these was a proposed 
railway, of which the feasibility seems not to have been 
generally apparent until two or three years later, when, as 
will be seen, the plan assumed a tangible shape. The latter 
was the proposal to cut a ship canal from the mouth of the 
Dee to Manchester, thus at once obviating the necessity 
for canals or nnrrow rivers to convey our manufactures to 
liverpool, by bringing our own ships and those of the 
foreigner at once to the centre of this town. The expense 
of so novel an undertaking was estimated at one million, 
and the required capital was to be raised in ten thousand 
shares of £100 each. The schema was so far approved, 
that in 1825 application was made to Parliament for an 
Act to sanction it, and a Bill was brought in, but the neces- 
sary forms not having been observed, its promoters were 
defeated at the threshold of their undertaking. The plan 
has not, even in these adventurous days, been renewed, 
either because it was found impracticable in itself, or that 
the rival scheme of a railway superseded the desire and 
the necessity for this artificial inland ocean. 

It is an extraordinary circumstance, that this town and 
liverpool should have anticipated every other part of the 
kingdom in substituting railroads for the accustomed 
ittodes of intercourse. Though in the north some suclf 
specolations had already been undertaken, they were com- 
paratiwly of limited extent, and might have continued 
very long uncopied in the southern districts, had not ^e 
enterprising people of our sister town presented such a 
okmM for imitation as the Liverpool and Manchester 
Railway Bup|riied. The scheme for the formation of this 
railroad was ushered into the world by a declaration 

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firom one hundred and fifty merchants of Liverpool^ that 
they had Tor a long time past expertenoed gieaft di&> 
eultj in obtaining Yetsek to convey goods from Ihli 
place (Liyerpool) to Manchester, and that the delay iq 
highly prejudicial to the trading and manuftictaciog m» 
terests at large ^ that they considered the present. eatalH 
lishmeats for the transport of goods» (namely^ the Jlersajr 
and Irwell navigation, and the Duke^s canai) ''^iut» 
inadequate;^ and lastly, *' that a new line of oonveyano^ 
had become absolutely necessary to conduct the increasing 
trade of the country with speed, certainty and eeonomy/* 
On the 29th. October, 1824 a proqiectus for the formatimt* 
of a ^ double railway*' between Liverpool and MaachesteK 
appeared, and on the 28th. February, 1825, the ahara*^ 
holders petitioned Parliament for leave to bring in a BiUt 
their petition was graniad, and the Bill was introduced witik 
the certainty of opposition from the Mersey and IrweU- 
Navigation, the Bridgewater Canal and the Leeds «Ad 
liverpool Canal Proprietors, as well as from the Eaila of 
D^by and Sefton, the principal land-owners on the pm* 
posed route, the road being intended to pass within a mile 
and a half of Croxteth Hall, and two miles of Kaowsiejr 
Hall. In a second survey the Company carried their line to 
a much greater distance from these mansions, with a vieirto 
mitigate the hostility of their noble owners. The oppoaitiett 
of the Canal and River Proprietors arose of course natuiaUjr 
from an expectation that the railway would bccmna a itaur. 
gerous, if not a ruinous rival to them, whilst the nobte^and 
oth^ landK»wners of Lancashire looked upon such a load 
passing through their property as a nuisance of the most' 
intolerable character. They conceived, too, that aUmti- 
of vagabonds would be brought by it into cont^^ iMk' 
thor estates, and that the beauty of their drawittg4oofl|» 
would be defaced by so unseemly an object as a stflttm^ 
eng^ae. For the time this accumulated hostility was flnc« 

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QitBBM^ and after a contest of some thir^-eeren days Ui 
Oomimttee, the promoters of the. Bill, having carried the 
preamble by a majority of thirty-seVen to thirty-six only, 
were defeated in some of its succeeding stages, and it was 
tfieMopon abandoned for the Session. In February, 1826, 
t|ie 1^1 was reintroduced — a minority of forty-seven 
aanciioned it in the Common^ and it passed the 
Upper House without any material impediment, only one 
dirision having been had upon it The original estimate 
df the cost of the railroad, calculated afler a survey of the 
country by Mr. 6. Stephenson, was £400,000, and the 
shares were fixed at £lOa On the failure of the first Paiy 
liamentary effort, the Gonunittee ordered a new survey of 
country by Messrs. Renoie, who adopted a line south of 
that originally proposed : it was found necessary to increase 
the capital of the Company, and with a view to diminish 
the opposition they had encountered in Parliament, the 
Committee entered into a successful negociation with the 
Marquis of Stafford, as the person [urincipally interested^ 
in the Duke's Canal. The Marquis having taken a thousand 
shatea in the project was allowed to nominate three Direo* 
ton, and he thenceforward ranked as oneoTthe warm sup- 
porters of the plan. By the removal of these obstacles, 
and by a favourable change perhaps in the opinions of 
Peers and Commoners as to the effect of railways upon the 
great commercial interests of the Country, upon landed 
firoperty generally, and upon those estates particulariy 
which lie contiguous to or are intersected by railroadsi the 
Comnuttee and Shareholders were enabled to achieve the 
ot^ieot of their second application to Parliament Of the 
first Committee formed to promote the railway, H. H. Bir> 
ley, Josqph Birley, Peter Ewart, William Gamett, Jobn 
Kesmedy, John Ryle, Thomas Sharp, Esqrs., of this town, 
were members. The required capital was then fixed at 
£400,00a Upon the second Committee were H. H. and 

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Joseph Birley, B. Booth, P. Ewart, R. H. Greg, John 
Kennedy, Aaron Lees, John Ryle, and T. Sharp, Esqrs. 
The capital was increased to £510,000. In their efforts 
to conciliate public favor, the Committees issued one 
prospectus on the 29th. October, 1824, and another on the 
26th. December, 1827. In these documents it is stated 
that the average length of passs^ for goods by canal or 
river between Liverpool and Manchester was thirty-six 
hours — it is now, by river, from six to ten hours, and by 
canal somewhat more; that the average freightage for four- 
teen years had been about fiileen shillings — ^it is now from 
six-and-eightpence to ten shillings, per ton, by the canal 
or river, and by the railway about twenty-five per cent 
higher; that the shares in the Old Quay Navigation, 
(costing originally about £70) had been sold as high as 
£1260 each !— they are now about £ 570. Both documents 
dwelt especially upon the advantages which must cer- 
tainly result to Ireland from these improved means of 
intercourse with the inland districts of England. Here 
the srnguine expectations of the Committee have almost 
fallen short of the reality. By the Dublin and Kingston 
railway and the channd steam packets, the resident of the 
capital city of Ireland may be transported within a space 
of about thirteen hours to Liverpool, the commercial capi- 
tal of England, and thence within two hours to this, the 
^;reat mercantile dep6t of the world. It is notorious also, 
that the agricultural produce of Ireland — even the fresh 
butter and eggs and perishable vegetables, are conveyed 
within a few hours to supply the daily markets of Liver^ 
pool; whilst the live stock— the sheep and pig&--are trans- 
ported by the railway, to the weekly cattle market held in 
this town. 

The Act was obtained in the early part of May> 1826. 
On the 29th. of the same month, a meeting of the i^mre- 
holders was convoked in Liverpool for the election of twelve 

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Directors. On the next day the newly-elected body held 
their first meeting: in June operations were conunenced 
at Chat Moss, and in September on the Liverpool tunnel. 
In December a meeting of shareholders was held to sanc- 
tion an application to Parliament to authorize the advance 
by the Exchequer Loan Commissioners of £100,000, as a 
temporary accommodation: the approval of the general 
body was obtained — a Bill was introduced and passed in 
the spring of 1827 — ^the loan was paid in June, and a large 
increase was made to the labourers employed on the works, 
the nu)ney expended at the end of the year being £212,855 
198. 8d. These surely are instances of diligence and reso- 
lution rarely equalled. 

Of the works commenced thus early after the passing of 
the Act, Mr. G. Stephenson had the superintendence as 
principal Engineer of the Company, and those parts of the 
line wliich presented the greatest difficulties in the forma- 
tion were first undertaken. Such for example was the 
draining of Chat Moss, commenced as has been stated in 
Jane, 1826, and the formation of the tunnel' for goods, 
from the Crown-street station in Liverpool to the Docks, 
ji distance of 1970 yards. The latter works employed 
labourers from September 1826 to June 1828: the most 
formidable natural obstacles had to be surmounted, and 
it is stated that at times the workmen could with difficulty 
be induced to pursue their perilous employment Probably 
the most astounding achievement was the completion of a 
solid and enduring line of road over Chat Moss, — a bog 
covering about twelve miles. This labour, commenced in 
June 1836, was completed before the termination of the fol- 
lowing year. The Moss was of the softest and worst des- 
cription, impassable in many parts, and in forming the 
embankment at the eastern boundary (twenty feet liigh) 
an immense mass of earth was thrown in and wholly dis- 
appeared before anything like a palpable foundation for 

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the road coald be obtained. Another tract of waste land 
called Pair's Moss had also to be passed, but the labour 
here was comparativdy light Near it is the stnpendooi 
Sankey Viadact, which carries the railway over a valley^ 
considerable extent and over the canaL It is supported by 
mne arches of brick and stone, each of fifty feel diamtter^ 
and from fifty to serenty feet high. An embankment of a 
^ similar kind is formed over the valley at Newton, a narrow 
liver and the Warrington turnpike road passing under its 
arches. These embankments have a fearful aspect to the 
stranger who travels for the first time on the railroad, and 
perhaps many are unable to divest themselves of the idea 
that the carriages may diverge from the line of propriety, 
and try the descent The fixture possibility of sudi occur- 
rences has been prevented by the erection of a strong stone 
wall along the Newton embankment, and that at Sankey is 
also protected, a train of carriages having some time ago 
narrowly escaped the fatal cmsequences of such acbange of 
route on the Glazebrook embankment In consequence 
of an accident which occurred, the speed of carriages 
passing over the embankments has been lessened, and much 
skill and ingenuity have been applied, hitherto ineffec* 
tually, to the discovery of ''brakes ** more sure and efibctual 
in their operation than those previously in use. The en- 
trance to Manchester is by a fine bridge over the navigable 
river Irwell — ^the very stream which before the existence 
of the railroad afibrded the chief means of conveyance 
between Liverpool and Manchester. Another striking 
portion of the work is the cutting through Olive Mount 
near Liverpool,a mass of solid rock upwards of two miles in 
length, which has been removed to the depth, in some parts, 
of seventy feet; and the Kenyon excavation, firom which 
800,000 cubic yards of earth have been carried. Thus, 
summing up this brief catalogue of the principal features of 
the line— two tunnels were formed at Liverpool \ sixty-three 

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liridget were erected; 277^000 cobic jardi of earth were 
bfOQgfat together to fbrm the Chat Moss embankm^fe — the 
cottings were to the extent of 928,000,000 of cubic yards; 
twd tast tracts of moss land were crossed; and apart from 
tlie advantages thereby conferred on society through the 
nsedinm of the raifat>ad, these plains were opened to sue- 
ceasfol cnltiTation, Ghat Moss being now covered with farm-' 
bouses and its wide area presenting at the accustomed' 
aeason rich and luxuriant crops. The outlay upon the line 
afiKWSts (according to a report publidied inthe year 1831) 
to £092^064 3 a Since that period, however, the Direc- 
tors have been unceamngly emjdoyed in completing various 
sabonUnate parts of the work, and some time ago they 
undotook the construction of a tunnel for the conveyance 
of paseengers to the Haymarket, in Liverpool, at an esti-' 
mated cost of £120,000. The entire outlay on the railroad 
tberefiyre, will considerably exceed a million of money.* 

The princlpd items of expenditure are the follow- 
ing t— Bridge account, £99fi66 lis. 9d.; Fencing, 
£10,202 16s» dd.; Chat Moss account^ £27,719 lis. lOd. ; 
(a smaller average amount than for the other works;) Cut- 
ting and Embankments, £199,763 86. Od.; Carrying 
D^mrtment, (including the building of Warehouses, Offices, 
kc^ and the requisite purchase of land, and £19,000 for 
engines^, coaches, &c.) £56,219 lis. 4d.; Formation of 
the Boftd, £20,568 Ids. 5d. ; Rail account, (the iron being 
something less than £12 lOs. per ton,) £69,912 Os. 2d. ; 
Land 'account, £95,305 8. 8d.; Parliamentary and Law 

• Iki Ooi^iiiiy Iwvt had repeated oootakai to eppty to ParUament lo the 
cady part oC l8S8,tbeT otytained an Act to anthoflxe tome deviadont from tliel^ 
oili^Bal ttoa, wUh a View to its improremoit, and at a later period of tlw same 
jear aaedher Act was passed, a nt bo ri s inc tl>e Company to temdnate Uidr line 
In Water-straet, Manchester, instead of near the New Bailey, as they had first 
inlidadp aawdlas empowerinf tfaem to raise a foithar sum of jrii7,M0, in 
49S iihares, of which j^ioo shareholder was to hare the first retasal of one. 
'^ . ivere readOy aeeepted by the practice. The 

Ooovany hare since applied for and obtained an Acttoankiioflsethe comtmc^ 
tioo of the Haymarlcet tnnneL 

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Expenditure, £28^465 6s. lid.; Stone blocks and sleepers, 
(eighteen miles being originally laid with stone, and thir- 
teen with wooden sleepers,) for part of which, it is un- 
derstood, stone has since been substituted, £20,520 148. 
5d. ; Surveying account, £19^29 8s. 7d.; Tunnel account, 
£34,791 4s. 9d.; Tunnel Compensation account, £9,997 
6s. 7d. ; Waggons used in the progress of the work» 
£22,185 58. 7s.; making, with the minor items, a total 
outlay up to Slst of May, 1830, of £739,185 5s. 

The entire distance from the commencement of the line 
in Water-street, to its termination in Crown-street, Liver- 
pool, is thirty-one miles; the distance from Crown-street 
to the centre of Liverpool is a mile; and the tunnel, of 
which mention has been made, is formed with a view to 
obviate the present inconvenience of a long walk or a 
painful ride in a broken-down omnibus, by carrying 
passengers at once into the town of Liverpool, and landing 
them at a station in the Haymarket From Manchester 
the road passes by Cross Lane, Pendleton, Eccles, 
(where is a rather heavy excavation) and Patricrofl: it 
then crosses the Bridgewater Canal by a two-arched bridge, 
and, at a distance of ten miles from Manchester, reaches 
Chat Moss, which is the first ol^ect particularly to attract 
attention. In forming the embankments on the moss 
677,000 cubic yards of bog-earth were dug up; and the 
water being ejected, so as to render it solid and fit for the 
purpose, its quantity was reduced to about 277,000 yards. 
The line then passes over the Broseley embankment and the 
great Kenyon cutting to the Newton Viaduct, thence to 
the Sankey Viaduct, elevated sixty feet above the natural 
level, thence across Parr's Moss, a length of three-quarters 
of a mile, the embankment for which took 144,000 cubic 
feet of clay and stone from the Sutton incline, the next 
point of attraction from the circumstance that a second 
engine is generally added to the trains of carriages when 

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passiog ''up the hill/' the rate of travelling with the one 
ordinary engine being very greatly diminished in ascending, 
and considerably facilitated in descending the plane. < 
Next to the Sutton incline is the Rainhill level of two miles, 
which was formed by the deposit of 220,000 cubic yards 
of soil : the railway is here crossed, over a stone bridge, by 
the turnpike road. Beyond this level is the Whiston 
incline of a mile and a half, and still nearer Liverpool the 
Roby embankment of nearly three miles in length, and 
in height from forty-five to fifty feet, the elevation 
having been formed by the transfer of 550,000 cubic yards, 
chiefly of rock, from the neighbouring elevation of Olive 
Mount, a cutting of two miles in solid rock. This is 
decidedly one of the most striking parts of the work. At 
the engine station in Liverpool the two tunnels open — the 
one, two hundred and ninety yards long, leading merely to 
the Company's ofiices (and to be superseded by the tunnel 
to the Haymarket) — the other, upwards of nineteen thou- 
sand yards long, for the conveyance only of goods to the 
docks. Both these subterraneous passages are lighted 
with gas, which suffices at least to make the darkness 
visible; the passengers' carriages are drawn by a rope 
worked either by machinery or a horse, and there are two 
stationary engines for drawing the goods waggons up the 
other tunnel. In reference to the various excavations and 
embankments, it is stated that the former somewhat 
exceeded the latter. " The excavations consist of about 
722,000 cubic yards of rock and shale, and about 2,006,000 
cubic yards of marl, earth and sand. This aggregate 
mass has been removed to various distances, from a few 
furlongs to between three and four miles, and no incon- 
siderable portion of it has been hoisted up by machinery 
from a depth of from thirty to forty feet, to be deposited 
on the surface above, either to remain in permanent spoil 
banks, or to be ailerwards carried to the next embank- 

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The railroad was completed in the Midsamiiier ot 1830L 
During the previous year double sets of workmen were 
employed on all theh^yy parts of the work with ariew to 
its rapid completion, but the seasons offered a greater im- 
pediment than this added power could overcome. One line 
of rails was however carried along neariy the whole extent 
of road, and on the 16th. June, 1890, an excursion was 
made by the Directors preliminary to the grand opening 
in September. But prior to this period inquiries had been 
instituted, joumies of inspection made to the Dariington 
and Newcastle ndlway, and experiments tried at home, to 
ascertain whether the moving power for the carriages was 
to be obtmned by horses, or by stationary or by loco- 
motive engines. Horses were soon abandoned, but as to 
the two other modes of conveyance there was a difier- 
ence of opinion^ Messrs. Walker and Rastrick, eminent 
engineers, advocating stationary engines, and Mr. Stephen- 
son favoring the loco-motive. At length the inclination of 
the Directors for the latter was confinned by experiments 
made at Rainhill, on the 6th. and 7th. October, 1829, 
with four rival engines, competitors for a premium of £500 
for the best constructed engine. Messrs. Braithwaite and 
Ericson of London, Mr. Ackworth of Darlington, Mr. 
Robert Stephenson aud Mr. Brandreth of Edinburgh, were 
the competitors, and Mr. Stephenson bore away the prize 
with " the Rocket** The engines were not to exceed six tons 
in weight; they were required to drag three times their own 
weight over a distance of seventy miles, at the rate of not 
less than ten miles an hour. The umpires were Mr. Bjbb^ 
trick and Mr. Wood, civil engineers, and Mr. J. Kennedy 
of this town, who from its origin had taken a warm interest 
in the success of the railway. The average speed of die 
Rocket was 12| miles, its greatest 29, and its least ll| in 
the hour. From this time loco-motive engines were resol- 
ved on by the Company. In their excursion of the 15th. 

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June, die DifeitOTs traveUed over the line (wilh a barden 
of tlHrt]^4faree tons) in two honrs and twenty-five minutes ; 
fVtanuBg, with a load of only thirteen tons^ in an hour and 
tfanty-Hnir mittutee, the greatest q>eed attained being 
tw«ntj-6ight miles an hoar. 

: On Wednesday the 15th. September, 1830» the railway 
nw formally opened, and to an event which of itself was 
entitle^ to a prominent place in the annals of Great Britain, 
tins added interest was imparted — ^tbat the day which saw 
the consnmmation of a project intended and calcula- 
ted to advance the commercial interests of the empire, was 
dsstined to terminate the existence of a man, the ambition 
of i^ose life it had been (whether successfully or not> let 
odiers determine) to strengthen and promote those interests. 
Nor can the fact soon be forgotten, that of all the titled and 
dtotiBgiiished characters who were brought together on the 
oecflskm, the hand of death should have selected from the 
varisd throng one of the strongest supporters of this rail- 
way speculation. 

It has been calculated that not less than five hundred 
thonaand persons were congregated along the line from 
Manchester to Liverpool, to witness the gorgeous procession 
wbich was intended to seal the completion of the road. The 
cortege consisted of eight loco-motive engines with their 
attendant carriages — the Northumbrian, North Star, 
Rocket, Dart, Comet, Arrow and Meteor, the state-car 
attached to Uie first of these engines (which moved alone 
on the southern line of rails, whilst the remaining seven 
took the other) being devoted to the accommodation oi 
the Directors and the chief visitors. Among these were the 
Duke of Wellington, then Prime Minister of England, Mr. 
P^, the Home Secretary, Lord Levison Gower, then 
Secretary for Irdand, now, under another title, one of the 
reprawntatives of South Lancashire, Prince Esterhazy, the 
Marquis of Salisbury, the Earls of Wilton, €assilis» Glen- 


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^]\, Gower and Lauderdale, Viscount Melbourne, Com- 
bermere, Sandon, Belgrave^ Grey, Ingestrie, the Bi^op 
of Lichfield and Coventry, Lords Stanley, (now Eari of 
Derby) Skelmersdale, Whamcliffe, Fitzroy Somerset, 
Delamere, Colville, Dacre^ Hill, Granville, Monson, the 
Right Honorables W. Huskisson, M. P., W. J. Caieraft, 
J. C. Arbuthnot, Sirs George Murray, J. Graham, Samuel 
Scott, J. Jeffrey, Wyatville, General Gascoyne, M. P^ 
Admiral White, W. W. Whitmore, Esq. M. P., J. Wilson 
Patten, Esq. M. P., W. Holmes, Esq. M. P., &c &e. 
Liverpool was the point of embarkation^ whence the car- 
riages, thirty-three in number, carrying, besides the 
individuals already named^ the Marchioness of Salisbury, 
the Countess of Wilton, Mrs. Huskisson, and a long list 
of ladies, started at eleven o'clock, amidst the greet- 
ings of a countless throng, the sound of joyous music, 
and the light throbbings o many exulting hearts. Thus 
the gorgeous pageant passed along, still cheered at 
every point by assembled crowds of spectators. The 
day had been most promising, the varied and stupen- 
dous works over which they passed afforded a constant 
theme of remark and admiration to the party, and so far 
as Park-side the engines travelled well. At this point, 
seventeen miles from Liverpool, the carriages stopped 
that fresh water might be administered to the engine- 
boilers, during the performance of which process many of 
the passengers, Mr. Huskisson among the number, left 
their seats and strolled along the line. The Duke of 
Wellington had returned to his place, and a recogmtion 
having passed between his Grace and his recent colleague 
in office, the latter was hastening to the carriage of the 
Noble Duke, when a ery was raised that the other train 
was approaching on the opposite rails. Many persons 
availed themselves of the warning and quickly moved off 
the line: Mr. Huskisson, however, appears to have lost 

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for a moment his presence of mind; the engine came upon 
him, threw him down, and the wheels, passinp^ over his 
thigh, fractured it in a fearful manner. The Right 
Honorable Gentleman was raised from the ground by the 
Earl of Wilton, Mr. Holmes and other persons, exclaim- 
ing •• Where is Mrs. Huskisson — I have met my death — 
may God forgive me.'' Upon a hasty conference it was 
determined to convey him to Manchester for surgical aid, 
but the residence of the Vicar of Eccles was afterwards 
fixed upon, and his wound being first bound up by Drs. 
Brandreth and Southey, of London, he was placed in the 
" mnsicians* car," to which the engine and tender from the 
Duke of Wellington's carriage were attached, and was 
carried under the care of the Earl of Wilton, Lord 
Colville and others, to Eccles, at the extraordinary rate of 
thirty-two and a half miles in the hour. This melancholy 
catastrophe damped the spirits of the party, and induced 
a suggestion that the further journey to Manchester should 
be dispensed with; but to this hint the Boroughreeve, 
Bulkeley Price, Esq. demurred, on the ground that the 
vast multitude assembled to greet the procession might, 
under the impulse of disappointment, commit some out- 
rage, to which the disposition manifested in the course of 
the morning had an evident tendency. Party feeling was 
at the time rife in Manchester — many of the working 
classes were, or were supposed to be, in distress — political 
events, especially the recent "three days in France," and 
other circumstances, of which jealousy of the new- 
fiingled project itself formed an ingredient, had heated 
the passions of a portion of the community, and altogether 
the rejoicings of the day were not unmixed with appre- 
hensions of tumult. The carriages, therefore, proceeded 
on their way, that of the Duke of Wellington (on the 
separate line) being attached to the others by a chain, 
and so drawn along. The crowd ot spectators From Eccles 

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to Manchester was immense; undaanted by a severe stonn 
of rain and thunder which passed over the country, 
the herald, as might be supposed, of the fearful event 
which obscured the pleasures of the morning, they retained 
their station along the line of road until one o'clock, 
the hour appointed for the arrival of the carriage^, when, 
instead of the brilliant exhibition for which they were 
looking, the Northumbrian engine, carrying only the Earl 
of Wilton and Mr. Stephenson, passed rapidly towards 
Manchester. Its errand was soon known firom the hasty 
inquiry made for " surgeons f Mr. Whatton, Mr. Ransome, 
Mr. Gartside and Mr. White, being on the ground, 
mounted the tender, and returned to Eccles to administer 
professional aid to Mr. Huskisson. 

The general cavalcade did not arrive until nearly three 
o'clock; its visit was a sad one. The military were drawn 
out to receive the Great General, and a luncheon had 
been prepared with a view to some passing festivity; but 
these preparations were comparatively useless— afler a 
short stay the train returned for Liverpool, where a dinner 
in honor of the occasion had been announced, but the 
chief guest, the Duke of Wellington, quitted the car- 
riages before their arrival in that town, and passed the 
evening at the mansion of the Marquis of Salisbury.* 
The dinner was attended only by a few gentlemen, who 
separated afler drinking to the better health of their 
unfortunate representative. On the following day the 
Duke of Wellington quitted the county, and could not be 
induced to partake any of the public rejoicings to which 
his presence had given rise, and of which he should have 
been the object. 

Mr. Huskisson expired at nine o'clock on the evening of 
Wednesday. It had been considered by some — ^though not 
all— of the medical gentlemen, that he was not in such a state 

* One of the trains did not reach liTerpool tiU ten o'clock p.m. 

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as to justify amputation of the fractured limb, nor could his 
strength be so far restored as to authorize that proceeding. 
To the moment of his death, though his sufferings were most 
acute, be retained his self-possession and applied himself 
to the few earthly matters which yet remained to be 
adjusted, adding a codicil to his will, which was drawn up 
by Mr. Parkes of Birmingham. In compliance with the 
urgent solicitations of the inhabitants of Liverpool, bis 
body was interred on the Thursday of the following week 
in the cemetery of that town, and upon the monument 
erected over his remains is engraved a lasting tribute to his 
character. The scene of his calamity (Parkside) is also 
marked by a simple tablet of marble, bearing a suitable 

The intercourse thus inauspiciously opened has been 
continued from the 15th. September, 1830, to this time, 
without any interruption. On the next day (Thurs- 
day) "a party of one hundred and forty started from 
Liverpool at a quarter before eight in the morning, and 
arrived m Manchester by half-past nine," and on the Friday 
"an engine and train of carriages were three times 
despatched to Liverpool, carrying two hundred and forty- 
one passengers, and about the like number airiv^ in this 
town," the trips being performed on the average in an hour 
and forty minutes. Within fourteen days of the opening, 
the passengers amounted to eight hundred a day, which 
number had increased, before the end of October, to twelve 
hundred per day, whilst all the coaches and mails previously 
on the turnpike-road were not calculated to acconmidate 
above seven hundred daily. In their first report, dated 
March 1831, and which purports to give an account of their 
proceedings for three months and a half, the Directors state 
that upwards of one hundred and thirty thousand persons 
had been booked at the Company's Office, besides many 
thousand passengers who had been taken up at various 

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stopping places on the line. There had been, then» onljr 
two accidents to passengers. The following table exhibits 
the total numbers carried op to June, 1834: — 



Flnt time months. 130,0M 

1831. From l8t. Jan. to 30tfa. June 188,796 

soth. June to 31st. December. S50,3Sl 

183S. From ist. Jan. to 30th. Jane 174,1SS 

30th. Jane to 3 1 St December i8S,833 

1833. Ftom Ist. Jan. to 30th. Jane 171,481 

30th. Jane to Slst. Decentber 815,071 

1834. From 1st. Jan. to 30th. Jane* 800,676 

The KenyoD Janctiou railway was opened (the lines to 
Wigan, Warrington and Newton, being in course of forma* 
tion) in the year 1831, thus furnishing communication , 
with the extensire coal-fields in the neighbourhood, and 
affording access to Bolton, Chow bent, Tildesley, Leigh, 
&c. The St Helens line was opened in January, 1832 ; 
the Wigan line in September of the same year, between 
which time and the 3lst December, 3052 passenirers were 
conveyed; and in 1833 an Act of Parliament was obtamed 
for consolidating the Preston and Wigan and the Wigan 
Branch Railways, under the title of the North Union Rail- 
way. Prom this line, when completed, as well as from the 
connexion of the Grand Junction Railway with theirs, the 
Company look forward to a large additional traffic. Early 
in 1831, the Company began to experience the difficulty 
and disadvantages attending the distance of the station at 
Liverpool from the centre of the town, and the Directors 
consequently proposed to construct the tunnel down to 
the Haymarket, of which mention has been made. Having 
obtained permission of the shareholders they applied to 
Parliament in the same year for powers, and authority was 

* From this time the Company ceased giving, in their periodical reports, the 
number of passengers and oUier valuahle details herttoiore caaxftiatd in them, 
on the ground Uiat the object for which it had been done was aceon^lished, 
and that they had a right to do as other Companies. It is mach to be regretted 
that tite public should be deprived of Uiis and mu(^ other valuable tnformaticm, 
which railway and water carriers might communicate. An immense body oC 
the most osenil eUtlgtical ftcta might be derived ftom these sources. 

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given them to raise the requisite amount, £120,000. They 
also proposed to extend the railway to the Lime-street Cattle 
Market The Directors' first hope was that they could 
open the new tunnel in the summer of 1835, hut the whole 
excavation was not completed, nor the laying of rails com- 
menced, until near the close of 1834, and the opening is 
only now announced. With a view to make the buildings i n 
the Haymarket accordant with the greatness of the town, 
the Corporation of Liverpool granted £2000, in 1835, to- 
wards the erection of a suitable station-house, and it is 
probable that hereaAer the Haymarket will display finer 
specimens of architecture than any other part of Liver- 
pool. In 1832 the Directors applied for and obtained 
the consent of the Corporation to carry a railway across 
Wapping to their yard by the King's Dock, aud in their 
report for the next half-year (June 1833) they announced 
that the rails have in part been laid. They also proposed a 
branch line from Huyton to the Whiston collieries. 
Twelve months afterwards they spoke of applying to Par- 
liament for powers to lay a railway to the Clarence Dock 
from Wapping, which the authorities of Liverpool had re- 
fused; and twelve months subsequently they announce 
that permission had been obtained to lay a line of rails 
from Wapping to their timber wharf, near the Brunswick 
Dock. These are all the branches, great and small, be- 
longing to the railway. 

The Company made their first experiment in the car- 
riage of merchandize on the 4th. December, 1830. They 
prepared a cattle station at Broad Green shortly afterwards, 
and built carriages for the transit of live stock. Pigs had 
the honour of being first conveyed; sheep were carried in 
October 1831, at nine-pence a-head; (which price was 
afterwards reduced to sixpence;) early in 1832 they began 
to carry timber; and almost from the commencement of 
operations, coal had formed a staple of their traffic. The 

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reports do not state the numbers of live stock carried, but 
the pigs amount to from sixty to seventy thousand, and 
the sheep from forty to fifty thousand, per annum. Homed 
cattle are not much carried ; the price of driving being 
less than that of conveyance. Of merchandize there were 
carried in the first month (December, 1890) 1432 tons; in 
January 3848; in February 4818; and in March (to the 
25th.) 5104. The subsequent traffic was as follows :— 


1,439 Mewhandiwi. 1,889 CoeL 

41,088 1,880 

08,151 8,890 

14,780 19,480 

80^842 39.440 

904,87 41,375 

98,847 40,134 

It b not generally known that before they themselves 
entered upoo this branch of business, the Directors had 
some negotiation with one of the water-carrying Ckmi- 
panies, (that of the New Quay) with a view to assigning 
into their hands so extensive and important a traffic. So 
early as January, 1829, discussions were held upon the 
subject, and at the latter end of the year deputies were 
appointed by the two Compaoies to negociate terms on 
which to conduct the business. The conferences terminated 
in a proposal from the Railway that the carriage of mer- 
chandize on the line should be committed to the New Quay 
Company, they paying the following rates of tonnage, 
and the railway finding the moving power and waggons: — 

Present Ratepaid 
by Pntdic. 

To be charged by 
Carrier on the 

To be paid by the 
Carrier to Rafl. 
way Company. 


158. Od. 
lOs. Od. 

108. Od. 
188. 0d. 
108. Od. 
108. od. 
108. Od. 

188. 0d. 

108. 8d. 

Per Ton. 
148. Od. 
108. Od. 

98. Od. 
108. Od. 
108. Od. 

98. Od. 

98. Od. 
188. Od. 

108. Od. 

Per Ton. 
108. 0d. 

88. 0d. 

58. 0d. 

08. 0d. 

88. 0d. 

58. 0d. 

58. Od. 
88. 0d. 
los. 0d. 




Down Goods 


Wine and Spirtts 

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Discounts were to be allowed for prompt monthly pay- 
ments^ yiz.: — 

U does amoant to itfSOO and under jtflOOO per mooUi, diaooant of 5 per cent. 

If ditto ditto itfiooo and under jTISOO ditto, discoantofio do. 
jf 1600 and upwards. 18^ do. 

Tlie New Quay Company -were to pay rent for a store. In tlie CSompanT'syanl 
in liTeipooI, jTISO or .atfSOO, and proportionate rent in Manchester: die New 
Qoay Company, however, having warehotises would, it was said, only require 
a shed at (say) ^^50 or ^luo. 

The New Quay Company refused compliance with 
these terms; they contended that the original proposal of 
the Railway Company was to lower their rate of charges 
according to the reductions made by the water carriers, 
so that the carriers on the railway should always be able 
to do business on the same terms as their competitors, 
having the advantage in speed over them; whereas one fixed 
immutable scale was laid down, by which the Railway Com- 
pany would put into their pockets more than they allowed 
the New Quay Proprietors for the use of their capital, 
guarantee of debts, the expense of a large establishment, 
risk of damage, &c. &c. 

Other coomiunications followed, with such an appearance 
of an amicable result, that in June, 1831, a survey was 
actually made of the New Quay Company's premises, 
with a view to having a road carried, by a line of arches, 
from the railway across the intervening land to the ware- 
houses. The expense was estimated at £2fi00. The 
terms originally specified having been rejected, the Rail- 
way Directors next proposed that the New Quay Company 
should travel on the line, paying twopence per ton per 
mile on all merchandize, finding their own loco-motive 
power, waggons and porters, having their own warehouses 
at both ends, and doing the whole business of carriers. 
This rate of charges, however, which the New Quay Pro- 
prietors considered to be an average charge of da. 4d. per 
too, was declined. 

The Directors of the Railway referred to these negocia- 
tions in one of their early reports to the shareholders, 
o 2 

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stating t]iat the New Quay Company claimed as their share 
of the charge to the public for goods nine shiHings out of 
every fifteen shillings per ton, characterizing their demand 
as extravagant, and stating that the Directors had conse- 
quently seen the necessity of being themselves, " in the first 
instance at least," carriers as well as receivers of toll on the 
railway. A correspondence followed. The New Quay 
Company urged, that though the charge for cotton had been 
fifteen shillings per ton, the average of all goods was not 
above eleven shillings, and that the first offer of the New 
Quay Company to the Directors had been to transfer their 
established business to the railway, on receving an allowance^ 
not of nine but of five shillings per ton on all goods, for whicb 
sum they would take upon themselves to collect, warehouse 
and deliver goods, paying warehouse rent, carterage,. 
porterage, losses from bad debts, frauds, &c., and settling 
monthly with the Railway, though they themselves neces- 
sarily gave long credit The Railway Company therefore 
would receive the difference between Gve shillings, (the 
allowance to the New Quay) and the charge to the pubTic, 
whatever it might be. Their second offer they stated to 
have been to receive an allowance of six shillings per ton 
for the transit of goods, they taking all risks and charging 
the public according to existing rates; so that, calculating 
the expense of collecting and carting goods at the ascer- 
tained amount, (3s. 6d. per ton) they would have only the 
balance, to meet every other expense or loss. In a reply 
to this communication, the Railway Directors intimated 
that the New Quay Company would have been at liberty 
to convey cotton and other light goods by tlie river as 
heretofore, sending the heavier by railway. 

In the result, though this Company is understood not to 
be the only one with which negociation has been held, no 
terms were come to, and the Railway Directors still trade 
as carriers of merchandize. 

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. It appears nevertheless, from the following table of dis- 
bursements, profits and gross receipts, for the half-year 
ending 30th. June, 1834, that this is by no meant the most 
proGtable branch of the railway business, although the 
outlay exceeds that of any other department: — 

Total Disbonementi.. 
Total Profits 

S0770 10 11 


Total Disborsements. . 
' Total Profits 

Gross Receipts.. 

iff s. d. 
99&i8 17 4 
loaoi 6 8 

40 s. d. 
888 15 6 
9037 5 

iff s. d. jff s. d. 
1003 8 11 00091 15 11 
364 4 6 34691 16 4 

89780 6 

2925 15 11! 1367 18 5 94784 12 3 

The Directors in one of their early reports stated that the 
first-fruit of their rivalry in this department had been to 
reduce Uie carriage of cotton from fifteen to ten shillings 
per ton, a highly gratifying result: now, however, the tables 
are turned, and the Directors, in a report of June 1835, 
spoke somewhat unfairly of a reduction made in freightage 
by the Old Quay Company to seven shillings and sixpence 
per ton, the Railway still charging ten shillings. In con- 
nexion with this fact it should be remembered, that the Old 
Quay are the onit/ Water Navigation Company who can 
really be regarded as rivals to the Railway. The naviga- 
tion of the river being theirs, they can impose upon others 
trading on their water such a rate of tonnage as may 

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please them, and thereby cut off competition, whilst the 
other line by the Duke of Bridgewater's Canal is so cir- 
cojtous as to place carriers apparently (though not, it seems, 
practically) beyond the pale of rivalry with the Railway. 
The only remaining passage to Liverpool is by canal to 
Leigh, and thence by the Leeds and Liverpool line for- 
ward, making a distance of from sixty to seventy miles. 
Even the Mersey and Irwell Navigation is subject to this 
drawback—that its route is extremely circuitous to Run- 
corn, and thence vessels are subject to all the variations 
of the tide and the weather. Were it otherwise, the water 
navigation, if it did not compete in speed with the railway, 
might, for the ordinary calls for the transit of merchan- 
dize, be sufficiently swill. Even under the existing un- 
favourable circumstances, goods are now received over- 
night in Manchester, to be delivered early on the next 
morning at Liverpool. 

At present, then, the Water Companies carry merchandize 
more cheaply than the Railway. It is true that one Com- 
pany (the Grocers') has been driven from the field, but this 
may have been occasioned by the heavy charge for tonnage 
on the river, and the disadvantages arising from a circuit- 
ous passage, partly liable to the vicissitudes already 
named. The question has still to be decided in other 
parts of the country, whether railways must of necessity 
supersede canals in the conveyance of merchandize, and 
the immense capital embarked in the latter species of pro- 
perty be consequently lost. 

At the date of thcdr half-yearly report in June, 1835, 
the total capital raised by the Railway Company originally, 
and by subsequent loans, some of which have been ereated 
new shares, amounted to £ 1,219,860 3s. 6d., of which 
£ 1,171,386 188. 3d. had been expended. 

The annual income and disbursements of the Company 
to the dose of the last year have been as follows : — 

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itt January to SOth. Jane, 1831. 



^ t. 

.. 4S,6M 7 

.. 21,875 

tl8 6 

^ M.M» » 

Merchandize 81,085 18 

Coal Og8 If 

aotlL Jnne, l833.~Paasengert 40,044 14 

Merchandize 39,477 14 

Coal S,184 7 

Slst. Dec., 1889.— Passengers 43,190 IT 

Merchandize 84,977 18 7 

Coal 9,804 8 4 

30th. Jane, 16SS.~Pa8sengen 44,180 17 9' 

Merchandize 89,801 17 8 

Coal 9,088 15 9 

Slat. Dacanbcr.— Passengers 54,665 6 11 

Merchandize 89,957 16 8 

coal 9,591 6 6 

39th. Jane, i884.~Passengers 50,770 l6 ir 

Merchandize 41,087 19 5 

Coal 9,995 15 11. 

aist December.— Paasengers 60,999 7 4' 

Merchandize 41,197 18 

Coal 8^08 16 

SOth. Jane, 1885.— Passengers 59,487 3 

Merchandize 48,6si l 

Coal. 8,406 11 

Slat. December.— Passengers 67,897 19 

Merchandize 46,875 15 

Coal 8,689 8 

d. ^ s. d. 


.. 85,879 3 10 

49.095 18 5 

46,658 11 4 

48,978 8 10 

59,900 9 1 

56,850 1 9 

60,099 15 11 

64,559 15 7 

6r,814 6 9 

71,995 IS 4 

From the profits the Directors have declared the follow- 
ing DWidends: — 

98th.March, 1830, totheendoftheyear £\ o o 

let. Jannary to SOth. Jane, 1831 4 10 o 

istJolf = Slst. December 4 10 

let Janoary K 9001. Jane, 1839 4 

IstJoly s Slst. December 4 4 

1st January B SOth. Jane, 1833 4 4 

istJoly s Slst. December 4 10 

1st January ss 30th. Jane, 1834 4 10 

istjnly a Slst December 4 10 o* 

1st Janoary a SOth. Jane, 1885 4 lo o 

1st July a Slst December. 5 

Oil the aoth. Jane, 1834, the Company employed sixty- 
four agents, clerks, and overlookers; and six hundred and 
thirty-six engine men, guards, labourers, &c., whose 
salaries and wages per week amounted to £ 799 Ids. 1 Id. 

The foUowiiig are the items of expenditure as published 

in one of the annual reports : — 

* Hie Diiaetors retainad lo par cent of the proSts as a ftswi ad Amd, in 
accordance with a power granted by the Act 

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£ 8. d. 

Bad Debt Account 340 18 4 

Coach Disbarsement Account 8378 1 8 

Carrying Disbarsement Account 93S7 10 8 

Coal Disbursement Account 188 7 

Cartage (Liverpool) Account 73 15 10 

Cartage (Manchester) Account 3333 14 6 

Charge for Direction 311 17 t 

Compensation (Coaching) Account 85 3 4 

Coach Office Establishment 693 Q 6 

Engineering Department 3S3 M 

Interest Account 6878 1 6 

Locomotive Power Account 16463 

Law Disbursement Account 350 

Maintenance of Way Account 6ll6 IS 10 

Office EstaUishment 901 10 6 

Police Account 115S 7 11 

Petty Disbursement Account SS 6 

Rent 254 S 3 

Repairs to Walls and Fences 699 8 10 

Stationanr Engine Disbursement Account 488 10 10 

Tunnel Disbursement Account 684 3 3 

Tax and Rate Account 3157 9 4 

Waggon Disbursement Account 8857 7 

4^1814 6 t 

The Company complain heavily in all their reporti 
of the excessive amount of their expenditure, with a vieir 
to relieve which they had recourse, in 1832, to the plan of 
remunerating their enginemen by the ton weight con- 
veyed, thus enabling themselves to lessen the number of 
men employed: they at the same time doubled the weight 
of merchandize by each train, without, as they considered, 
increasing the wear and tear very materially. In their 
report of December, 1832, they state that the charge 
for locomotive power is still heavier than was expect^;* 
in June, 1833, they again intimate that it is still ^(ery 
heavy," though the expense had been diminished by the 
substitution of brass for copper tubes; and in Ikfcen^Mr 
they revert to the subject, announcing that, among oditr 
charges, that for coke amounted to nearly £ 6000 a-year-^ 
that the Directors had lately tried gas-coke, the cost of 
which per ton was less by one half than for Worsley eoke, 
but that more was consumed, and it caused a greater con- 

« in this report it is stated that aome of the engines hare tmyelled from 
twentj to thirty Oionaand miles! 

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sumption of fire-bars. In June, 1835, the Directors 
intimate that the locomotive department is in a more 
efficient state, and that, consequently, they had lately 
obtained six new euf;;ines, thereby diminishing the current 
charge for repairs; and in their report for December of 
that year they announce that the cost of locomotive power, 
which has been for some time the heaviest and most 
formidable item in the expenditure of the Company, 
appears to be undergoing a gradual diminution. For the 
last half-year it amounted (including the cost of three new 
engines) to £i5,6Sl 17s. 9d., being about £800 less 
than during the preceding half-year. This, they remark, 
is a very satisfactory reduction, when it is recpUected 
that there has been a large increase of business, the 
receipts of the last half-year having exceeded those 
of the half-year preceding by upwards of £18,000.* 
In the maintenance of way there is an increase of 
about £1500; and it does not appear probable that any 
considerable reduction will be made in this branch of 
expenditure until the line generally shall have been laid 
whh heavier rails, towards effecting which object the pro- 
prietors at this meeting appropriated £6000. Another 
item of expenditure complained of in 1833 was the charge 
for the maintenance of the road: since that time new and 
stronger rails (parallel rails of 60lbs. to the yard) have 
been laid, at an expense of several thousand pounds. 

Several railroads, to connect Manchester with districts 
nareor less remote, are now either in actual progress or in 
tgittttion: of the former class are the Manchester, Bolton 
and Bury, which is to be linked with the Liverpool and 
Manchester by a branch about a mile from this town; and 
the Preston and Wigan, connected with Manchester by 

* Amooff Oie retant given in wreral tiatf-yeariy reports of tiie Directors are 
ttenu to^is effect ;~ June, 1833: **The profit on Sunday travelling, for six 
TPfPttfh*^ amounts to 3s. 6d. per if 100 share."— June, 183A : **'nie net profit on 
Sunday travelling amounts to 48. per ^100 8hare."~An eflbirt has been made to 
abolish Sunday traveUing on the line. 

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the Wigan and Liverpool lines, and to be connected with 
Lancaster by a recently projected line from Preston, 
whence also another line has been projected to the port of 
the Wyre. Of the latter dass are the Manchester and 
Leeds, for which an Act of Parliament has just been 
obtained; the Manchester and Cheshire Junction, of which 
the object is to shorten the route to Birmingham and 
London by the Grand Junction Railway ; the South Union 
(a rival line to the former) passing by Stockport, Maccles- 
field and licek to Burton-npon-Trent, and thence by other 
lines to Birmingham and London; the Manchester and 
Sheffield. — The expense of the existing lines connected 
with the Manchester and Liverpool Railroad was — 

TheBoItoaaod Lelgb jeyz^nQ..,. Motharesof ^1I0« 

.. WarrloKton and Newton.. 51,800.... ftlS lOOt 

.. KenyoD and Ldff b SS,O0t.... SS9 100 

.. Wlfan 7ft»000.... 750 100 

.. St.Ilelent 190,000.... iioo lOO 

« Wtth aoaie ** qoarter Bharei .** 

tllilt n»d baa been porebased bj Um Grand Jonctioii Oomptny, for 
4f90,000, to form a part of ttidr line. 

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The Municipal Government of the township of Man* 
Chester is committed to the Boroughreeve and two Con- 
stables, who are elected at the Court-Ieet of the Lord 
of the Manor, Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., M. P., by a 
Jury of the most influential inhabitants, summoned by 
the Deputy Steward of the Manor. The Borough- 
reeve exercises the powers, without enjoying any of 
the external distinctions, usually pertaining to a Mayor. 
He is the representative of his townsmen in all their 
public transactions. The Constables take special cog- 
nizance of the Police of the town, directing and gene- 
rally superintending those operations the active routine of 
which is^ intrusted to a Deputy nominated by them and 
paid by ihe town. Mr. Thomas, formerly of London, has 
held this important and responsible post for years, at a 
salary of £400 per annum. The day police, under his 
direction, consists only of thirty men, a force by which, 
though inadequate to the extent of the duties to be pei^ 
formed, the property of the inhabitants has hitherto been 
efficiently protected. The Police-office is in the Town- 
Hall, where a lock-up is also provided* There are other 
lock-ups, in Swan-street, (Shudehill,) Kirby-street, (New 
Islington,) Deansgate, and London Road, and one is in 
course of construction, at an expense of £1,260, in 
Oldham Road. 

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The nightly watch is in the hands of the Police Com- 
missioners, of whose powers and authority mention is here- 
after made. It consists of about one hundred and twenty- 
five men, under the general superintendence of Mr. Thomas 
Davis, whose salary is £100 a-year, with an assistant 
superintendent, at wages of 18s. a weeic, and nine inspec- 
tors at 24s. per week. The average wages of the watchmen 
are 17s. per weelc. There are also a body of " super- 
numerary" watchmen, whose services are required at certain 
seasons of the year or may be called for by some tem- 
porary exigency. The wages of the entire body of men, 
according to the estimates for 1835-6, are £6,483 8s. 
The total outlay in the watch department of the town's 
service is, according to the same authority, £7,164 Ss.* 
including the rents of lock-ups, the salary (at 30s. per 
week,) of an Inspector of hackney coaches ; and deduting 
£ 100 for penalties recovered from offenders. The fire- 
engine department is under the direction of a highly 
experienced Saperintendent, Mr. William Rose, whose 
salary is £200 per annum. His force consists of forty-one 
men; their wages amount to £223 per annum, and the 
total cost of this most important branch of the Police, after 
deducting £190 subscriptions from fire-offices, is £433. 
There are besides, under the control of the Police Commis- 
sioners, five Inspectors of Nuisances, at wages of 24s. a-week. 
Twenty-eight men are employed, at aggregate wages of 
£1372, to light the lamps of the town; and lastly, about 
eighty men, under the control of two Inspectors, are engaged 
in the "scavenging," at a total cost of £1,266. These 
various departments comprize the police of the town, all of 
which (save those first enumerated as under the manage- 
ment of the Constables) come within the control of the 
Police Commissioners. Their head officer is Mr. Thotnas 
Wroe, who, as Comptroller of Police, receives £250 per 
annum. He is also Clerk to the Boroughreeva and 

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Constables, in which capacity he receives £50 per anonm 
from the leypayers; and he is allowed from the Gas 
Directors £250. 

The Police Commissioners, two hundred and forty in 
number, are a representative body, elected under a high 
qualification, and do not consist, as in other townships, of 
all persons occupying tenements of a certain annual value. 
This used formerly to be the case, but the body of Com- 
missioners was so numerous, and their meetings were by 
consequence so uitdeliberative and uproarious, that the 
principle of representation was introduced. Prior to the 
change of system, at a meeting in February, 1828, debate 
and party-spirit ran so high, that the Boroughreeve, C. 
Cross, Esq., who presided, was assaulted and forcibly 
ejected; the parties ofiending thus grossly being subse- 
quently bound over to take their trial for a misdemeanour. 
The Commissioners are elected in districts, in the manner 
elsewhere defined. They hold a general meeting in every 
sixth week, " for the despatch of business," but the real 
business of the Police is transacted in and by the Com- 
mittees, of which there are five, ** the Lamp, Scavenging, 
Fire Engine and Nuisance," the " Watch and Hackney 
Coach," the *• Finance and General Purposes /' the " Pav- 
ing and Soughing," and the "Accounts." The first and 
second of these Committees meet weekly, the third upon 
summons from the Chairman, the fourth fortnightly, and 
the fifth weekly. They have all very extensive powers. 
The total estimated expense of each section of Police 
for the year ending 24th. June, 1836, was — 

Lamp, ftc., Committee dfflo,24S 

W«tdi „ „ 7,i«* 

naance „ „ 1,066 

Pavlas: „ , 3,6«6 

Accoonta,, » 475 

TotaL 4^33,473 of wUeh ifSJOS 

WM of tn "eztnonUnaiT** kind. 

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The foUowiiig tables fuinish useful infonnatioa resptcU 
log various departments of the scrrice : — 






^ 1. d. 

4f S. 


^ .. d. 

NO. 1.... 

S4,090 ft 

84,150 10 

38,668 5 



14,681 7 

16,410 16 


17,076 10 




i4,t65 10 

88,308 10 

97,819 6 


99,800 10 




41,864 10 


45,495 5 


18,044 10 

18,680 5 

17,031 10 


. 10,305 

10,846 15 




48,181 5 

54,06l 10 


18,067 10 

13,660 10 

15,818 5 


21,840 10 

90,781 10 

99,750 5 


11,585 6 

11,316 5 

11,503 10 


18,711 5 

18,668 10 




10,456 5 

99,349 5 


888,576 11 

888J47 18 

365.000 15 



Auessment at jfflO 















S. d. 

18 11 
14 8 


8. d. 


1834-35!5U0 10 4 



10 11 
18 6|4b08 8 1 
- 9 

1810 ' 
9440 1 
19 103160 
10 10 8485 

10 11 



je B. 

0I16667 9 

0|l7748 8 


17078 18 

9 17539 18 

7 18311 10 

4 18356 16 

18850 4 

18636 15 

18706 7 

9|l0407 10 

8. d. 

14398 7 
14364 17 
14690 4 
16037 19 
16934 1 
16689 14 
16056 14 
16633 3 
17860 10 
17081 8 

48 s. 

81589 16 
83010 16 
83530 1 
5 88648 13 
10 98471 4 
88003 4 

7 83391 9 

8 84085 14 
4 84180 6 


4^ 8. d. 
15148 5 9 
15000 17 6 
15100 16 10 

16846 8 

17857 19 

0!l8683 16 1 

1 10743 8 11 

10 90449 3 8 

10190631 14 3 

10|ai369 9 

9 84638 18 4*81540 10 

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Number ordered Nmnber ezcoMd through 


NanrtMr or. 


Poverty, RemovfelSy or 

Number of Guet 



bdnrSmptr, fte. 


1830 91S6 




1831 1S43 




1831 I4S4 




1833 1013 




1834 1610 




1836 1066 





chvn to 



to the 

















Since the passing of the Police Act of 1830, there have 
been sewered and paved under its provbions, and those of 
the Act of 1832, fifty-two streets, being altogether four 
miles 1,434 yards long, and having a surface of 78,437 
square yards. The main sewers extend four miles 1,539 
yards, and the aggregate length of the cross sewers and 
eyes constructed in the same streets amounts to two miles 
two hundred and eighty-three yards, making a total length 
of sewering complete of seven miles sixty-two yards. 

The following is an abstract of the '^ Churchwardens' 
list," prepared for the regulation of the elections in 

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No. of Per- 


No. Of 

Owners <rf 

No. of 

■oiM digi- 






ment in 


digibto w 



dected by 






No. 1 






= S 





= s 





B 4 





= 5 






= 6 





= 7 





«= 8 











= 10 





s 11 





= IS 






b: is 





=3 14 

1 TotaL. 









No. 1.— New Cmoss District.— Boauded by Grest Ancoftts-strect, OkDuuD 
Roftd, and such puts of the townships of Newton, Bradford, BeswidL and 
Ardwidc, as form the boondary of Manchester, and the Riter Medtock. 

No.8.~St. Michael's DisTRicT.~Boanded by Oldham Road, Swaa-itreet, 
Miller-street, part of Lonr MiHgate, to Scotland Bridge, the river Irk, and sndi 
parts of the townships of Uarporhey and Newton as form the boondary of 

No. 3.— CoLLBoiAts Chuech Distbict.— Boonded by Scotland Bridge and 
put of Long Millgate, to and through Bfiller-street, by Shndehill, Hanging 
Ditch, Cateaton.street, down to Salford Bridge, the river Irwell, and sncfa part 
.•f the township of Cheetham as forms the boundary of Manchester. 

* Hie Ezdiange News Room: of the ordinary edifices the highest i 
ment is j^310. This district, though the most wealthy, scarcely contains oiw 
large manufisctory, but is ctdefly filled with shops, offices and warehouses. 
I Old Quay Company, t Trustees of the late Duke of Bridgewater. 
t Some time ago it was in the contemplation of Government to erect Man- 
chester into a corporate town. Commissioners were sent down (Nov. 1833) to 
make the requisite arrangements, and they marked out the foUowinf as wards 
for tlie election of the Aldermen and Council:— 
Ward. PopubKUoB. 

I No. 1, Pblice District, to include township of Newton. 35,650 

8 No. a. Police District, to include Harpurhey 86,044 

SNo.3, „ „ Cheetham 15,450 

4 No. 4, Police District to include Ardwick, Beswick and Bradford. . 81,501 

ft No. 5, Police District 7,875 

« No. 0, „ „ 1,874 

7No.7and8 „ 18,588 

8 No. 9, »» „ 3,318 

9No. loandll „ 17^81 

10 No. 18 and 13 , 9,198 

11 No. 14, PoUce Dlrtrict to include Hulme 14,048 

18 CAiorlton-upon-Medlock ^ 80,509 

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No. 4.— St. Clbmumt's District. — BouikSad by Great Aneoato-itrM^ 
Lerer-Btreet, Piccadillj and the river Hedlock. 

No. 5.— St. Paul»8 District.— Bounded by Lerer-street, Great Ancoats- 
ttnet, Swan-street, ShodehUl, Nicholas Croft, H)gh.street, Market-street and 

No. 0.— £xcHANOB District.— Booaded by Market-street, St Mary's Gatt, 
Deanagate, Cateaton-street, Hanging Ditch, Withy Grove, Shodehill, Nkdioks 
croft and High^street. 

No. 7>— MiNSHULL-sTRBBT DISTRICT.^ Bounded by London Road, Pic- 
cadllly, Pootland-street, David-street, Brook-street and the river Medlock. 

No. 8.— St Jamks'h District. — Bonnded by Market-street, FiccadQly, 
Portland-street, Bond-street, Cooper-street and Foontain-street 

No. 9.~St. Ann's District.— Bounded by St Mary*s Gate, Market-street, 
Fountain-street, Cooper-street, Ptincess-street, Pool-street, Brazennose-street 
and Oeansgate. 

No. 10.— OzpoRn-STRBBT DISTRICT.— Bouuded by Boud-street David-atreet, 
Brook-street Mosley-street, Lower Moaley-street and the river Medlock. 

No. 11.— St. Pbtbr*8 District.— Bounded by Mosley-street, Lower Moaley- 
stieet, Albion-street, the river Medlock, Deansgate, Brazennose-street, Pxinoess- 
stieet and Bond-street 

No. 19.— St. Mart's District.- Bounded by Old Bridge-street, Deansgate, 
Bridge-street and the river IrwelL 

No. IS. — Old Quat District. ^ Bounded by Bridge-street Deansgate, 
Qoay-street and the river IrwelL 

No. 14.— Bounded by Quay-street, Deansgate, the Canal, the river Medlock, 
and the river IrwelL 

The town is lighted by gas^ supplied from works which 
are the property of the inhabitants. They are managed 
by a Board of Directors^ the mode of whose election and 
the extent of whose powers are defined in the abstract of 
Uie Police Acts hereafter to be given. It may^ therefore, 
suffice to state, that the monies borrowed to establish the 
works have been as follows: — 


Under the Act of 18S4 jeZ5,W0 

Amount redeemed from sinking fund I7tl00 


Under the Act of 1830 

Amount redeemed from sinking fund 3,360 


UndertheActof 1831 39.660 

TotaL 4^80,000 

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DRCBMBER. 1836. 

District L. I. D. 

No. 1 S»I« f S 

Newtoa 10 18 6 

s S 108114 9 

Hupufaey •• S0 is • 

s S 1117 19 4 

Chactham s66 10 s 

s 4 17<{0 10 8 

Ardwick d82 IS 

s f 1805 4 9 

= ifles 4 s 

= 7 1216 14 1 

=1 8 847 8 S 

= 8S40 7 11 

« 10 M7 1 1 

at 11 801 IS 11 

Holme aM U O 

s IS 619 IS 11 

s IS 648 9 16 

s 14 698 14 10 

Total amoant for half your ..18,871 6 6 

The profits of the works are paid over to the Improve- 
ment Committee, to be by them expended on behalf of the 
town. The following are the amounts thus appropriated 
and the total proceeds of the works: — 


Street lamps. Gas rents reoetred. 
ToJone, 1831 jtf6908 15 s. ^on 16 6. jeso,4so 8 1 

M 18SS 3347 S 4 S5.147 7 11 

„ 18SS 6«38 8 6481 6 6 (for S yrs) 88»180 19 S 

„ 1834 10^06 13 10 306« 5 4 SS,S98 9 9 

M 1836 10,133 3786 IS 7. 84,819 1 

A summary of the powers and authorities of the Police 
Commissioners, the Gas Directors, and the Improvement 
Committee, has been carefully prepared from tlie various 
Acts of Parliament obtained for their regulation: — 

Under the princ^ Act for the internal government of Manchester (38 Geo. 3, 
cap. 69) the Commissioners consisted of tiie Borooghreere and Constables for 
the time being, the VITarden and FeUows of the Collegiate Chorch, and the 
owners and occ up iers of any boilding of jg30a-yearvalne,qndcr^yfaoBe control 
the conjoint towns of Manchester and Salford were placed. A sobseqnent Act» 
however, (9 Geo. 4, cap. 117) recites that <* whereas the said towns of Man- 
chester and Salford are reaqpediTelj rerj large and popolons, and farm two 
townships separate and distinct from eadi other in an matters of local arrange- 
ment; and soon after the passing of the first recited Act (38 Geo. S) the 
Commissioners therebj appointed divided and formed two distinct bodies, and 
from that time have so oontinoed to act and pot the said first redted Act in 
force for each town separatelf andrespectivelj, and derates authorized by the 
said first recited Act to be ass e sse d and laised have been and now are raised by 

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separate and disttnct assestments withbi each of the said towns, and applied 
exdosiveljr to the uses of the town within which they were and are assessed 
and raised ; and whereas the said towns of Manchester and Salford, and more 
particularly the former, having greatly increased since the passing of the sMd 
lirst recited Act, and being still increasing in trade, populaUon, and extent of 
buHdingB, cannot be conveniently regulated by one body of Commissions 
acting separately as aforesaid." The police of the towns was therefore divided, 
ajid persons qualified as prescribed by the 3»d. Geo. III. were constituted 
Commissioners for executing that Act in Salford alone, by the name of "the 
Commissioners for better cleansing, lighting, watching and regulating the town 
of Salford.** At the same time the constitntion of the Manchester body was 


The Boronghreeve and Constables of Manchester, and two hundred and 
fbrty other persons, thenceforth to be the Commissioners for Manchesta- 
— Persons above 91, occupiers of entire tenements rated at not less than ^lo, 
or bdng publicans at 4?3S, are constituted voters, provided their poor-rates and 
rates under the Police Act be paid up to 24th. June— Persons above a*, and 
rated at j6^, or being publicans at ^56, or persons owning in their own right 
or that of their wife, or receiving renU of premises of ^\50 yearly value, 
provided the rates as aforesaid are in each case paid, to be eligible to 
serve as Police Commissioners— In cases of partnership, so many to have 
TOtes as the amount of assessment will extend to— In case of under- 
aasessmenL parties may claim to have it raised by the Churchwardens, 
or they remnng, two Magistrates may, on proof on oath, raise it ; but the 
increased assessment not to give a vote or qualify as a Commissioner till the 
explTBtion of six months— Churchwardens to make out annually a list of 
persons eligible to vote and to serve, giving the description, residence, and 
amount of assessment (for occupiers), and the name of the tenant (in ca^ m 
owners); public notice to be given requiring the names of owners ; the list to 
be printed and distributed to voters applying for it.— The fourteen police 
dlstrlcU constitnted districts for the dectfon of Commissioners in the following 
propoitions :— 

Commissioners. District. 

15 for No. 8 

15 for.... 


....No. 1 






86 9 

9 10 

15 11 

12 12 

12 13 

12 14 

Commissioners to be elected (six weeks after the passing of the Act) 
at the Town Hall, between nine and eleven a. m.— for Districts l, 2, 3, 4 and 5, 
on Monday; Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11, on Wednesday; Nos. o, 12, 13 and 14, on 
Thursday; seven days* notice by advertisement having been given; not less 
ttian nine voters being present for each district election ; the Boronghreeve and 
Constables, or Charchwardens and Sidesmen, in their order of priority, taking 
the chair,— they being absent. Chairman to be chosen fhmi persons eligible a» 
Commissioners ; half an hour to be allowed for receiving votes (the doors to be 
doeed), each person voting by writing the parties' names and handing to 
Chairman, who shall compare the lists, and if they do not exceed the number of 
Commissioners for the distriot, they shall be declared elected; if otherwise, 
ea^ name shall be put separately to the meeting, and a show of hands, or, if 
necessary, a division taken t a person assessed in more districts than one to the 
necessary value being entitled to vote in the eli ction for each ; the Chairman 
only to have a casting vote ; the list of elected Commissioners to be left with 
Comptroller within two days afterwards, and advertised within a fortnight 
after the completion of all the elections— If elections not made on appointed 
day, Comptroller to Commissionera may appoint other meetings within ten 
days— Parties elected for two districts to bQ ni Id elected for the first bi order. 

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and other meetings held to snpplj the vacancies— In fourteenth year after 
paniner of the Act, and everf subsequent fourteenth year, the amount of pcdioa 
rates paid in each district, and the number of assessments, to be ascertained, 
and from thence a computation made ot the avera^ niunber of Commissionen 
for eadi district accordingly, at a meeting held for the purpose, after twenty- 
one days* notice— Eighty Commissioners to go out yearly, those haying died, or 
being disquaHfled, or refused to act, or so many outgoing Gas Directors as an 
Commissioners, and such of the ten Improvement Committee as are not of the 
retiring Oas Directors, to be computed among the eighty ; and on the fourth 
Friday in October, or within seven days preceding, eighty new Commisdonen 
to be elected and remain in office three years ; outgoing Commissioners to be 
eligible for re-election — Churchwardens to prepare a list of voters annually, at 
expense of Commissioners— Commissioners, on election, to take an oath of 
office— Corporate seal to be vested in them— Manchester to pay over Magis- 
trate's salaiy for herself and Salford (the latter contributing one-eighth). 


Nine Commissionera are required to be present at all meetings; theTkeasorer 
Is to take the chair, and in his absence or refusal the election to be by show ot 
hands; all votes are to be taken by show (rf hands or by division, the Chairnuui 
having a casting vote — Previous notice must be given of all meetings— Commis. 
■ioaers are empowered to make bre-laws, which must be signed by ttielr Cleilc 
and published hi the newspapers fourteen days before they can take effect— May 
apfxknt either permanent or temporary Committees, none of whidi shaU exist 
above a year, liable to dismissal previous to the expiration of their term of 
app(^tment, on ten days* notice, sped^ring the grounds, and on iq^iroval of 
two general meetings ; ten days* notice to be given of the fl4>pointment of any 
permanent Committee. 


On appointment, the CommissionerB to preecribe bye-laws and dedare how 
many shall be competent to act. AtfirstmeetingCommitteestoi^ipointChaimuui 
and Deputy, and report the same to the Commissioners, and in case <^ death tn 
(in up vacant offices— At all meetings, proceedings to be entered in a book to 
be open to the inspection of Commissioners, and yeariy Committees to report 
the whole of their proceedings, not later than ten days after the exjdratioo of 
their term of appointment 

Commissioners empowered to lay rates not to exceed is. 0d. in the pound per 
annum.— Premises imder jK4 lOs. annual value, or distant more than one 
hundred yards fh)m a public lamp, all arable, meadow or pasture land, lands and 
premises used in husbandry, all places exclusively of public worship, alms- 
houses, the workhouse, buildings used for the purposes of public charity or for 
the encouragement of art, science, or education, and all property of the Com- 
mis^oners, exempt fh)m rates— Granunar School and Water-works also 
exempt— Bate-books may be inspected or copied on payment of is., and copies 
furnished on payment after the rate of sixpence for every hundred words, 
under a penalty not exceeding tSS — Tenants or landlords sub-letting inemisea 
Uable to the whole rate — Outgoing and incoming occupiers liable to an amount 
at rate proportionate to the time of occupancy— In case of poverty, Coomiis- 
sloners may excuse payment of rates, wholly or in part, for not more than one 
year at once, or may compound with owners of houses assessed under ^10; 
the composition not to bo less than one-half, and to be paid in advance, the 
tenants being otherwise liable— Rates recoverable by distress fourteen days 
after personal or written demand, or by action if the sum amount to j^ — In 
case of actual or suspected removal without payment of rates, after demand, 
distress may issue — Magistrates* rate similarly recoverable— Appeals against 
rates (or orders or bye-laws) to be made within four months; fourteen dear 
days* written notice to be given, and recognizances to be entered into of jtfSO 

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etdi— Justices may award damas:es to the appellant; their dedaion to be flna 
—Quarter Sessions may amend rates or assessments. 


Commissioners may proyide and maintain public offices, lock-ups, guard- 
nxnns for military, a convenient residence for the deputy constable, and aU 
other lands and premises necessary for the various purposes of the Act— May 
adopt districts for watchmen— Either alone or in conjunction with other 
adjoining places may i4>point mounted or foot patrols for night or day senrice 
in Manchester or the neighbourhood, and supi^y horses, arms, and other 
appointments — Watchmen, patrol, superintendent, and substitutes to be swctfn 
as constables before a county Magistrate, invested with the same powers, and 
iul^ect to the like penalties— Neglect or misconduct in duty punishable with a 
fine not exceeding twenty shillings; and parties to be likewise deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanour, subject to indictment at the Assize or Quarter Sesaons, at 
the expense of the Commissioners, and a Magistrate, upon complaint, may 
commit them for not exceeding three months, or may dismiss the complaint to 
the intent that the parties may be indicted— Parties obstructing or assaulting 
o fficers liable to a penalty not exceeding ten pounds, or upon an information 
preferred at the instance of the Commissioners, to imprisonment for not kmger 
than three months— Publicans, victnaUers or other housekeepers, harbouring, 
entertaining, or suffering watchmen to remain in their houses in time of doty, 
liable to a fine not exceeding twenty shillings for the first, and five pounds for the 
second ofltnce— Watchman, street-keeper, or other servant taking rewurd, 
fineab le ^5 — Churchwardens, Constables and other officers parading the 
town on Sunday may apprehend all disorderly persons found loitering in groopa 
In the streets to the annoyance and obstruction of passengers, persons playing 
at pitch and toss, or any other game in any public place, persons dog fig^hdng, 
or by any means disturbing the good order and public peace of the town, whom 
the Magistrates may fine not exceeding lOs., or imprison for not exceeding 


Flxemen present at any fire may, by order of Commissioners, break up pare- 
ment; Commissioners may order fire-plugs to be placed in water-pipes for the 
better obtaining water to work fire-engines ; such pavement so taken op, 
and such pipes broken, to be repaired by Commissioners out of rates— In cases 
d fire, any number of assistants to the firemen may be employed ; owners or 
occQpiers of the premises where sudi fires happen,' as wdl as of adjoiuiny 
premises, being liable to pay not exceeding ttis towards the expense of any 
one fire, Magistrates having power to settle the amount in case of dispute, and 
to enforce recovery— Persons damaging, destroying or removing fiire-engines 
or other like property of the Commissioners may be forthwith apprehended, 
and fined not more than £5 in addition to the amount of damage inflicted, 
and in dcfiault of payment committed to hard labour for not more than three 


CommissionerB mar provide for, reward or compensate any servant injured 
or disabled in execution of duty— No officer or servant to keep a publicboose 
—Law Clerk or other officer taking unauthorized fees sutject to penalty of 
jtfSO— Parties holding office under the Act not to gain a settlement thereby. 


Oo mmiw ionegB may license carriages, porters' caits, ftc, make bye-lawa for 
regulation *'in what manner the owners, drivers and carriers thereof and 
the said parties respectively shall conduct and behave themselves ;** appointing 
stands, punishing miscondnct, &c; fixing prices to be paid for plying within 
six milet for coaches, two milet for sedan chairs, and three mika for portenj 

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pMUiUlf not to exceed 4H. for tlie lint or if 5 for sabseqnent oflfencct— Driver 
of anj oarriage ridinir on the shaft, or otherwise than on the front, or rkOng 
wtthoat good and soAdent reins, or placing his carriage athwart or across Qns 
street for a longer time than ten minutes, to forfeit 308., the owner being also 
liable for the penalty— Vehicles with two or more horws eadi to have a diiver} 
one-hone vehides chained together to have one drivo* to every two carriages, 
Uie diain not to exceed foor foet in length, nndo* a penalty of 90s.; the owner 
being also liable— Commissionen may erect and maintain vrdgliing marhlnra 
in tlietown, fix fees and make general regolations—Driven moat, if required 
by the buyer or seller of their lading, take carts to be weiglied without addi- 
tional charge, unless the distance to and from exceed hatf-a-mile. In which 
case twopence additional for every horse may be charged, as well as the like 
amount for every additional half-nme— Driven neg^ectiDg or r^n^g to assist 
liable to a penal^ not exceeding 40s.— Frauds in weighing or neglect by any ot 
the parties punishable with a line not exceeding £5 nor less than los. 

rATiiro, souosxifQ, cuAirsuro, liobtiivo, ftc. 

Commiasionen at their meetings may order all present and future streets, 
ways, lanes, passages, courts, squares and places in the town not repairable at 
the expense of the inhabitants, which may be nnpaved, out of repair, incom- 
plete, or In anywise obstructed, and which shall have messuages or dwelling* 
houses, or other buildings or tenements, or be enclosed either in a continnous 
line or to the extent of one-half of their whole length, induding the width of 
cross streets, to be freed from obstruction, and to be levelled, paved, repaired, 
and ottierwise completed with such footways, gutters, sinks, drains, sewenand 
water courses as they shall deem necessary— If exceeding dghty yards, any 
portion of which shall be buHt on or endosed to the extent of one-half its 
length, Commisslonen may order that portion to be completed as aforesaid, 
and in case less than eighty yards shall remain and be afterwards built on or 
endosed to the extent aforesaid, Commisslonen may then order it to be 
oompleted— Previous written notice to be given to every owner or occupier in 
or aqjoioii^ ^^ street, or notice to be fixed on premises, the owner of vrtdxA 
cannot be found, requiring him to complete so mudi of the street as may be 
before, behind, or at the comer, end or side of his property; and in case the 
parties neglect or reftue for six months. Commissioners may cause the work to 
be done at the expense of the parties; the notice so given bdng available 
against all fotore ocoupien and ownen of the premises— Expenses of woric 
executed by order of Commisslonen to be paid by ownen cur occnpien in 
propcHtion to the extent of their premises; parties refusing to pay after fourteen 
days* notice bdng liable to distress, provided no more of such expense be levied 
froin any ocoqiier, not bdng an owner, in any oneyear, than the fair annual value 
of the tenement— Commisslonen may fortiear to compd payment during three 
years, provided the parties pay 4 per cent, interest and give security for payment 
of prixkdpal and interest— Occupien paying expenses may deduct them from the 
rental, the excess of payment above rental to be refonded by the landlord ; and 
in case of his neglect for seven days, distress warrant may issue; premises held 
upon leases for mres perpetually renewable, or for ninety-nine years or up wards 
(twcsity yean bdng unexpired) to be considered as the property of the party 
holding, and not the party entiUed In reversion— Commisslonen being ownen 
or oocnpien In streets proposed to be completed, or within lOO yards of them, 
or belog entitled to chief or other rents from the land or buildings, not to vote 
at meetings on such questions, but may act on Committee— Streets comjdeted 
and paid for to be thenceforth deemed puUlc highways, repairable at the 
expense of tbs town— Sewen, drains, water-courses, public wdls and pomps 
may be made, altered or repaired, and gutten formed, br the Commissioners, 
who may use private ones, or carry them through inclosed lands not being 
yards or avenues to dweUing-hooses, previous notice bdng given to occupiers, 
who may have compensation, subject to appeal as aforesaid— Private buildings 
not to be encroached <m without consent of occupier— Private soughs not to be 
made, altered or opened, nor soughs communicating with public sewen to be 
repaired In public ways, without three days* notice to the Commissioners; 
j«oug1is to be formed according to the Commisslonen' rules, and to be nudn- 

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talned at the expente of theporties^Streets, wmys, lanes, oonrta or tqnaresnot 
to be less than eight yards wide, in addition to all areas, steps, windows and 
other projections— Trustees of turnpike roads not to coQect tcdls or to expend 
money in paving, repairing or improving streets within the limits of the Aci^ 
Commissioners may place bars across streets under nptdr, parties interfering 
with them being flneable forty shillings— May erect poets or fences to secure 
footways from encroachment or to prevent accident— Pavements not to be 
taken up, or the streets interfered with, without written consent of the COmroi»> 
sioners, subject to a penaltv of forty shillings (the privileges of public companiea 
being reserved)— Commissioners may contract tor deanaokg and lighting strecAa, 
for not longer than aeren years. 


first Friday in November Commisrioners to elect flrom the eighty ln-«oming 
Oommissioners ten to supply the place of such ten of the thirty Gas Directors 
as shall have been longest in offlcci out-going to be re-eligible, but two new 
ones to be always elected— Gas property to be vested in Commissionerd— Any 
person becoming disqualified as a Commissioner shall be so as a Director, as well 
as persona selling gas or holding office under the Act, or dealing in articles 
used in gas manufacture, or being personally interested in any case; neglect of 
these provisos punishable with a penalty of itfso, recoverable by any penon 
suing, proof of qualification lying with defendant all whose previous acta as 
Crnnmissioner shall be valid— No Commissioner who is a shuebolder in any 
gas company in Manchester to vote in election of Director, under penalty of 
^50, recoverable in like manner as abovei but no mortgagee of the works 
disqualified, nor any Director disqualified as a Magistrate— In case of deoth. 
refusal or disqualification, remaining Directors may act, unless reduced below 
twenty, when the vacancies must be supplied at a special meeting of CommiS' 
sioners J the new Directors to serve the period for which their predeccwon 
were liable— Directors so elected to meet in Town Hall on first Tneeday aftev- 
wards, and, subsequently, at least once a fortnight; five to fionn a qwfnm^^ 
Special meeidng convenable by any five on requintion to derk setting forth it» 
object, three days* notice being given in two piH;)ers; and no other business to 
be transacted— Directors to make bye-laws (to be printed and posted in theli 
oflice) and impose penalties not exceeding jg& for one offence: sul^ect 
to iqn>Ml— Chairman to be chosen by Direi^ors, and to have casting vote; 
minutes of all proceedings to be kept and signed by Chairman; names of aU 
Directors present to be entered and open to inspection of all Directors— Directors 
to engage or dismiss all their servants, and to fix salaries— Offices of Treosuser 
and Clerk not to be united, under a penalty of iff 100— Directors to sue and be 
sued in name of Clerk or Treasurer, or of one or more of themsel ves Books of 
account to be kept by Clerks, and open to inspection of Commissionera, 
Directors, and creditors on the rates, and they or any person rated may take 
copies, under penalty not exceeding jgi for refusal; officers to account wheo- 
ever required— Management and control of works vested in Directora— Directon 
may re-sell lands when not wanted, the money to go to Gas Fund— May erect 
retorts, gasometers, and all necessary works, fix pipes in streets, break up 
streets, lay mains, &c. in public streets or on private property without consent 
of occupier, provided they do not communicate with Shooter's Brook, riven 
lib or Medlock, or Bridgewater Canal— Owners or occupiers deshing removal 
of pipes laid with their consent after seven days* notice mav themsetves 
remove them— Directors to remove pipes, &c. when tenant quits, n required by 
succeeding occupier or owner, and in default may be removed at cost of 
Directors, or the goods sold— Directors not to make drains where they may 
interfere with any public or private drain, sewer or well, nor to break up the 
street without consent of Commissioners, Trustees, or persons having control- 
Directors having occasion to lay apparatus across bridge or under footpath, 

* Gas was introduced to this locality by Messrs. Lee and Philips, who applied 
it to the lighting of their factory in Salford in the year 1805. It was publicly 
exhibited for the first time in England by Messrs. Boulton and Watt, of 
Birmingham, in 180S, upon the national rc!}oidngs for the peace. 

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most place it within brick sooths covered with flags—Worinnen employed in 
repairing apparatus to make all good again, cany away rubbish, and repair 
damage, fendng open places, and setting up lights to prevent accidents in 
streets, subject to direction of Highway Surveyors, or to satisfaction of private 
owners; negligence or carelessness in these respects repidrable at expense of 
Directors, with added penalty, not exceeding jfirs. if not paid within ten days- 
Directors may contract with Highway Surveyors, for not more than tturee 
years, for laying pipes or trenches— Surveyors empowered to raise, sink or 
alter pipes, with consent of Justices, at cost of Directors— Directors to repair 
damage thus done to pipes, Sec. at expense of Surveyors; Magistrates to adjust 
expense, if disputed— Directors to supply public lamps and CommissionerB* 
offices with gas for such hours as Commissioners may direct. Commissioners 
paying such price as agreed upon with Directors; agreement not to exceed 
three Tears, and to be distinct charge on Commissioners* funds; paities 
damaging or extinguishing lamps fineable £5, or to be imprisoned two months 
—Pipes to be laid agahist private property only with consent of owner and 
occupier— Supply of gas may also be cut off persons in arrear— Gas consnmen 
not paying ten days after demand, may be distrained upon imder a Magistrate's 
warrant— Persons suppUed with gas supplying others, liable to a penalty of ^, 
and officers may iiupect premises between nine a.m. and ten p.m.; any 
increase of number or dimension of jets, or injiuy to the meter, punishable 
with a penalty not exceeding jS& — Persons attaching pipes or burners to 
Directors* pipes without consent, or using more or larger burners, or for a 
longer time than contracted for, so as to waste or increase consumption of gas, 
punishable with a penalty of j?5 a-day— Persons injuring or destroying 
Directors*, or Commissioners*, or other persons* gas property, or extinguishing 
or wasting gas, to pay not more than st5 and three times the damage done ; or 
if by accident, not making reparation. Justices to award recompenoe, to be 
levied by distress if not paid within ten days— Interruption of Directors or thetr 
servants punishable by Justice with a fine not exceeding j^io, or by action- 
Directors to stop escape of gas within twelve hours after notice, under penalty 
of j£5 per day— Escape of gas waste into canals, aqueducts or other waters, 
punishable with a fine of j^'200, recoverable by action from Directors, if sued for 
within six months, and of jC20 per day after twenty-four hoiufs* notice of tim 
nuisance, recoverable as other penalties— Gas pipes to be laid at the greatest 
practicable distance (3 feet if the street permit it, and if over or under then 
inches) from the water pipes, without contiguous Joints and air tight, xmd^ a 
penalty of jCs— Notice to be given to owners of water pipes or parties supplied 
by them; any damage to be repaired imder a penalty not exceeding jfs— 
Directors to pay not exceeding ^20 (if sued for) for contamination of Water- 
works Company's water and not taking measures to remedy it ; after twenty- 
four hours* notice a further penalty of j^io for each day may be imposed by 
the Justice— Companv may examine gas pipes to ascertain the cause, and it 
contamination arise nrom the gas. Directors to pay the expenses, but if other- 
wise the Company to pay all expenses and repair injury— Directors not to 
erect gas works within five hundred yards of Water- works Company's reset- 
voirs, and if neglecting to remove such erections after two days* notice, tn 
forfeit ^50 per day— Directors may be indicted for nuisance, or actions brought 
for injury by any party— Directors to report yearly to Commissioners of receipts 
and expenditure, state of works, debts due and ovring— Three Commissioners 
to be elected yearly as Auditors of Gas accounts, with power to employ 
accotmtant, and Commissioners may confirm or disallow them ; to be pubUshed 
within a mouth after tiiey are allowed— Directors and Commissioners exempt 
from personal responsibility— Penalties and fines under this Act, where not 
otherwise directed, upon proof before Justice, to be levied by distress and sale, 
or by committal. If no sufficient dbtress, for any time not exceeding three 
months — Justice may mitigate penalty one-half— Distress for expenses if not 
paid, and if no sufficient dSstress party may be committed for not more than 
six months — Proceedings to be taken within six months of ofTcnce— Parsons 
i^rgrieved may appeal to Sessions, giving fourteen days' notice to Directors, 
and entering into recognizance, with two sureties, for costs— From Gas pro- 
ceeds Directors to appropriate a sum equal to one- twentieth of the monies 
borrowed by authority of 5 Geo. 4, c. 133, and U Geo. 4, c. A7, as a sinking 

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fond to liquidate the debt— Commissioners acting: upon the recommendation of 
the Improvement Committee may, at their annual meeting, in case of severe 
extraordinary and general commercial pressure and distress, with a view to th« 
temporary relief of the leypayers, order to be paid over to the Market-street 
Improvement CommiBsiduers in liquidation of the debt on the highway rate, any 
sum not exceeding in any one year half the average amoimt per annum which* 
for the previous three years, shall have been actually paid over by the Gas 
Directors to th& Commissioners ; and if the distress shall unexpectedly continoe, 
they may at any future annual meeting make a similar payment, or, the distreas 
stiU continuing, they may pay over the fuU average amount per annum a» 
aforesaid} the appropriation in the latter case not to be made earlier than tte 
next annual meeting but one; the leypayers to be proportionaUy relieved from 
the payment of highway rate for the current year; no appropriation to be made 
nnless sanctioned by a second meeting; gas profits, subject to this contingent 
appropriation* to be applied to public improvements. 


[The desirableness of effecting improvements in the public streets and 
thoroughfares was first recognized in the Act 33 Geo. 3, which reciting that 
** as it Is desirable to purchase and take down the building called the Exchange 
for the purpose after mentioned, and to widen the narrow streets, there being no 
fund for these purposes, and these ends not being attainable in any other way 
than by voluntary subscription," it is enacted that every person subscribing not 
less than jC^io shall be a Commissioner so far as relates to these improvements 
— Every subscriber might specify to what improvement his subscription shooU 
be appUed— The Lord of Manor havmg customarily held his Courts Leet and 
Baron in the Exchange, the money paid in purchase of it was to be applied to 
procuring some other building applicable to the same purposes— The site of the 
Exchange was to remain open in such manner as the Conunissionen ftxr 
improving streets might direct ; no person was to place any erection or deposit 
aincles for sale, or otherwise obstruct the site, but it was to continue open for 
the use and accommodation of merchants, traders and others.] Under tbs 
aritfifi^ law — The Commissioners appoint from their body an Improvement 
Committee of thirty on their first meeting; Committee to be dismissah li 
before the expiration of the tenn of their appointment, on ten days* notice and 
m>edfication of reasons, and on the approval of two meetings of CommiasiraeiB 
—Ten of Improvement Committee to go out annually on the first Friday in 
November, the ten including those who ha ve died, or are disqualified, or reAised 
to actp or are of the out-gdG:ig Gas Directors ; ten new members to be elected 
by Commisaiouers, and to remain in office three years— Committee at first 
meeting to appoint Chairman and Deputy Chairman, and report the same to 
Commissioners, and in case of death to fill up the vacant office— At all meetings. 
Chairman, if present, and if not. Deputy Chairman, to preside, and enter 
proceedings in abook, to be open to inspection of Commissioners and Com- 
mittees, and yearly, forty-two days before they go out of office, to report to 
Manchester Commissioners, in writing, the whole of their proceedings during 
the year— If there be a deficiency in the number of Commissioners, the elected, 
if they be two-thirds, may continue to execute duties till the election, for which 
a meeting must be called within a fortnight of the former meeting— If reduced 
below two-thirds the original number. Clerk to Commissioners must call a 
special meeting to supply the vacancies — Comndssiouers may make purchases 
for improvements, and to compensate for injuries attending adjoining pro- 
perties ; not to agree or contract for any purcliase exceeding j£^300, unlem 
the ol^ect and estimated cost have been advertised in two papers and ordered by 
two meetings of Commissioners— May contract for a free passage over pay 
bridges at or on the iqiproaches to the town, or contribute out of the Improve- 
ment fund towards improvements in contiguous townships, with a view to ttas 
benefit of the town— Written consent of owners to be obtained, except as to 
jnoperty in the schedule or premises being rebuilt— Part only of a property 
being required, the Committee may purchase it, nnless the owner desire to seU 
the whole— Mortgagees, on payment of principal and interest due, with six 
months' interest additional, must assign over their mortgage ) the Commis- 

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■kmen to psy only Urn real Tahw of premisM orer-morttaged; tnch nloe. In 
caie of dtopate, to be settied by a Jury— Parties refbainK to treat after notice, 
or in case of doobtfol or disputed ownership. Sheriff to sommon a Jury; 
witnesses to be examined on oath— Jory's dedaion to be final— If the award 
exceed the som offered, the Commissioners to defray Uie costs, or if their award 
be less or not more than the sum offered, then the other party to defray the 
expenaea— Lessees, tenants for years or at will, or mor^ageee, to delrrer 
possearion of premises to the Commissi(merB, upon six months' notice; or in 
case parties be required sooner to quit, the Commissioners to gire Just and 
reasonable compensation, subject to the award of a Jury ~May take possessioo 
upon payment or deposit of purchase or compensation money— Property not 
wanted may be re-sold, the proceeds goinr to the Improrement frmd— first 
offer to be made to the party originally sdOing— Purctese mooer to be paid 
into the Bank of England in case the owner refuse to receive it or is not forth- 
coming, or in case oi dispute— Commissioners, after three months* wrltleo 
nodoe to the occupier, may round off to the extent of six feet comen at 
buildings in streets of less than ten yards width— Such improrement only to be 
made where the expense will not exceed j^ooo, and in all cases compensation 
to be giren to the owner or occupier, who, if dissatisfied, may t^ypeal to the 
next Quarter Session, and the recompense may be assessed by the Jury; Uiat 
award to be final, and no work to be done until the compensation money 
la paid — Commissioners may remove or alter the steps or pansades in firont ot 
any dwelling which project beyond half an inch for every foot's width of the 
street, paying costs and compensation, unless in tlie case of encroachments* 
which must be removed by the owner or tenant— St^s and palisades not to be 
erected in streets not exceeding six yards in width, nor in ten-yard streets be- 
yond the rate of a quarter of on inch for every foot's width of the street, n<v,ln 
streets above ten yards, more than half an inch to every Ibofs width, nor, in any 
case, more in the whole than twenty-two inches— Commissioners may remove 
steps not leading to the principal doors of houses, and also all other projectians 
whatever, into, upon or over present or ftiture streets, paying compensation as 
aforesaid— New buildings in lieu of those purchased by Improvement Committee^ 
or buildings erected on land which, in consequence of improvements, has becouM 
front land, to be erected according to plans specified by the Committee, unless 
they expressly give op their right— Commlssionera may prescribe the line 
according to which all new buildings shall be erected, giving co m pensati on — 
Commissioners may prescribe the ground line of all new buildings, according 
to such section or elevation as they shall think proper— Commknioners in 
general meeting may award to occupiers of shops, inns and taverns, bdng in 
possession six months prior to the passing of the Act [99nd. April, 1896}, a sum 
of numey, by way of recoropoise for the reasonaUe expenses of removal ox 
other damage sustained thereby — Buildings declared by the stipendiary 
Magistrate upon view to be in a ruinous or dangerous state may be propatf 
fenced, and parties may be required to take down or repair them within twenty 
days, and, in case of neglect, the Commissioners may cause it to be done at the 
expense of parties— Doors opening outwards so as to project upon the pobUc 
way to be reversed upon notice, subject to a penalty of 5s. per day, tenants 
charging the expense of alteration upon the landlord— Cellar doors, grids, ftc 
to be dosed and secured, so as to prevent acddeots, subjectto a penalty of aos. 
— Canals and rivers, abrupt or dangerous places, to be fenced off to the height 
of four feet, by or at the expense of the proprietors or owners— BuBdtngs 
hereafter to be erected to have party or division walls, not lets than fourteen 
Indies thidc, and twelve inches above the rake of the roof, and to be coped with 
stone, under a penalty by the owner and buUder of j£'60 eadi. Commisrioners' 
Surveyor to examine them in course of erection— No J<dsts or bearing timben 
to be laid into or permitted to bear upon party- wall ends, being more than four 
inches and a half within it; and no wood- work to be nearer than nine indies 
to any ditoney, jamb or flue— Commissioners to appoint and remove S ur veyor* 
of Houses and Buildings— Pipe for conveying smcrice not to remain next to any 
street, nor Inside of house nearer than nine inches to any timber, nor funnels 
extend beyond the line of frontage— Parties offending may be indicted and 
punished for the nuisance— Two Jastices of Peace may cause pipe or funnel 
to be removed— Chimneys of manuikctories to be erected to sucb height as 

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Commisaionen shall direct, and (u well as fire places) in socb way as best 
to coDsame smoke* under penalty of 40a. a- week. 


TO be protected with fences, nnder a penalty of 40s. for each day's neglect- 
Committee may accept from owners of property contribntlons towards intended 
improrements, and contribute from their rands towards improrements mider- 
taken by individuals and i^iproTed by them. 


Statement of accounts for the year ending S4th. June to be published forty- 
two days prior to the fburtb Mday in October under a penalty of £50, and 
sold at sixpence. 


Ashes, dust, dirt, &c. not being kept in house until dust-oart passes. . . . itfo 5 
Ditto throwing, casting, laying, causing or sufllering to be thrown upon 

streets 5 o 

Auctions, selling by or assisting therein, on streets 3 o 

Bakers or others, using orens, refusing to remore fuel tweoty-flve yards 
fjrom any building (except enough for one day's consumption) after 

twenty •four hours' notice, i^S (and 5s. a-day) 5 o 

Bars, posts, chains, &c. placed across streets by Commlseloneis whilst 

repairing ftc., for injuring or throwing down s o 

Bathing in canals, rivers, &c to annoyance of passengers s o 

Barrows, ftc. running, drawing, driving or cairying on footpaths ft o 

Bonfires, making \ . . 

Bricks or tiles, burning within twenty .yards of any pobUc street . . . . / ^ ^ 

Bull, &e. baiting in streets i o 

Building materials laid down without hords, per day 2 o 

Ganals, rivers and dangerous places, to be fenced at owner's expense. *) 
Carts, &c. standing on streets, except during reasonable time, for/ 

loading or unloading > ft o 

Ditto on footpaths k 

Ditto unnecessarily stopping or obstructing passage of. J 

Ditto standing athwart or across streets, more than ten minutes. 'S 
Ditto Chained together by cb4inf , more than four feet six inches f 

long, or more than two so chained > I 

Ditto for timber, twenty feet long, without a guide besides the \ 

driver J 

Ditto Drivers of, riding on shafts. *) 

Ditto ditto ditto except on front, with reins / 

Ditto ditto driving faster than a walk > 1 o 

Ditto ditto removing night soil, except from 18 to 7 a. m., in I 

Summer, and from 19 to 9 in winter j 

Ditto ownersof ditto ditto 1 . . 

Ditto Drivers of not keeping on left side of street / 

Otfpets, ftc shaking, beating, ftc., 00 streets ft 

Cteriagaa, ftc. repairing, cleaning, or left on streets ft 

Caaka, rolling, hooping, firing, making, cleaning, washing or scalding 

onstreets ft 

Cattle &c. driving on footpaths, tying across ditto, ftc., or slaughtering, 

bleeding or scalding 00 streets ft 

Ditto Foddering or riding, driving, ftc. furiously, on streets 1 

Cellars, doors and windows of, improperly guarded or secured 1 • 

Churches, chapels, ftc., defacing or marking walls of, ftc ft 

Chimney sweepers, throwing soot on streets 1 

Chimnies, wilfully or negligently set on fire 1 

Ditto Smoky, or improperly constructed, per week 9 

Qotbes, hanging.out, or fixing on ftont or side of any building ft 

p 2 

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Cork, dreuiogt barainf» Ac. on streets ^> ^ 

Cook shops, open before four o'clock, a. m., in sammer, or six o'clodi,*! 
a. m., in winter, or after twelve on Satardaf, or eleven on other I • a 
nif hts, or keeping improper perrons in when closed, 5s., and, after r 

flrstoflTence J 

Dofs, ball, mastiff or ferodoat, sofferlof to ro at larg^e, onmozzled.. ^ « o 

Do. Safferiog any to fo at large after notice I 

Do. Setting to fight or assisting therein on Sundays, six days' Im- S ... 

prisonment, or / 

Dast, dirt, dang, &c., left or thrown on streets 5 

Exposing person indecently 5 o 

Fire-arms, wantonly discharging or firing off in streets 5 o 

Fire- works, letting-off. firing, &c. in struts 6 

Fire-engines, &c., wilfully damaging, 14 to S8 days* imprisonment, or.. 10 
flower-pots, &c. projecting over footpath on window stones, or other- 
wise placed without gnsxd to street 

Footpaths, neglecting to cleanse or to cover with ashes in frost or snow' 
before nine, a. m.— (Parties may compound with Commis- 
sioners tn do Itt^Chordi and Chapel wardens liable for those 


Ditto Obstructing or encroaching on 

Ditto Placing any matter or thing over or npon 

Football, playing at, on streets 5 

Oamlng, in streets 5 o 

Gates opening ontwards, per day • 5 

Goods, exposing for sale, outside premises, or placing so as to prefect ") 

over footpaths V S 

Ditto ditto npon or over areas J 

Ditto throwing over footpaths 1 

Grids, grates, &c. broken or improperly secured *) . . 

Ditto ditto neglecting to place over cellar areas, per day / 

Holes or openings, neglecting to light and fence S 

Hoops, driving on streets S 

Hords, neglecting to erect, when building, taking down, altering or \ . a 

repairing premises, or to remove when required / 

Horses, exposing for sale, grooming, cleaning, riding, driving or iMd- \ ■ a 

ingon footpath, or fastening across do / 

Kites, flying In the streets B 

, sifting, wetting or mixinr on street ft 

Lamps, posts, irons or pipes, wilfully damaging, three months* imprl- ) .^ 

sonment, or 5 

Manure, taking from streets without leave S 

Mortar, wetting, mixing or making on street 5 

Names or numbers of streets and houses, [to be aflkced by Commls- ) a tn 

sioaers] destroying or defacing ^ v w 

Night-soU, emptying after boors, ten days' imprisonment, or I o 

Ditto Carting ditto (cart and driver may be seized) 5 

Obscene songs or ballads, singing or selling do S 

Ditto or Indecent langnage, oslng in streets ) « . 

Ditto Print or pamphlet, sclUng or dlstriboting in do j ' * 

Oacers, obstmcting, In execntlon of their duty, three months* imprU ^ ,. . 

sonment, or / 

Pavement OT flags, taking up without leave S 

Penalties, refusing to pay, three months* imprisonment. 

Pitch and toes, playing at, on streets ft • 

Posting bills, on placet of worship, or on other premises, without leave I • * 

of owners f 

Races, running on streets 6 t 

Bobbish or bolldlnf materials left on streets, j^s, and 40a. per day 

after notice 

flowers, opening without leave, or Improperly constmctiog ft o 

Streets, ashes, dirt, mbbisb, Ac laid or placed npon, Intermptlng fteel 

of or censing annoyance to inhabitants or passengers V ft t 


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StOM, Umber, &e. cattlog or bcwin^ apon streets ^5 

Spoats or eftves, drippinf on streets & f 

Stallions, exposing on streets 5 

SondaySf setting dogs to fiffat, or causing to fight, on 1 o 

Ditto, Disturbing peace on, disorderlf persons loitering in groups, ) ^ .. 

plajingat pitch or toss or other game, on, six days* imprisonment, or ) 
Swine, at large, per bead lOs. (any constable may cause to be conreyed 

to Workhouse.) 

Teagles, erecting higher than first story, 58. per day after notice 5 

TOrche:}, &c. carrying lighted on streets 6 

Trucks, running, driring or drawing on footpatlis 5 o 

Walls, &c. writing upon or defscing 5 o 

Weighing machines, frauds at 6 

Wheels, conreylng on streets without sledge, &c 1 o 

Windows, wilfully breaking or assisting therein \ . . 

Window blinds, obstructing street / 

Witnesses of offences against police Acts neglecting or refusing to give \ .^ ^ 

evidence / 

The 7ist. section of the llth. Geo. IV. cap. 47, declares that the proTisions of 
the several Acts respecting nuisances shall extend to all streets, highways, 
footways, passsges and places, whether repaired at the expense of the inhabi- 
tants at large or otherwise. Penalties to be applied to the general purposes of 
the Act— mitigable to one-half. In cases of non-payment to be recovered by 
distress warrant, together with the expenses. In cases of non-payment or 
failure of distress, parties may be committed not more than three months. 
Proceedings to be within six calendar months of the offence. Strangers 
offendhig may be summarily taken before a Magistrate. Commissioners* 
servanto may take ball or other temporary security from parties ctiarged with 
any oflbnce under this Act not amounting to felony. In cases of action twenty- 
one days' notice to be given by Commissioners} who, if nonsuited, shall pay 
treble costS} 1( the reverse, they to receive double costs. 


The municipal government of the borough of Salfbrd reseroblea that of 
Manchester. The Boronghreeve and Constables are elected at the Conrt Lett 
of the Bari Sefton, who recently entered into an arrangement vrith the 
** liberal" party In the town, by which the Jury of the Leet is so oonstitnted 
as to return municipal oflicers of the political views entertained by hto Lord- 
ship. Under the Police Act, Committees exist similar to those in the netghbonr 
town. Salford Ims her own gas-worki^, orij^inally purchased from Mr. Appleby 
for jM,000, and recently superseded by a new establishment in a diflterent 
flitc. the profits of which, when any accrue, will be expended in public improve- 
ments, but hitherto the " Improvement Committee" have liad only a nominal 
ofllce. A sum of jtf 10,000 has been borrowed on seeurity of the works, and jff9,WW 
are atiU due to Mr. Applebf . A spacious Market and Town Hail were bnilt 
a few years ago— they have recently been purchased by the town, togeUier with 
the tolls of the markets and fsirsf and a Cattle Market is about to be establiihed 
at the public expense in Cross-lane, near the Railroad. Its cost vriil be about 
^4,600.— The Boronghreeve and Constables for the time being, and ISO peraoiM 
oecoj^ers of one or more tenements assessed severally or in the whole In the 
sasessroent for the year ending 31st December at itfso, or persons rated below 
that amount bat being owners of property producing jffso a-year olear, and 
asMased to that amount in the last assessment, are qualified to be elected 
Commissioners by all persons nssessed to the relief of the poor in the assess 
ment for the year ending sist December, and in the then last assessment 1 in 
cases of partnership, each partner being eligible to vote or as a Commissioner 
so far as the amount of the assessment and each partner's share will extend. 
The Commissioners are elected by eight districts, whldi retom In the foU 
lowtag proportions:— 

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No. 1 orBlackfriarsDiitrict. 15 Com. 

3 laliDftOD 15 

8 Oldfleld Roftd 18 

4 CrMcent 18 

No.5orStPhiUp'tDl8tricL. ISCoa. 

6 St. Stephen's 18 

7 Trinity Ctaapei 18 

8 Oreengete 18 

Occaplere in mcMre districts then one may rote in eech. Hie proportion of 
Commissionera elected by each district may be revised erery 14 years, and 
re-modelted accordlor to the measure of the assesfiment and the rates paXi by 
each. Forty Commissioners f o oat of office on the fooxth Friday of October in 
each sncceeding year, that number to be elected in their stead within seven days . 
Hie elections are conducted in a manner almost similar to that poisoed in 
Manchester. Hie Commissioners take a qualification oath on their election, 
but their acts are to be held valid though they be not duly qualified. The Act 
stipulates that the Commissioners shall pay one-eighth of the Stipendiary 
Magistrate's salary. The Commissioners are to meet not less frequently than 
every two months, nine being qualified to act, the Boroughreeve (Mr Constable 
taking the chair. Extraordinary meetings may be called at the instance of 
nine Commissioners. Annual statement of accounts op to 34th. Jane to be 
made out forty-two days before the fourth Friday in October, and to be printed 
and delivered gratis to ratepayers applying. The Act provides for the lighting, 
sweeping, watching, paving, &c. of the tovm, and authorizes the erection of 
gas works, not more than one-half of the profits of which may be expended in 
improvements. The Commissioners nominate the Surveyors of the Highways, 
who mast yearly lay their accounts before them. The Act authorizes the sale 
to the Commissioners, by the Chancellor of the Oachy, of the market boose 
erected in Salford, with the rights and privileges of holding markets in the town, 
with tue tolls of the markets, fairs, &c., after which the Commissioners may erect 
other markets, parties being still free to sell on their own premises. Rates are 
not to exceed is. fid. in the poand, payable by half yearly portions, property 
under ^6 annual value being exempt} prdperties above d^d and not exceeding 
j^ being assessed at only one third; above £7 and not exceeding ^9* at one- 
half} above j^q and not exceeding itl 0, at two-thirds. Land, places of worship, 
alms-houses, hospitals, free-schools for the poor, or public charities, are exempt. 
j£^$,000 may be borrowed on security of the rates, the gas-works, market- 
toUs, &c. 


The enactment for the regulation of the police of Cborlton-npon-Medlock 
bears a dose resemblance, in all its main feattires as to paving, soughing, 
watching, &c., to the Acts affecting the township of Manchester. The existing 
Act, passed 33d. June, 1832, for "improving and regulating'* the township, 
gives to it the new designation of ChorUon-upon-Medlock. 

The chief Constables, and ninety persons who shall have attained their 21 st. 
year, are to be the Commissioners for executing the Act. Occupiers of pre- 
mises rated to the relief of the poor, and whose poor and police-rates are pa&d 
up to the 8l8t. December preceding the day of election, are eligible as votersf 
and persons assessed to the poor's rate or house duty at not less than itf2U, or 
residents being owners or in receipt of the rental of premises of j^so annoal 
value and assessed at that amount, are eligible as Commissioners; in cases of 
pttTtnersbip, each individual being entitled to vote or eligible as a Commissioner. 
An "election list" of eligible persons is to be made out yearly, and a "supple- 
mentary** ^^ ^ include those omitted from the original one. lUrty Commla. 
aioners to go out by rotation on the fourth Friday in October. The Commis- 
sioners to meet at intervals of not less than two months for dispatch of business, 
five to be a quorum. Special meetings may be called by five Commissioners, or 
by their clerk on requisition from that number. Commissioners to hold a 
meeting on each 22d. September and nominate ten persons as Surveyors of the 
Highways, which officers are yearly to lay their accounts before them. Rates 
not to exceed elghteenpence in the pound, to become due by half-yearly pay- 
ments on the 84tb. June and 25th. December. Houses rented below ^i i 

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from rates} and for booses rented not hitber thftn j^O. Commissioiiers mty 
oompoaod with the IsAdlord, bot not to accept less than one-balf tbe rate— the 
composition to be paid so soon as agreed on. CommlBsloners may mortgage 
the rates for not more than i^io,000 in addition to the mortgage under tbe 
former Act "Cotton-spinners, dyers, printers, machine'makers, velvet' 
dressers, brewers, bakers, smiths, founders, boiler-makers, soap-boilers, pipe- 
makers, and other artificers and manatectorers making use of fires casting ap 
large qoaotities of smoke or flame," may be compelled to construct l^elr 
diimneys of any height, not exceeding thirty yards, that the Commissioners 
shall direct; and the fire places and chlnweys for engines are to be constructed 
so as best to consume their smoke. In case of the formation of Town's Oas 
Works, one-half the profit may be expended in improvements. Commissioners 
are authorized to provide public docksi to compel proprietors of cottage houses 
to erect adequate out-houses; to fine parties defacing the walls of, or otherwise 
committing nuisances apon churches or chapels; to remove slaughter houses, 
if occasions of annoyance; and generally the clauses defining *' nuisances,*' 
and providing a remedy by fine .or otherwise, are of a stringent and compre- 
hensive character. 


The Police Act for this township was obtained in 18S4. All occupiers of 
premises valued at jtf95 a- year are Commissiooers, and the general meetings 
are held on the first Friday in each month. The provisions of the Act are pre- 
cisely the fame as those in operation in Manchester at the time the Holme Act 
was passed. One of the clauses stipulates that all new front streeto shall be ten 
yards, and all back streets six yards wide ; that all the footpaths shall be- 
In streets from to 8 yards wide a feet on each side, 
ft i» »» 8 S3 10 „ „ A t* «• f% $t 
*» N »» 10 « 19 „ n ». »» .1 *> 

„ „ „ above is „ „ 7 *f »§ i* >» 


The Police Act for this township was passed on the t3d. March, 1 825. Persons 
occupying premises of the yearly valae of itfso, at the least, and being and 
bavioe been for six months past residents of the township, may qualify as 
CommisslonerA. Meetings are to be held on the first Friday of each month, 
(unless another day is fixed upon) five Commissioners to form a quorum, which 
number of Commissioners are at any time capable of calling a special meeting, 
giving seven days' notice. In the provisions of the Act for deaosing, lighting, 
paving, sewering and watching, there is no very material variance fh>m the 
Manchester enactments. It is provided that all expenses shall be defrayed 
trcm tbe profits of any gas-works that may at any time be formed by the inha- 
bitants, or by a rate which Is not to exceed dghteenpence In the pound per 
annum. Parties living in streets not lighted or watched are exempt from rates, 
as are also aU occupants of premises rented at less than j£5, and all persons 
srtio are excused payment of poor's rate on the ground of their poverty, and all 
lands and buildings used in agriculture, and all houses which have been empty 
fbr twelve months prior to tbe laying of the rate. 

The public and police basiness is executed at the Town 
Hall, in King-street. The first stone of this edifice was 
laid on the 19th. August, 1822^ by James Brierley, Esq., 

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the Boroaghreeve; but, though fourteen years have 
elapsed since that event occurred, tlie interior of the 
building is still in an imperfect state. In addition to the 
purposes which it was intended to subserve, it was proposed 
to afford a suitable residence for the Deputy Constable 
of the town, but it has been found unsuited for that object 
At present one wing of the building (the west) is devoted 
to the officers employed under the Boroughreeve, the Polioe 
Commissioners, and the Gas Directors; the lower rooms 
being used as a watch-office and lock-up. The opposite 
wing is similarly occupied by the day-police, (some of 
whom live on the premises) whilst the centre of the Hall, 
which consists of one large room (one hundred and thirty- 
one feet long by thirty-eight wide) and several smaller 
ones, is set apart for the holding of meetings, &c. The 
structure is of stone. Its exterior is ornamented with 
figures of Solon and Alfred. In the higher compartments* 
there are medallion representations of Lycurgus and Jadge 
Hale. Mr. Goodwin was the architect of the buildings 
the general idea of which is said to be taken from the 
Athenian Temple of Erectheus, whilst the large dome is 
borrowed from the ''tower of the winds,'' of which the 
ancient astronomer Andronicns was the designer. To the 
Hall itself, as a work of art, no objection might be taken 
if it were in any degree adapted either to the very limited 
site on which it stands, or the important purposes lor 
which it was intended. Unfortunately, however, neither of 
these points was regarded by those who originated it. — The 
large room, to which the whole interior of the structure 
was sacrificed, has been adorned with a number of painir 
ings, the work of an artist named Aglio, in which there is 
more of variety than of taste, elegance of design, or cor- 
rectness of execution. At the eastern end, the dome is 
studded with figures of Britannia, crowned by the genius 
of Immortality, and commanding Peace to descend on 

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Europe. The Arts and Industry, or Commercial Enter- 
prize (said to be represented by a child holding a small 
vessel!) revive at her pi-esence. Then comes a female 
bearing the fasces, descriptive of Constitutional Law, who 
overthrows Hypocrisy and Tyranny, and encourages 
Religion; whilst Britannia, the Goddess of Plenty, and 
a figure personating Royal Munificence, make up the 
scene. All this has some reference to* the contest with 
Napoleon! Over the chimney-piece is a description of 
Lord Macartney's interview with the Emperor of China, 
at Zhehol, in Tartary ; above it, in basso-relievo, are all 
the nations of the earth ''offering their commerce to 
England.'' Opposite to this is a picture of an interview 
given by the King of Persia to a deputation from this 
Country, sent in the last century to open a trade with 
the subjects of that Empire; and a basso-relievo above it 
represents Britannia receiving from Vulcan machinery 
which he and his Cyclopian journeymen have been pre- 
paring! At the western end of the room another allegory 
enriches the dome; over the chimney-piece is a represen- 
tatiOQ of the Temple of Ombos, above the second 
cataract of the Nile; with a basso-relievo, over it, of an 
Egyptian ofifering to England the traffic of Egypt. 
Opposite to it is a painting descriptive of Sebastian Cabofs 
landing on the American continent Into the centre dome 
well nigh all the gods of the Heathen Mythology are 
crowded; the " speiidralls^ are devoted to various classical 
subjects ; but one of them on the west side of the room, 
painted in chiaro-oscuro, represents the arts of weaving, 
eflri>roidery and tapestry, as taught to the ladies of Athens 
by Minerva herself. In the frieze over the window, divided 
iDto five compartments, the adventure of the Argonauts is 
revived. Above the principal fire-place there was origi- 
nally a painting, which attracted much notice, descriptive 
of the visit of the Allied Sovereigns to London, after 

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the peace; bat as it was not a very finished perfor* 
mance, and as, besides, the artist had introduced the faces 
of several residents of the town, some of whom were 
scarcely alive at the time, and all of whom, certainly, were 
not pttties in that brilliant meeting, it was voted that the 
sponge should be applied to the painting, and another 
substituted. The artist drew upon his fancy for the one 
which now occupies the place of the Allied Sovereigns. 

The Town Hall has been a fruitful source of expense to 
the inhabitants of Manchester, as the annexed figures 
shew: — 

L. t. D. L. t. O. 

Tl» ooit of eamMng the Town Hall, Manchwter, 

tQjoneS4, 1835, wu S8»0S5 

Do. do. flnidiing large room 5,011 • o 

Total cost onmoans. as,e47 o o 

Land 6,SM • o 

Totalonday ifS9,547 o o 

The Hall is unhappily situated in one of the most 
dense districts of the town, with narrow streets on three 
sides, whilst the fourth is completely built up. This 
original defect, which completely mars the architectural 
beauty of the edifice, can never, in all probability, be 

The affairs regarding the poor of Manchester have ever 
since the year 1790, been governed by a local Act, which 
was obtained by the people of Manchester, for the purpose 
of "providing a new Poorhouse for, and for the better relief 
and government of, the poor of the township of Man- 
chester, in the county of Lancaster," as its heading 
declares. The preamble recites that, the town is "very 
populous, and the poor thereof are become exceedingly 
numerous," that the present House is too small and very 
inconvenient, and that it would tend to the better relief and 
employment of the poor, and be of benefit to the in- 
habitants of the township to have a proper and commodious 

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Poorhouse provided, and proper powers given for govern- 
ing, maintaining and employing the poor. By Uie pro- 
visions of the Act, the Churcliwardens of the Collegiate 
and Parish Church and Overseers of the Poor for the 
township are vested with full power for putting it into ex- 
ecution, and they swear ** to administer it without favor or 
affection, prejudice or malice/' They are to meet once a 
month at the Poorhouse to transact business, and once 
quarterly, (five to form a quorum) namely, on the first 
Monday after the 25th. March, after the 24th. June, after 
the29tli. September, and after the 25th. December, for the 
examination of accounts and all other proceedings of the 
past quarter, when a statement of the inmates of the House, 
their ages, and earnings, must be produced. Two Church- 
wardens may at any time call a special meeting; the Church- 
wardens on all these occasions to pay their own expenses. 
The Poorhouse and its furniture are vested in the Church- 
wardens and Overseers, who may appoint a governor, 
matron, steward and other servants, as well as 'some 
clergyman of the Church of England to attend and per- 
form divine service in the said Poorhouse, as often as the 
said Churchwardens and Overseers shall direct and appoint, 
to instruct the poor in the principles of the Christian 
religion and morality, to visit the sick, and perform other 
offices of his function," for such allowance as may be 
fixed. The building, though actually situated without the 
boundaries of the township, is to be regarded as witlun 
it The Magistrates for the Division, or persons ap- 
pointed by them, may at any time visit the Workhouse 
and investigate all matters respecting it, of which a report 
most be made to the next Quarter Sessions and enrolled 
by the Clerk of the Peace. The Churchwardens, besides 
being empowered to purchase land to the extent of ten 
statute acres, and to erect and furnish a Poorhouse, (which 
shall be exempt from parochial and Parliamentary taxes. 

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and be situate in or within two miles of the township) for 
which purposes they may borrow money on security of the 
rates, paying it off at the rate of £6 per cent per annum ; 
may also enlarge the Poorhouse by the same means. 
They may make rules to govern the House and the poor, 
which must be approved by two Justices; the poor may be 
punished for misconduct by confinement or hard labor, 
or distinction in dress or abatement in diet They may 
be employed " in any work, trades, manufactures and em- 
ployments whatsoever," the proceeds of their labor to 
go in aid of the poor's rate, after deducting such reward 
to the industrious and skilful, in proportion to the quantity 
and perfection of their work» as the Churchwardens may 
appoint Children found wandering and begging in the 
township, and appearing in need of care and protection, 
or being deserted by their parents, or the children of poor 
persons leading idle and dissolute lives and setting an 
example of vice and idleness, may be sent to the Work- 
house, there to be trained in habits of religion and industry 
until their seventeenth year if males, or their fifteenth if 
females unless sooner discharged by order of Justices or 
in course of law, when they may be apprenticed, the 
Churchwardens providing their clothes ; or they may be 
put out as domestic or menial servants in husbandry, 
housewifery or otherwise, when or before they attain the 
age above-named. Churchwardens may order out-door 
relief to industrious poor persons, and idle and disorderly 
persons neglecting their families may be prosecuted and 
punished on the application of the Churchwardens and 
Overseers, or two of the latter, with the former. Two 
Justices of the Division may appoint additional Overseers, 
according to the 43rd. Elizabeth, assigning their salaries. 
The laws relating to the poor are to continue in force in 
the township, « save as herein they are expressly altered or 
this Act is wholly repugnant thereto." 

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The Poorhouse, under this local Act, was finished in 
1791, and the meetings of the Churchwardens and Over- 
seers took place there for the dispatch of business until 
about 1809-10, when, the town increasing so rapidly, and 
the poor's affairs requiring more time and greater attention 
from the ofBcers, it was considered desirable to have 
offices in a more central situation, not only on their 
account, but for the convenience of the leypayers at large 
as well as the recipients of the local fund. 

Before the building of the present one, the Poorhouse 
was in Cumberland-street, and, for a short period, in 
Millers Lane. 

The management of the Manchester Poorhouse or 
Workhouse, for it embraces in some measure the character 
of both, has always been considered as of the first order. 
There are a governor, matron, chaplain, resident house- 
snrgeon, consulting physician and surgeon, as honorary 
officers, and such an establishment of subordinates as is 
necessary for so large a concern. 

The following is a comparative statement of expenditure 
on its account ; the number of inmates per week on the 
average of the year; the expense per head per week for 
food ; and the population at the several census, during a 
period of twenty-five years : — 

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19 Hi 
4 9 
18 1 
6 4 
18 H 







U 1 
1 10; 

17 114 
11 8| 
15 7 
17 6i 

jf 8. d. 

153 13 7 

137 3 6| 

123 13 10 

142 19 4 


293 14 
1,077 14 
1,462 19 

904 1 

285 3 

173 9 U 
43 18 11 
29 13 6| 

924 4 2i 
1,171 8 

149 18 5 
4,618 7 

352 19 11 

755 8 2 

188 14 

834 11 
2,281 « 

271 14 

172 14 
1,836 15 





8. a. 

3 10 

4 H 



3 7k 
3 9 



s n 

2 8} 
2 7i 

1 11< 

2 2 






The following is a copy of the dietary or bill of fare: 





aanOaj .... 

Rice milk & four ox. 

Foot ojb. of meat, four 

Oatmeal pottage A 

of bread. 

oz. of bread, and 

one pint of milk. 

Mooday .... 

Oatmeal pottage and 

potatos or cabbage. 

one pint of milk. 

Soup and six oz. bread. 

do. do. do. 


do. do. do. 

Potato-ash and fbnroz. 

do. do. do. 

Bfnk pottage and four 

of bread. 

oz. of bread. 

Same as Sunday. 

do. do* do. 

Thimday .. 

Oatmeal pottage and 

Do. Monday. 

do. do. do. 

one pint of milk. 

Do. Tuesday. 

do. do. do. 


do. do, do. 

Beer, pottage and six 

do. do. do. 


do. do. do. 

oz. of bread. 

The sick iiaTC a better diet, under the regulation of the medical attendant. 

The " State of the House/* as given in the annual report, 
is an interesting document; that of the past year (1835- 
36) is subjoiued : — 

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Age. TotaL 

Men from to 40.. . 4S 
Ditto 40tofl0.... 43 

Ditto 0oto8O....n5 

Ditto 80to90.... 18 


Women to 40. . , , 73 

Ditto 4Oto0o.... es 

Ditto 0Oto8O.... 98 

Ditto 80to90.... 19 


Boys under . 9*... S8 
Ditto 9tor4.... 16 


OidB under . 9.... 48 
Ditto 9tol4.... 15 



Weavers and winders. 

Gardeners, joiners, laborers and 






















Norses and serrants 

Employed at offices and drardi . 
Bntnloyed at pin-sbop. 


BUad. lame and snlOect to fits.. 
Infirm and Inc^Mkble of work .. 
Sick and on the doctor's list . .. 
Children in the sdwolft nursery. 






Arerage weekly number in the House throughout the year, 60S 

Average weekly expenses per bead for fbod £ s oi 

Ditto ditto fordothing. 5| 

Value of coffins given to the out-poor, by order of the Boards. si6 8 6 

Stock of dothing on hand S85 17 6 


Pliyslcian to the PoorhoQse, WUUam Henry, M. D.; Surgeon, Mr. James 
Ainsworth; Chaplain, Rev. WQliam Bums; Resident Surgeon, Mr. Richard 
Baron Howard. 

The internal management of the Poor-house seems to 
partake of the business character of the population to 
which it belongs. There is not only an efficient establish- 
ment to carry into effect the several duties which so 
large a concern requires, but there is also a strict super- 
vision by honorary officers, the chief of whom is the 
junior Churchwarden of the parish. By the arrangements 
of the Board of Churchwardens and Overseers this duty 

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peculiarly devolves upon him, and he holds a Board 
Tt-eekly at the House, to take into consideration all matters 
connected with its interests. He receives the Governor's 
reports; takes the cases of such inmates into consideration 
as are supposed to be in a fit state to be discharged from 
the House; investigates all the admissions of the week; 
examines the accounts, signs them, and makes the orders 
for payment ; writes the orders, in a book kept for the pur- 
pose, for such articles and necessaries as may be wanted ; 
and is consulted upon all matters that have reference to 
Poorhouse affairs. The Poorhouse is also visited weekly 
by four of the assessors, who are Overseers of the Poor 
for that duty, and they are taken in rotation from a list 
that consists of between sixty and seventy. They are con- 
ducted through the House, and inspect its state generally, 
the condition of the beds, the quality of the food, the 
state of the rooms, and they make inquiries of the inmates 
on any point that may suggest itself as they proceed. 
They afterwards write their observations in a report*book, 
whidi is kept for the purpose, and make such remarks as 
they may think likely to be useful in the management 
of the House. 

The direction of the poor's fund in Manchester has 
always occupied much of the attention of the leypayers, 
and the appointment of the parochial officers has always 
been from the first class of tradesmen, manufacturers and 
merchants. There is no doubt that this is one reason why 
the business of the poor has been better managed in 
Manchester than in most other places; the parties chosen 
having usually been men who have been successful in 
commercial pursuits, and have therefore brought a stock 
of business knowledge to be made available for a subject 
in which it is peculiarly required. The Churchwardens 
and Sidesmen are appointed for the parish, but the former 
are Overseers of the Poor for the township of Manchester 

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also by the local Act« and the latter are usaally the 
Overseers appointed by the Magistrates, so that they at 
the same time constitate the Board for both parish and 
township affairs. Besides acting as a body in the consi- 
deration of the general affairs of the parish and township, 
they subdivide the labour of the offices in a more particular 
manner; the Senior Churchwarden attending to matters 
relating to the Church, and the rates and taxes department; 
the second Churchwarden taking supervision of the ex- 
penditure on account of the poor ; and the third Church- 
warden controlling the management of the Poorhouse. 
The Senior Sidesman and Overseer superintends the 
Removal Office; the second, the Bastardy; and the other 
eight form Boards of two each for the four districts into 
which the town is divided, for the relief of the poor. The 
paid officers are: — the Comptroller of Rates and Taxes; 
the Cashier and Directing Overseer ; the Overseers of the 
Removal and Bastardy Offices ; and four as Visitors of the 
Poor ; besides clerks. 

The following is a table of the money relief granted to 
the poor for the year ended the 25th. of March, 1836 : — 

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: :2 






8 S S2 2s 2 "* 2* •^- •*» 

qagA UO'ON 


M to *« n OD e O 2 <« M OD tvfN. 







"CI eeo ^eee«« oe o eoo 

« OD Ok OD M « >^ t^lO lO «» Okfll 


M A <# O IN.O M O M* •« Ct »«« 

O. !C K K t>» o. ft ?1 ^ »Cdft9 


2«0«0W«0 ««0« M) aft «r«| lO 




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• •4*«.ak««.^.. 



:R i : is i • is i i : 




: :« • : :* ::•«:: 

. .^ . . .S . . .§ . . 


:2 :::?:: :2 ::: 



-• d> «) M « <# e Ok i<«iv« c« *« 


-fioioeoeo « <« eo M ^^e 09 n 







: ! is i : i? 


:S : 

: . : 
. .•« . 

: :« : 

i is i i i 









-4 M io lo (hOim n « « ete o 









«o OflD e« o e OT«e «« •• »^ M 


lo Ota M«<e ^ loe '<» ^ <« Is 









>^ ei« M -4 ts. M ts o lo OD A a 
























^m^^mUl : 



^4 1 Fl 1 Ff:i:*^ * ^ JHIKl'Jb^f f'^'iRlrlH i<« 

• • • ' 






15 '^as 





Digitized by CjOOQ IC 




^^£cft deckled upon 







^ m. ^ 

Mvcb... » 




180 8 1 
588 d 

Alidl.... 4 




T^„.. 11 




137 14 10 





150 4 10 



* 990 


187 10 # 

May.... s 




408 18 4 

........ 9 




»7 11 7 
948 10 7 









144 4 7 





483 9 9 

Jimt.... t 




933 10 1 





930 14 1 





980 7 


July.. . 4 




475 8 9 



4SS5 18 ft 



9S9 10U 





930 10 » 





901 10 9 





518 14 7 

Aofoit.. 1 




MO 7 7 

.T! 8 




181 1 





MS 9 7 





450 1 7 





Ml 10 7 

S^pt.... « 




914 11 1 





914 10 1 





448 17 7 


Ootobar.. 8 




117 1 1 






990 Oil 





110 10 7 





509 8 111 





lis 9 :0 





•18 17 7 

Nov...,. 7 




IM 010 





458 7 7 





115 15 7 





810 10 ft 

Dae..... 8 




118 18 10 





499 10 10 

:::::::: S 





918 5 to 




104 10 4 



8549 11 9i 



•18 17 .4 

:::::::: .8 






450 11 10 

140 18^ 





•18 S i* 





111 17 ft 

PMnVT t 




448 fO 





110 4 M 





110 7 !4 





110 7 ^ 

lOzdi... 6 




558 Oil 





118 10 





115 ft 7 





110 4 .7 




8548 8 




8548 11 01 








4335 13 5 



15114 13 5k 

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Perhaps the annexed statements of the total amonnts of 
assessments for the poor's rate, rate per pound, amount of 
rate actually collected, amount paid for county and 
hundred rates, for Constables' accounts, net expenditure on 
account of the poor, and the gross expenditure out of the 
rates levied for the poor, for a period of twenty years, may 
not be uninteresting:— 

tsonooo V (OOfcrqfaoo pm 

Ntmi poipmiH ptw iCjonoo 


•^ -»^:^«5o. o •o:?«.«'^ ^^^ 2 « 

69.683 ! 
69.981 ( 
47,478 ( 
46,990 1 

49.371 J 
39.^ 1 
31,686 11 

31.372 S 
34.194 U 
39.486 f 
68,983 ( 

64.679 1 
41,418 1 
51,638 1 

44.680 It 
48,671 la 
63.846 4 

43.469 g 

37.039 5 
36,496 10 

(■9iqv)sao3 pm M^VH pa^ 




•08IVH iinnop pm 



iirmp* aiBa joQd JO nmoanr 



iniiiiHmv JO vrooaiy it^oj» 



181 9.. 

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From the following statement it will be leen that Man- 
chester haa dealt out her fa?or8 with no niggardly hand 
towards the stranger in distress. The table reien only to 
such Irish Poor, resident in Manchester, as may not have 
acquired legal settlements; those Irish who have obtained 
them are conndered as ''Manchester poor/' and form part 
of that item in the annual report:—- 


1810-11 J^SSU 11 6 

1811-19 8783 4 

1818-18 0319 1 S 

1818-14 8440 14 54 

1814-15 1898 16 a 

1815-10 1070 8 11 

1810-17 917010 34 

1817-18 0345 7 84 

1318-19 3337 9 a| 

1819-80 9770 8 

1890-Sl 9043 7 1 

1881-98 1140 1 9 

1899-93 855 17 8 


1893-94 4ff817lO 8 

1894-85 759 18 

1835-90 939 10 

1890-97 4189 8 S4 

1837-98 9035 18 9 

1898-49 1509 15 8 

1829-80 4059 34 

1880-31 973O 11 3 

1831-39. 8498 8 104 

1889-33 3390 17 8 

1833-34 9O9O 14 H 

1834-85 10991711* 

1835-30. 1480 7 10 

If, as has been computed, the population of Manchester 
comprise one-fiflh Irish, they have always had their fuU 
share of the relief arising from the poor's fund, as well at 
the Poorhouse as at the relief Boards. It may be said that 
an equivalent has been derived by the people of Manchester 
in the supply of labour, which has been flowing into the 
market from the sister isle, and in some measure that may 
have been the case ; but she has had to bear this burthen 
almost exclusively, as her neighbours, with the exception 
of Liverpool, have never adopted the principle of affording 
relief to the Irish poor of their towns, further than 
sickness or cases of emergency may have compelled 
them. The principle usually adopted has been tha^ 
where an Irish family has made out a case of distress oor^ 
respondent with the circumstances of the poor belonging 
to the town, and has lived a given number of years in the 
community in industry and good repute, it should receive 
the same attention and kindly offices as the native poor. 

The parodiial authorities, in their endeavours to do 
justice to the leypayeis, as well as to deal fairly with the 

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IfH^ poor, have at different periods taken the snbjeet intp 
consideration 5 and the following is the result of some part 
of their investigations : — 

ManchMter. . 







Great Bolton 













At these different investigations of the snbjeet, modifi- 
cations were adopted with the assistance of the Magis- 
trates, so that that which should be advantageous to the 
community might not degenerate into an evil. 


1832.33 191 t 1884.86 66 

I88S.S4 136 I 1826.86 89 

FROM 1834 TO 1831. 


From Coant7 of Lancaiter. 

From odierOonnties. | 


From other 



Ftom oUieil nwA^i 

passed frm 




































































Vagrancy is not supposed to prevail more in Man- 
chester than in most other large towns. The following is 

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a statement, at three periods, of the commitments to a few 
of the largest prisons in the country: — 



Bstlmsted Weekly 

of whom 




















a. d. 

1 44 
8 8 


! ^ 

6 3 

» - -■ - «» - - - 
ineraain^ expensa 

9 3 


Inditdinr expensei 















Maidstone ....m.^... 

GiUspar.streeC^ \ 

Compter. / 



This table, although it shews the number of committals 
to the various gaols, can only indicate the extent of vagrancy 
in the gross, because wherever vigilance is used by the 
Police in the suppression of vagrancy, there it will seem 
most to prevail, if the returns of gaolers are to be con- 
sidered as conclusive of the evidence of its presence— and 
if a contrary course, a laxity on the part of officers may 
occasion a paucity in the returns, and so would be taken 
as conclusive of its absence. — ^The Vagraut Office at Man- 
chester may be considered as a refuge for the nightly 
destitute, and the expense would in all probability exceed 
its present amount, if the Police were driven to make 
arrangements with lodging-house keepers and oth^s to 
find accommodations, of certainly a much more question- 
able character. The regulations are, that no vagrant is 
allowed to avail himself of the advantages of the Institu- 
tion a second time within a reasonable period. Each 
vagrant is obliged to strip and wash himself well, when a 
night-cap and night-shirt are given to him ; his clothes 
are left in the possession of the managers of the Establish- 

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meat till a certain time in the mornings when an exchange 
18 again made; this precaution prevents them from robbing 
the Institution, and ensures the keeping of the beds in a 
cleanly state. The women, who have a separate room» 
undergo the same routine. If money is found on a vagrant, 
80 much is stopped as is a fair charge for the relief that 
has been afforded. 

Two beadles are employe<^ whose duty it i8 to see 
vagrants out of the town every morning who might trouble 
the community, and to take up all whom they may find 
committing breaches of the vagrant laws. 

The table below gives the expense to which the public 
has been put for the last seventeen years, on account of 
the Vagrant Establishment: — 

i8 aw «k 

ftam asth. March, 1819» to MtlL Mudi, 1890 SS5 18 7 

„ M 1810, to „ 18SI 988 10 

M M 1891, to „ 1899 916 10 7 

„ „ 1899, to „ 1898 Ill 8 t 

M „ 18SS,tO M 1884 179 110 

n n 1894, to „ 1895 178 17 

H M 189A, to M t896 107 1ft 8 

M M 1890, to „ 1897 919 10 4 

n ». 1897,tO „ 1898 984 18 ft| 

1898,tO „ 1890 969 8 

1890,tO „ 1880 994 19 01 

M M 1890, to „ 1881 430 9 8 

„ M 1881, to „ 1839 460 10 

„ „ 1889. to „ 1833 847 19 4 

„ „ 1883, to M 1884 990 19 

•• 1884, to M 1886 i;0 9 

M •» 1886,tO ., 1880 999 16 

In 1833-34, 4^72 were lodged and had supper and 
breakfast in the Vagrant Institution, the cost of the food 
being £53 8s. 6d. 

In 1834-35, there were 3,193, the cost of the food 
being £43 Is. 9d 

In 1835-36, there were 3,116, the cost of food then 
being £38 19s. 

Lancashire may take credit to herself for the manage- 
ment of her poor's fund, on a comparison with that of any 
other county. The following statement, which refers to 

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seven counties of importance, and has been taken from 
official returns, leaves nothing to doubt on that point : — 


Cheshire . 
Derbyshire .. 

s. d. 
4 4 


Nortfa] 186400 7 



906508 13 ft 
340300 i 8 6 



48708 , 

6 11 

7 » 
6 I 

1I4S70 ;io 
gsgfia lo 
317990 17 
5<»967 !• 
1S4765 1 8 
8S7M 10 
70860 8 
398113 10 

8. d. 

7 4 





8. d. 
4 8 

7 8 

8 1 
17 4 
10 9 



7 10 
10 6 

8 9 
6 9 





4 4 
• 7 

14 8 
6 ft 
8 9 

5 7 

The expenditure on the population of Manchester at 
the same periods must be also satisfactory; it was as 
follows : — 

1800-1 .. 

Per head 
on PopaUtion. 
... 6s. lofd. 
... 6s. 64d. 


Per head 
OD PopolatiQii. 
... fts. ad. 
.. 4S. 3|d. 

The popnlaftioa is taken in the month of April* and as the making op of 
Overseers* accounts takes place on the 25th. March* it was thought better in 
each instance to take the period nearest to the date of the census, -nlilch wiU 
account f6r the years being pat in this -way. 

The following is the total expenditure of some of die 
other townships, the amount expended exclusively of the 
county rate, and the Constables' accounts — that is, in the 
relief of the poor — and the proportion which the ex- 
penditure bore to the population: — 


Propuitiuu to 
Total Bzpenditore. the Populatigo. 

Outlay for the Poor. 

^ B. d. . itf s. d. 

1811 ft>640 17 ft 

1891 7.067 9 fii 8,913 13 9^ 

1831 7»041 1ft 1* 9*359 13 3 

18S5 4,580 10 3 6,063 14 3 



317 9 9i 
711 12 1 
94ft 5 8 

ft lOl 

6 11 

4 7 

8 84 

* This year £%fiM 18 S j in I83ft only 4^»746 s 8. 

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Propo rt io n to 
Yevs. Ooilay for the Poor. Total Bzpoiditiira. tlw Popiitaftioiu 

1898 416 18 S 978 4 5 

1891 693 10 8 1,S37 10 9 S 6 

18S4 860 16 6 1,404 IS 5 


1896. 498 3 8 982 

1831 1,157 19 6 1 J19 14 S 3 64 

1886. 1,606 4 1 9,096 4 4 


181*. 9,017 W 7 

1891 3JS1 18 H 

1896 696 7 6 1,767 15 10 

18Si 1,039 9 9 9,109 17 6A 9 53 

1835 670 7 6 1,687 9 8 


1897 444 13 9 961 n 91 

1831 390 1 4 856 9 6 4 Oi 

1835 186 19 10 796 19 114 

In Cborttoo-mwo-Medlock, Ardwkk, Pendleton and Broogliton the ealcn. 
laOon of expenditore per head to the popolation has heen taken upon the 
paymeots for the poor exdnshrely: In Salford and Holme the eotlmat* is 
roonded on the gross outlay from the poor's rate. 

The dreadfal effects of commercial distress are so 
strikingly exhibited in these retoms of the expenditure 
for the poor, that though lengthened comment is beside 
our purpose, it is impossible to omit all reference to so 
important a feature. The commercial panic of 1825-6 
will not soon be forgotten; it has lefl many dreadful 
memorials behind it, but none more remarkable than the 
Immensely increased pressure which it brought upon the 
poor's rate. This efl^t was not immediately visible; the 
workings of domestic distress cUd not touch the poor's 
fund until the latter end of 1826 and the earlier part of 
the subsequent year. In Manchester the expenditure was 
increased from £23,400 in 1824 to £42,099 8 2{ in I8^V 
In Chorlton-on-Medlock the payments for the poor rose 
from £317 9 2$ to £906 1 9 in 1827-8, and in the fol- 
lowing year they again fell to £428 16 8. In Salford 
the outlay of poor's rate was in 1826 £6227 3 3; in 1827 

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It rose to £10;224 11 8, and in 1828 it was £9515 9 ih 
In Hulme the total outlay was, in 1826, £932 0; in 
1828, £1857 18 2. In Brooghton the rate for the first 
half of the year 1827 was only half-a-crown; in the latter 
six months it was five shillings. In 1828 again two rates 
amounting to seren and sixpence in the pound were laid, 
the arerage rates for succeeding years having been only 
about eighteenpence. In Pendleton the net expenditore 
for the poor (exclusively) was in 1826 £896 7 6; in 
1827, £1368 4 7}, and in 1828 it again fell to its natoral 
level. These facts are worth the serious attention of all 
classes, but especially of the poor, to whom, by a more 
careful analysis of the accounts of the poor's fund, it 
would not be difficult to prove that the operation of every 
one of those turns-out of which we have known so many 
in Manchester, though not so universally disastrous, is in 
its limited extent equally as pernicious to the interests of 
the labourer as was the panic of 1825-6. 

The Highways Surveyors, whose functions are regu- 
lated by a local Act, (59 Geo. III., c 22) have important 
duties to perform, but all the information respecting them 
which can interest the pubtic is comprised in the annexed-^ 



Ss p. 


jtf s. d. 

168S3 18 81 

88SA 9 4{ 

7100 7 8 

0008 8 4 

s. d. 
1087 U fl 
^889 Id 8| 
1887 17 11 
MdO 10 

jtf ■. d. 

1154 18 U 
iKn 5 8] 
478 IS 8 
840 10 11 

1985 18 

S. dJ ^ S. dJ 

4,000 10101 10 11^ I8d. In ^. 

d»000 SS388 8 4£90d. ip dO. 
10,000 19014 18 8 90d. in do. 
10,000 01788I 10 9 I5d. indo. 
10,000 OI178O8 8 104 13d. in do. 

Itie tturee tint colomnt In the mbOTO table can only be considered as an 
appraYimatinn to the tnith-^nawnndi as/trom want of better data, it has been 

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iMOGHftry to tnppoae the moniM ncelTcd from the Commtwlnpcre of Poltoe 
in enr of the above yeera to repreeeat the whole unoont of woric dooe for 
them b7 the Sonreyora. Wheraes it inyvlablj happened that a considerable 
portion of woik, the cost of which had n e eet sa rUy passed into the general 
«eoo«nl^ remained incomplete at the end of the year, and therefoce was not 
charged to the Commissionen at all. It Is also proper to remark, that the 
<»>lnmn« before named include the whole cost of paving materials bad in each 
year, without any reference being made to the stock on hand. 

The Surveyors meet on every Friday for the dispatch of 
bunness, their proceedings being open to the public 
through the medium of the press. 

The markets are not such as a town of great wealth and 
magnitude might be expected to possess. Until within 
recent years the principal places for the sale of garden 
produce were Smithy Door and the Market Place, and as 
the latter street is also a great outlet, and one of the prin- 
dpal thoroughfares, the inconvenience resulting from the 
oongregatioo of stalls and market people has been and 
18 very considerable. The shambles in Deansgate used to 
be the principal resort of butchers. In November, 1827, a 
handsome covered market was erected in Brown-street; 
and in February, 1824, one was opened in London Road, 
for the accomodation of butchers and green-grocers. In 
1828, a fish market was erected. It stands between 
the Market Place and Smithy Door, on the site formerly 
dedicated to the pillory, the stocks, and the whipping 
post The butter market used formerly to be held in an 
area near Smithy Door, the approach to which was by a 
dark passage. The old surrounding buildings are now 
pulled down, and the market is removed to Brown-etreet 
Adjoining the shambles in Deansgate is a small market 
(of more modem construction) for fruits, &c. The great 
cattle market is held in a large area in Shudehill, called 
Smithfield. It is greatly resorted to, the weekly sale of 
cattle averaging from 5,000 to 10,000 head. The cattle 
market is held on Wednesday, and on other days Smith* 
field is occupied by traders in a variety of commodities. 
The number of carts with farm produce whidi come from 

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every side of the country eaiiy on the Saturday 
to supply this and the other marLeta, is truly astonishing* 
Contiguous to Smithfield is another small butcher's 
market: the frequenters of Smithfield often overflow the 
large space allotted to them^ and occupy the adjoiniog 
footway in Shudehill, where generally throughout the week 
anumber of stalls for the sale of shoes, clothes, &c, are 
erected. The "* apple" market is situated a little lower m 
Shudehill, the only accommodation consisting in the 
greater wideness of the street at that point Such also is 
the case with the Haymarket in Great Bridgewater^tieet; 
removed thither from Market-street in 1804. The potato 
market was at the same time transferred from Shuddiill to 
the contiguous market of St. John's, but is now hdd al 
Smithfield. The com market is held on the Saturday ia 
Hanging Ditch, where a new erection for the accomouKla- 
tion Of the merchants is in a state of forwardness: its cost 
will be about £7,500, which sum has been raised in 

It has been the frequent occasion of r^ret among the 
inhabitants that no arrangement has yet been concluded 
with Sir Oswald Mosley by which he could be induced, as 
Lord of the Manor, to assign to the town his interest in 
the markets. More than one negotiation has been fruitr 
lessly entered upon with a view to purchase the manorial 
rights, and thereby enable this great community to free 
itself from the many inconveniences lo which it is now 
subject Sir Oswald Mosley derives a large revenue 
from the ''tolls/' which continue to increase with the 
population, and thus every year augments the difficulty of 
a compromise. Originally, it is understood, the Hon. 
Baronet would have been content to transfer his interests 
for a remuneration of £75,000, but the ofier was not 
accepted: subsequently (in 1808) his demand was in- 
creased to £ 90,000, and no doubt upon any renewed 

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attempt to obtain possession of his valuable privileges, it 
will be found that added pecuniary difficulties have to be 
encountered. Sir Oswald is believed still to have no 
objection to the sale. Salford possesses a good market 
connected with the Town Hall, now the property of the 

The market days are Tuesday^ Thursday and Saturday ; 
the first named is the great maricet of the manufacturer: 
the last the principal market for agricultural produce and 

The "fairs'^ are that already spoken of as "AcaV 
Fair, formerly of three, now of two days' duration, held 
originally on the site of St Ann's Church, but thence 
removed to Smithfield by the Lord of the Manor; a fair 
in Whitsun week, and another commencing on the 1 7th. 
November, (known very correctly as " Dirt Fair") which 
are held in the principal thoroughfares of Salford ; and 
the Knott Mill Fair, commencing on Easter Monday. 
This is a mere popular festival, with ^ shows '* and other 
rarities, which cover the entire plot of vacant land at 
Knott Mill, near Deansgate. The others are cattle fairs. 
Aea's Fair commences on St. Matthew's Day. 

Manchester is singularly destitute of those resources 
which eonduce at once to health and relaxation. With 
a teeming population, literally overflowing her boundaries, 
she has no public walks — no resorts either for the youthful 
or the adult portions of the community to snatch an hour's 
ei^oyment. The prospect of obtaining any wide area, to 
be appropriated as a public walk or otherwise for the use 
of the humbler classes, becomes more remote each year, 
as the value of land within and in the neighbourhood of 
the town increases. Much, however, may be done by the 
encouragement of judicious alterations in what may be 
called the old town, but still more might be achieved by 
the ^iforoement of an uniform plan in laying out new 

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Of the Post-office, which is under the able maoagement 
of R. Peel Willock, Esq., no information can be added 
to that which is comprised in the return already gfiven 
of the annual proceeds.* 

The military stationed in this district are under the 
control of Colonel Wemyss» Assistant Adjutant-General, 
who recently succeeded to that appointment on the retire- 
ment of Lieut-Colonel Shaw Kennedy, a highly-esteemed 
officer. The Cavalry Barracks are in Hulme, those ibr 
the Infantry in the Regent's Road, Salford. The former 
have accommodation for — 

s Field OfBcon. I 890 N^MMtwniniMloned Ofioen. 

8^ Oaptalna. | SOs Hones, 

to Sobaltenia. | ai In HoepilaL 

wmten Omfbtock, Esq., Bairuk Maitar-Mr. Browne. C3eric of Works. 

The Infantry Barracks are calculated to accommodate — 

s Field Offieen. I 18 Subtltenis. 

10 Oiptalna. | TOO Men. 

« Kottdngcsn prove the rapUinoeMe of Uik town niorettient^ 
in the yesr I7y4, memorable for the victory obtained by Lord Howe orer tte 
Fkeodi Fleet, an a430oant of the erent was lecehred hj Miss WUlett^ the tbes 
Foft Mistress* whose office was upon the site of gronnd now laid to 8t 
Ann*s-street; Miss WiUett» at that time, condncOnff the business of the 
Post.oaice fat this town, witii the assistance of two detisl 

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The Police Magistrate for the towns of Manchester and 
Salford is John Frederic Foster, Esq., a barrister-at-Iaw, 
who has filled the office daring several years, in a manner 
to win universal applause. The salary of £1000 per 
annum is provided by a magisterial rate levied on the 
inhabitants of the two towns, according to proportions 
defined in the Police Acts. Since the appointment of the 
learned gentleman, the burden of his duties has continued 
to increase, and at the Police Court, which is held at the 
New Bailey daily at twelve o'clock, it not unusually 
happens that a hundred prisoners are brought before the 
B^ch, in addition to the cases by sununons and the other 
subordinate calls upon the attention of the Magistrate. 

The following are the numbers of prisoners brought up 
during each month for the last four years : — 















Jan..| 657 

Jan. .1810 









Feb . . , 762 







March 824 

April . 






AprU. 839 

















July . 















1 071 







Sept . 


















Dec. 1 574 j 





Dec . . 


l7ote.— An cnalysis of the priaoncn taken in lix days gave 60 EngUah. 
90Iiltfi»andl Scotchman. 

At the Manchester Police Office alone there has been a 

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very great increase of charges, as appears fiom the sub- 
joined return: — 


Fran SOth. Juniary to Sltt December, ists, indvlve 1,079 

„ I8t Jannary to Slst. December, 1830, do 1,838 

„ I8t Jannary to Sltt December, 18S7, do. 2,S4i 

„ itt January to Sltt December, 1828, do. 1,785 

„ ist January to 8Ist December, 1880, do 8,sd8 

„ lit January to Sltt December, 1830, do S,499 

„ ist January to Sltt December, 1831, do 9,4S3 

„ itt January to Sltt December, 1839, do. 3,078 

„ lat January to Sltt December, 1833, do 4,7SS* 

„ itt January to Sltt December, 1834, do. 0.401 

„ lat January to Slat. December, 183S, do. 8.S99 


In Salford the numbers hare been — 


January, 1897 490 

„ 1838 400 

„ 1899 A0O 

„ 1830 47& 

January, 18S1.... 501 

„ 1839. 401 

„ 1833 540 

„ 1834 507 

nan January, 1835, to June, 1830^ 344 feloDa, and 339 diaoiderty Tagnnta. 
The following figures go far to account for the frequency 
of crime in these districts : — 

No. of No. of 
TowmiAp of PnbUc Hooaea. Beer Sbopa. 

Bfanchetter 448 600 and npfwaida. 

Salford 93 182 „ „ 

Hulme 10 * 905 „ „ 

Pendleton 7 50 „ „ 

Ardwick. 10 34 „ „ 

Broogliton 7 7 n »» 

The Session for the hundred of Salford is now held 
eight times in the year, instead of quarterly as heretofore. 
The Chairman of the Magistrates, James Norris, Esq., 
barrister-at-law, has a salary of dS800 per annum. The 
Session Court is attached to the New Bailey prison and 
House of Correction, erected in the year 1790. The 
duties of Mr. Norris also ha?e somewhat increased, as 
the following table shews: — 

« From this time Utawatdunen'scaaoi axe indodtd. 

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«»»»«*«»•• {JSSi;::::::::::: 1S}'«^- 

Total amunmod from 99iul.Janaory, 1794, to the 9tli.Janiiar7, 1890.. ..80680 

This table comprises only the more serious class of cases. 
The subjoined statement embraces as well the cases of 
misdemeanour tried at the Sessions as the other classes of 
offenders summarily committed by Mr. Foster: — 

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18SS. 1833. 1834. 1835. 1890. 

Bastardy 879 804 S8i S43 IM 

Vicnnti 8M 030 l^fOO 1^18 1,476 

fAoaa daaaes, som. V 1,484 1,494 1,872 ajSS uano 

narflj ponSalied. . . . J 

"^"to^...*!?^} "» «* »» *>7 196 

The foregoing tables will furnish the total number of 
prisoners confined in the Salford Hoase of Correction for 
a series of years. The greatest nnmber of persons ordi- 
narily in the gaol is» according to the latest returns pub- 
lished by GoTemment, six hundred and twenty-six, but in 
seasons of riot nearly a thousand hare been confined at 
one time. The prison is under the jurisdiction of the 
Visiting Justices and the Magistrates of Salford Hundred, 
o( idiom the annexed is a list:— 



Wintem Robert Hay, Cleit, Rochdale Jnlf 16^ 1800 

Matthew WHboo, Esq., Eabton, SUpton Julf sa, 1808 

Jameo Watfciiu, Eiq., Mayfteld, nearBoltoii May 5, I8is 

Jolm Bntwiale, Eiq., M.P., Vbzholes, Rochdale. Jan. 17. 1810 

Geom Chetwode, Clerk, Aahton-nndcr-LyiM. ApiflSS, 1817 

/Oi^ Ridg:wair, Esq., Rldgmont, BoltoiL Jan. SO, 1819 

John Holme, Cleric, Chamber Hall, Mandiester.. AprfliS, I8I9 

Bdward Royda, Clerk, Moant FaiUnge, Rodidale July ig^ 

Traflbrd Traffbrd, Esq., Oatrtogton, Lymn, Knutafard Aug. is, — - 

Geone William Newton, Esq., Tajcall Lodge, Cheshire July 17, I8S0 

Salnsbiiry Price Humphreys, Esq., K.C.H., Bramall, Cheshire.. July 17« 

Qeorge Watansley, Esq., Bdesworfh Castte, Cheshire May 7.1881 

flir Bagenan WUliam Bordett, Baronet, Rochdale Jan. 81, 18S9 

James Brieiley, Esq., Ardwidc Oct, Si, •-** 

WflUam Grant, Esq., SprlngSide, Bury May 3, 1894 

James Konis, Esq., Manchester Jnly 18, 1838 

Hyde John aarke, Esq., HydeHaU AprflSO, I8f7 

^nniam AsUey, Esq., Dnkinfleld Lodge, Asfaton-onder-Lyne. . . . Apsrfl so^ 

Matthew Wilson, Jnn., Esq., Eshton, SUpton. .....July lO, 

James Hocdera, Cleik, Shaw, Oldham July lO, 

John Dearden. Jun., Esq., TheHoUins, nearHaUihz. Jan. si, 1828 

Robert Lomax, Esq., LomaxFold, Beaton April SI, 

John Greayee, Esq., Manchester • 0^ 10, 

Samuel Holker Hadam, Esq., Choham, near Bury Jan. is, 1889 

John Rnederlck Foster, Esq., Bfanehester May 4, 

James Newton, Esq., Cheadle Heath, Stockport. ..July 80, — — 

John Bentley, Esq., Birch House, near Bolton Oct 80, 

WUliam Bentley, Esq., Andenshaw, Mandiester. Jan. 16,1880 

John Crossley, Esq., ScaitcUife, Todmorden. Jan. 10, 1881 

James Buckley, Esq., Hcdlyrille, Saddleworth — 

Richard Orford HcOte, Esq., TorUngton Lodge, Stockport 

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flioiBM O t o r g flM tHOHMt Cacrtc, Dobcrow. Jto. 10, 1881 

dment RojdSf BiQ., Rodutelo ■■ -• ■■ 

f owph Sai^ille Robuts ETmns, Caak, Lydnte, Saddlewocth....— — — 

SdwudJeraniAh Lloyd, Esq., OldflddHdl. Altrincham April 1(^ — 

Jowph Walker, Esq., lAcelles HaU, Hnddenlleld July 4, 

Job& Fletcher, Esq., Hanlsb, Botton April 0^ 1838 

Lkwrenoe Brock HoUlnshead, Esq., Hlglifleld, PendldKiry April 9^ — * 

Wmiam Oeraett, Esq., Lerkhm, Mencbester April 9b — 

loim Holland, Esq., Hey Brook, Bochdale Oct n> 

BobcrtJosiM Jackson Nonreyi, Esq., DarylnihneHaU. April 15, 1838 

flioaiM Joaepb Traflbrd, Esq., TnflbrdPark April l(h 

Jotin Wright, Esq., Brabins Hall, Marple July 8, 

Ehakspeare FhlU^ Esq., Barlow HaU Oct 81, 

Daniel Broadhorst, Esq., Swinton .—^ ~. — . 

John Featon, Esq., Crfinble, Rochdale — — — 

Xdmond Grundy, Esq., Bury Jan. 1, 1834 

Tbomas Bromiley Wm. SandenoD, Esq., Wocaley. ..May l6^ — — 

iamei Jowett, Z^., Ashton.onder'Lyne Jan. 18, 1886 

Balph Oosey^ Esq., HeyrodHall, Stafybridge Jan. 18, 

David UaniBon, Esq., Stalybridge, Aahton-ander-Lyne Jan. 18, 

William Ford Bolton, Esq., HnltonPark, Bolton Aprfll8, 

Oecxve William Wood, Esq., Singleton Lpdce, Manchester May 85, 

Robert Darblafaire, Esq., Rlvingtoa Ang. 31, 

Robert Heywood, Esq., Bolton Ang. 31, 

Robert Andrews, Esq., Rivington HaU. Ang. 31, 

Hmom Potter, Esq., Bnile Hill, Pendleton. Ang. 81,-— 

William Mann, Esq., Rochdale. Ang, 81, 

wniiam Chadwidc, Esq., Rochdale Ang. 31, — 

Joseph HoOingworth, Esq Oct 81, 

James Sothem, Esq., WorsleyHall Oct 8S, 

T.B.Barday,Esq.. Oct 96, 

J. Brotherton. Esq., MP., Salford. Dec 7» 

flamnel netcher, Esq., Manchester Dec. 7« 

Ghades Hindley, Esq., DuUnfield. Jan. 11. 1836 

1. Cbeetham, Esq., PaUnlield Jan. 11, -— > 

Jamea Harrison, Esq., Sonthport Jnne a, — — 

Umbms Aafaton, Flowery Field, Hyde. July 4, — * 

The officers of the prison are appointed by the Magis^ 
trates. The gorernor is Mr. Richard Dunstan, who has 
the efficient assistance of his brother^ Mr. Henry Donstan. 
The chaplaincy of the prison is held by the Rev. William 
Bagshaw. The salaries of the officers i 

jtf 8. d. 

Governor 500 

Chaplain, 3eo 

Burgeon ISO 

Steward 50 

Taskmaster lOO o 

Matron 84 

Governor^ Assistanoe.... 00 

Tukmaster*8 Do 54 18 o 

The total of salaries for the year ending in 1830 was 
£ 2231 14 6. The prison contains twenty-four wards, 
twenty-foar day-rooms, twenty-four airing-yards, and one 
hundred and fifly workshops, principally for weaving. 

jtf a. d. 

Prindpal Turnkey 8113 o 

Seven Do 455 

Ihree female Do. 110 19 

Ho^iUnlNnrse. 30 

Schoolmaster Os o o 

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There are sixteen solitary cell^^ and the whde b capaUe 
of contaimng 622 prisoners in separate sleeping cells, or 
968 if more than one sleep in each celL The minority 
of male prisoners are employed in weaving, hat or dioe- 
making, tailoring, or at the hard labour of the tread-miHa^ 
of which there are six, employing 112 in winter and about 
160 in sonmier. The female prisoners are occupied in 
wearing, winding, sewing, washing, and heading pina. 
The proceeds from prisoners' earnings amounted in 1830 
to £d24 4 1}; but as convicted felons are allowed on&- 
sixth and untried felons one-lhird their gross earnings^ and 
prisoners for misdemeanour one-third their net earnings^ 
and the taskmaster has his percentage on the whole, the 
net sum applicable to the expenses of the prison was only 
£289 8 2|. In summer the prisoners rise and go to work 
at six in the morning and continue their labour to the 
same hour in the evening, with the allowance of half an 
hour for breakfast, an hour for dinner, and an hour on 
quitting work. In winter their hours of labour are regu- 
lated by the extent of daylight Prayers are read every 
morning at half after eleven, and service is performed 
twice on the Sunday. In the gaol there is a school for 
male felons and other boys convicted of a first offence, 
the latter of whom attend it three afternoons in the week. 
On the Sunday the Matron instructs in religious know- 
ledge the female prisoners, felons and convicts. Bibles 
prayer-books and tracts are difiused among the prisoners 
by the Chaplain. The expenses of the prison for the 
year 1834-6 w^ £7643 1411. The cost of maintaining 
prisoners varies slightly: in the year 1834-6 it y 

t. d. ■. d. 

July quarter, ft male priBooer,! 6 I8>84perive6k. and » female 1 iso^ 
October H « •• 1 »0»^ n » •• » 1 lW-5* 

Apitt M n » I 4 9>^ „ „ ^ „ 1148^ 

In the odier prisons the cost each quarter has been per 
head, at Preston, Is. 7d., Is. 6|d., Is. 6d., Is. 6{d.; at 

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Kirkdale, Is. 6^., Is. 6^., Is. 8f|d., Is. 3f|d. In 
Lancaster Castle the cost per week for the year was, for 
debtors, Is. 4d., and for Grown prisoners 2s. O^d., of whom 
the average number confined in the Castle daring the 
year was 28d|., and of debtors 161|. In the Salford 
prison the dietary for a male prisoner is — ^twenty ounces 
of bread and half an ounce of salt per day, a quart of 
oatmeal pottage (two ounces and a quarter of meal per 
quart) for breakfast and supper; haJf a pound of beef 
and a pound of potatos for dinner twice a week; a quart 
of pea.>soup twice a week; a pound and a half of potalos 
two other days, and a quart of stew the sevendi day. 
For a female — sixteen ounces of bread and half an ounce 
of salt per day; a quart of gruel morning and evening ; 
and a pint of stew with a pound of potatos boiled for dinner 
each day. 

The New Bailey prison, which covers several acres 
of ground, has been barged at various periods, until its 
interior is now so completely occupied with buildings that 
no further extension is practicable. In the month of 
Novesaber, 1834, the silent system was adopted, with 
what degiee of success no authenticated report has yel 
annoanced* Owing to the limited accommodation within 
the prison for the strict classification of offenders, the 
system has not perhaps been fairly tried; but certainly if 
the number of inmates of the gaol form any test of the 
cqieration of the new regime, it does not appear to possess 
in practice any of those horrors, and to be consequently 
attended with those beneficial consequences, which in theory 
might very natnrally be expected to flow from its enforce- 
flsent For the twelve months preceding the adoption of 
the new AscipKne, the number of offenders who passed 
diroogh the gaol was 5304; for the twelve montlu sue- 
eeeding the change, it was 6407, being an increased 
Bomber, althogh the latter year was a remarkably pro*- 
pefons one, and employment never more abundant 

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The whole number of pritonen the gwds of I<infiiAirr 
are capable of containing ia — 

LtfMt mmbcr Tow com- 
IB ringle Move tiiui one confined at one ndtnenlste 
oeOs. liiaoeiL tinit(iniSM) ttejwr. 

UncMlcrCMlie 1S8 405 496 90 

Tim/baa ..V,,V\\\\\\\„ I7t 610 176 lilt 

NewBdlef fttt 008 Oatf 6Mi 

The following if the number of persona charged with 

criminal offences in several counties in 1821 and 1831. 

with the amount of population at those periods: — 

ly. 18S1. 

r * ' > f ' ■ ^ ■ I ^ 

Nunber of Nvmber of 

Cdmlnel Chaiiei. PopolatioQ. Criminal Cluurget. IVipnlatiaB. 

1710 1>OSS,860 StSS l,S90,tS4 

31S S7O,090 ftlS SS4,S01 

iM siMu Mt «r»i;» 

S74 M1.O40 044 41M1S 

NottinslMBMhlw Mt 180»87S 810 S8ft,S97 

These figures do not exhibit the morality of Lancashire 
in a very favorable point of view, if regarded without any 
reference to the peculiar circumstances or condition of the 
county and its population. It appears that in 1831 the 
number of criminal charges was, in Lancashire, as 1 to 
569 of the population; in Cheshire 1 to 661 ; Derb3r8hirB 
1 to 1174; Staffordshire 1 to 637, and in Nottinghamshire 
1 to 71 3. The following is the number of criminal charges 
in the same counties for their septennial periods, viz.:^ — 

1810. 1880. 1888. 

Uakesddn. 0>4S0 18,377 lO>ooft 

Chedtiie 1,480 8^78 8,718 

Dert>7iUre. 047 07» 1.890 

StaftvdiUIre .....1,087 8,898 4,418 

KottinslMWUhfae. 1,008 1,010 8,818 

The subordinate local tribunals are the County Courts 
the Manor Court, the Court Leet, the Court of Requesti^ 
and the Salford Hundred Court The County Court b 
held monthly at Manchester, before the Assessor to the 
High Sheriff, who is usually a barrister, by adjournment 
from Preston. Causes in which the damages claimed do 
not exceed £ 10, and writs of inquiry in causes where 

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jadgment has been suffered to go by default, and causes 
of trifling importance sent down from the superior Courts 
under the authority of a recent Act of Pariiament, are 
decided in this Court At the Manor Court, over which 
S. Kay, Esq., solicitor^ presides as Deputy Steward of the 
Lord of the Manor, causes are tried in which the damage 
sought to be recovered do not exceed £5. The Courts 
Leet of Manchester and Ssdford are held twice a year, for 
the adjudication of cases of nuisance, ofiences against the 
market regulations, &c, and for the election of the 
Boroughreeve^ Constables, and subordinate officers of 
Manchester and Salford. At the Salford Court Leet the 
Constables of the several townships within the Hundred, 
also, are appointed, with the exception of those townships 
in which separate Courts Leet are held. James Heath 
Leigh, Esq., is Steward of Sir Oswald Mosley in Msd- 
chester; and Richard Duck, Esq., barrister-at-law, and 
John Owen, Esq., attorney, are Deputy Stewards in 
Salford to the Earl of Sefbn, High Steward to the King, 
who is Lord of the Manor. In the Court of Requests, 
which sits fortnightiy , and of which J. Hill, Esq., barrister- 
at-law, is the Chief Commissioner, a great number of cases 
are yearly adjudicated, as appears from the following — 

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^ ■. 

904 18 
1908 8 
1319 4 

781 IS 

719 7 

780 8 

6M 17 
1004 IS 10 
1884 13 8 
1881 14 4 
1848 8 
1180 8 8 
8187 6 11 
8348 4 
S84S 4 
8308 4 
8673 13 
8091 18 
8380 9 
8171 8 
8147 8 
8861 IS 
8766 IS 11 
8817 8 
8581 18 7 
S790 9 

4ff 8. d. 

1700 8 10 
13SS 18 U 

^ S 7 


707 10 

859 8 
1010 8 
1318 18 
1818 8 
8131 4 11 
8833 5 10 
S801 18 7 
8845 18 
8610 8 
8006 16 11 
8380 7 7 
8151 4 7 
8008 18 4 
8880 10 
8068 17 
8751 8 5 
8481 19 8 
3780 6 4 

4ff ■. d. 
S8S 18 

477 10 11 
474 8 10 
868 8 8 
808 19 
8S7 17 
817 19 
8«8 14 

808 8 
851 10 
SSO 1 
S70 8 
880 18 
884 8 
441 13 U 
407 10 
407 IS 
487 10 
033 I 
090 19 
790 18 

809 9 







160 10 



087^ 104 


TDOl 150 





993^ 148 

9SS 134 

60781 19 66918 5 

06884 80186 9408 

The Salford Handred Court holds its sittings on erery 
third Thursday, and takes cognizance of causes similar to 
those tried at the Manohester Manor Court 

Manchester (the township) pays from fire to six hundred 
pounds a year, and Salford rather more than half that 

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sam to the County Lunatic Asylum^ of which the annual 
expenditure somewhat exceeds £7000. The Hundred of 
Salford pays two High Constables, giving £45 28. to 
the one and £30 2s. to the other. The salary of the 
County Treasurer (W. A. Hulton, Esq.) is £40a The 
payments to the Coroner for this district (W. S. Rutter,- 
£sq., who is also Deputy Treasurer to the New Bailey 
Prison) were from July, 1834, to June, 1835, £949 1 3, 
for taking 820 inqubitions, the number of miles charged 
being 3415. For prosecutions during the year 1834-5 the 
payments by the county were — 

Feloot. MisdemcttDoan. 

At Salford Seaeioiw jtfOsii i 4 j^531 15 6 

Prwtoa 1117 10 9 U2 9 6 

Klrkdale. 10S3 U 187 10 4 

Wlgan (Borough) 41S 11 8 13 8 3 

Urerpool (Do.) 401S 14 8 IQI 4 8 

Lancaster (Do.) 88 S 8 18 10 

Lancasler 87 4 S 

^ ^ f f0^ f fflr Asalze (Prior to 
the removal to liverpl.) 8473 18 10 980 9 4 

^17,878 7 7 JfflSii 4 4 

The total expenditure of the county was, for 1834-5, 
£37,637 19 6, and for 1833-4, £35J61 12 4. The ex- 
penditure of Mr. Carrington, the Bridge Master for the 
Hundred of Salford, was for the year, £ 2,044 7 11. The 
monies raised by rolls and arrears to defray the expen- 
diture of the Hundred was, in the Bolton Division, 
£7,750 6 10; in the Manchester Division £10,669 7 3, 
being nearly two thousand pounds more than the levies 
from West Derby Hundred. 

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The ecclesiastical gorerament of the parish of Man- 
chester is vested in the Warden and four Fellows of the 
Collegiate Church. Patronage is dispensed by them; 
but, as changes are in progress, it is not necessary 
to enter more fully into the detail of existing arrange- 
ments. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently 
advised that Manchester and the great county in which 
it is situate, (with the exception of the Deanery of 
Fumess and Cartmel) should be placed under the 
superintendence of a Bishop. The Collegiate Church 
will then become a cathedral — ^the title of Warden 
and Fellows will merge in that of Dean and Canons, 
and an Archdeaconry of Manchester will be created. 
The See will be subject to the metropolitan jurisdiction 
of the Archbishop of York. The stipend of the Bishop 
will be £5000 per annum, and it will be necessary 
to provide for him a suitable residence. The revenues 
of existing Bishoprics will be reduced for the purpose 
of augmenting the poorer, and creating stipends for the 
new. Sees. It is also probable that there may be some 
remodelling of the pecuniary affairs of M the Collegiate 

The Warden, the head of the Church, succeeded to that 
distinguished post upon the death of Dr. Blackbume, who, 
on Sunday the fifth January, 1823, was seized with sudden 
illness in the Church, which proved fatal on the tenth. 
Dr. Calvert owes his preferment only to his high merit as 
a scholar and a divine. He received his education at St 

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John's, Cambridge, in which college he obtained a Fellow- 
ship, and subsequently became Tutor; he was also Ladj 
Margaret's Preacher and Norrisian Professor of Divinity 
in the University. He was made likewise a preacher at 
Whitehall, whence (having previously published a course 
of sermons at the request of the Bishop of London) he 
was preferred to the Rectory of Wilmslow by the Earl of 
Liverpool, then Prime Minister. The Noble Earl subse- 
quently recommended Dr. Calvert to George the Fourth 
as the successor of Dr. Blackburne in the Wardency of 
the Collegiate Church. With this brief mention of the 
esteemed head of the religious institutions of the town, 
we pass to the venerable and time-worn edifice itself. 
If there be any truth in that beautiful verse of the poet — 

'* Then is todetf where none intrades,** 

and if ever it were capable of being fully and unequivo- 
cally put to the test, a ramble through the religious inter- 
stices of our Collegiate Church, " that antique oratory," 
may be made to answer at once the double purpose of 
enjoyment and of criticism. Surrounded by the dim 
shadows of the mighty ones of old, we pay no heed to the 
great roof that overhangs us, " all musical in its immen- 
sities'' — ^we think not of the carved walls and their ancient 
appurtenance^ mouldering beneath the damp of centuries — 
our mind gets not by heart their eloquent proportions; we 
do not gaze 

" WiUi awe wbidi woold adore 
Hie wortlilp of Uie plaoe» or Uie mere pndse 
Of azt and its great masters, who could raise 
What fonner t&w, nor skill, nor thoocht, could plan.*' 

All this is as nothing, for a spirit glides beside us and 
talks with us, and we ramble through the old aisles and 
the ancient chapelries, and over the effaced gravestones 
of our ancestry, and know not that corporeally we exist. 
With our mind's eye we are looking upon the glorious 
company of the benefactors of our race, who have passed 

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into obliviou, when the world was younger and more grate- 
ful than in this, its day of greater things. We are gazing 
upon the noble army of zealous defenders of the vener- 
able creed of our Church, and inly exclaiming, as we 
think of other heroes and remoter times, ''how are the 
mighty fallen, and the weapons of war perished!" And 
we are listening at the same time to the mild rebukes of 
this grim array of the progenitors of our faith, the burthen 
of whose complainings hath in it more of sorrow than of 
anger, and who seem to murmur, because in this oar 
generation men have gone up to Mount Pisgah to worship, 
eschewing the ceremonials which of yore placed at such 
a distance the creature and the Creator. We ramble on, 
void of all self-control, the same gentle spirit walking 
by our side, and as we tread upon the obliterated memorials 
of those who have been high in the world's estimation, great 
in prowess and mighty in renown, and yet of whom the 
stones prate of no whereabout, nay, of whose very names 
not one vestige is left upon which to establish conjecture — 
we cry out in lamentation, ''Who hath the glory! who 
hath the glory \'* Thus wend we on through the labyrinth 
of the dead, over the pillows of the sleeping ones ; and, as 
we advance, our mortality becomes purer, and for a time, 
without impiety, we feel only a little lower than the angels. 
I/>ok round — can you contemplate, unmoved, a scene so 
fraught with sublimity ? Can you fix your eyes upon the 
recording tablets that in every direction meet them, and 
not become wiser and better, by such collision, than if you 
were to spend years in perusing the written lines of which 
these are but, as it were, the index? And by whom 
are you thus surrounded? Upon whose dust aro you 
trampling, as you pace the melancholy aisles? Come 
with us, and in our humble capacity and to our utmost 
power we will tell you of the shadows that are about 
you. Not, however, in the language of poesy, nor in that 

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sombre diction which would probably be most adapted 
to our task, will we hold forth to you coDcerniug these 
things — for, to tell the honest truth, oxit forte is not in the 
pathetic. We are, in fact, somewhat of a gossip, and 
only in the plain and ungamished words of our school- 
day vocabulary can we give to the airy nothings of our 
brain " a local habitation and a name.'' 

Proceeding, then, along the north aisle of the Church, 
and passing through the iron gates that separate the naive 
from the choir, let us turn immediately to the left, and we 
are in the chapel of the Earls of Derby, built, says 
tradition, in order to enclose the remains of one whose 
incontinence had deprived him of burial within the walls 
of the sanctuary. Over the door-way are emblazoned the 
heraldic insignia of an illegitimate scion of that house, 
whose knightly father, some centuries bye-gone, became 
Warden of the Church, and ultimately the proud Bishop 
of Ely. Within this same chapelrie he lies interred — 
yonder is his tomb, and upon it are carved shields of arms 
and mitres and crosiers, and a brief inscription, the bare 
outlines of which alone are left to tell of all that has been 
and b no more. He wedded with the mother of the Seventh 
Henry — he builded Churches — and ''died from off the 
face of the earth'' — and this darkened spot is now his 
palace and his Bishopric ! 

In the lobby of this chapel are three monuments to 
beings of less exalted dust; one to the memory of Mrs. 
Katherine Pigot, who died in 1792; another to the Rev. 
John Clayton, whilome Chaplain and Fellow of this 
Church, who died in 1773; and a third to the memory of 
George Lloyd, Esq., barrister-at-law, "who was equally dis- 
tinguished for his amiable disposition in private life, and 
for his judgment and integrity as a lawyer." He died 
aged fifty-six, in the year 1804. These, in life, might 
have been too lowly for the companionship of nobility. 

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but Id death they lay almost pillowed with the spouse of a 
Queen Dowager, and yet are not scowled upon for their 
close neighbourhood. Here also are memorialised, 
Richard, only son of Christopher Hartley, of MarstoD, in 
Yorkshire, who died in 1739; and the Rer. Richard 
Ward, L. L. D., who died in 1789, and was one of the 
Church's Chaplains. 

Gliding across the aisle into the choir — 

** Relic of nobler daft aod noblett ftrts**— 

we Stand upon the grave of the first Warden of the Church 
— Sir John Huntingdon. His were the days when priest- 
hood and peace were not necessarily allied, when the 
leaders of the hosts of God were almost looked upon as 
the leaders of the armies of men, and in his double voca- 
tion he acted valiantly the parts that were allotted him to 
do — and yet, "without a stone to mark the spot," he lies 
buried within the space that he had himself built for the 
purpose of chanting the praises of Jehovah, and where, 
for more than thirty years, he had stood up to worship the 
Trinity in Unity — 

** And nothinf oatwaid tellt of baman day 1** 

Further on, and to the left of the door-way of the 
chapter-house, is a manento of another Warden of this 
edifice — the persecuted Heyrick. Under the Protectorship 
of the puritanical Cromwell, this too-conceding man 
suffered hardships and privations of almost every malig- 
nity — was dragged from his high office as a minister of 
God— jeered at by a psalm-singing rabble, and cast into 
prison — and only afterwards allowed to visit hb flock and 
to preach to them occasionally, because it was thought 
the trifling pittance allowed to him by the Parliament 
would induce him to be the more cautious in his 
holdings forth. With the restoration, however, of Charles 
the Second, came the re-instalment of Heyrick ; he died in 
the fulfilment of his duties, and now sleeps well beneath 
the roof that most fitly can shelter him. 

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There is yet another of the time-honored Wardens of 
this venerable Church, who is sleeping within its walls ; 
bat alas ! in the matter of fact days of the First George, 
it appears they thought not to record the spot — and we 
may wander over the graves of thousands of less devoted 
men, and not know if we profane with our foot the dust of 
the once eloquent Wroe P Others also there may he, who 
at the close of a turbulent career have laid Uiemselves 
down at the foot of their own altar, and whose bones are 
perhaps now crumbling under the very stone whereon we 
are trying to decipher some indistinct inscription. It may 
be that the conscientious and heroic George Collier, who 
in 1530 de6ed the powers of Edward YI., and yielded up 
his office rather than be deprived of his independence — 
that the unfortunate Sir Laurence Yaux, whom the haughty 
Queen Elizabeth dismissed and afterwards imprisoned as 
a non- conformist, and whose overstrained heart sank 
beneath the yoke and released itself from the bonds at 
once of nature and the Queen — and that the early 
satiated Birch, who took up the power only to resign it ert 
a year had gone round; — ^it may be that these found repose 
in death beneath the roof that had so little shelter for them 
whilst living, and that in some obscure nook of this multi- 
angled edifice lie the relics of these its once chiefest orna- 
ments. But in loitering through the mazes of the place wt 
fail to discover aught that would render convincing so com- 
forting an idea, and lest we should be smiled upon as 
visionaries, we will yield up for a season our yet partial belief. 
On the floor, however, of the choir and the aisles surround- 
ing it, we trace many a record of the names and virtues 
of such of the ancient laity of the parish as have been rich 
enough in this world's gear to purchase for themselves 
a resting place, 

" Where metier relies moet not dare to rot," 

and who, perhaps, imagined in their pride of heart that 

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here their bodies would be held sacred, because here the 
intrusive foot of the vulgar would presume not to encroach. 
What would be their impression if, in the present day, 
they could come forth from their graves and behold on every 
Sabbath, and almost on every day, the rejoicings and the 
merry-makings, the marrying and the giving in marriage, 
which take place in the very locality of this their coffin- 
crowded sanctuary P They would surely shrink back into 
their dim abode, shocked by the unconscious bartering of 
hearts on the very roof of their peaceful habitations ! 

Entering St Mary's chapel, which is in the immediate 
vicinity of the choir, we discover several monuments in 
honour of the family of that good Humphrey Chetham 
who was the institutor of the Hospital and Library so 
named : — Here is one to the memory of George Chetham, 
of Turton, Esq., who died in 1664, aged seventy years: here 
to James Chetham, Esq., and his wife Margaret, who died, 
the one in 1697 and the other in 1709, at the respective 
ages of fifty-six and sixty-four: here again to Samuel 
Chetham, of Turton and Clayton, Esq., who died 1744, 
aged sixty-nine : and here to Edward Chetham, Esq., who 
died in 1769, aged eighty years, leaving none behind him 
to perpetuate a name so highly honoured. There is also a 
small mural tablet to the memory of Mordecai Greene, who 
departed this life April 22, 1769, aged seventy-five years. 
And where, it will be asked, is the monument that should 
record the name (for his virtues have a living memorial) of 
that benevolent member of the house of Chetham whose life 
was the study of doing good, and whose death left an incense 
on the earth which is inhaled to this day with a gratitude 
that, as it were, crushes it in its hands, and returns it to 
heaven with a richer and more extatic flavour ? Where is the 
monument that should tell how one man had the mind to 
conceive so much of happiness for his fellows, and the 
benignity at the same time to put into operation the chari- 

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table impulses of his soul, scorning the " world^a dread 
laugh/' aud determining that it is more glorious to make 
the widow's heart leap for joy than to be sheltered beneath 
the golden palaces of luxury for ever! Where is the 
monument that should blazon forth the name of this man ! 


'* For him ttiey raise not tht recording stone I" 

and to the shame of humanity be it said, nought telleth of 
the glorious beneficence of Humphrey Chetham, save only 
the never-dying recollection which is transmitted through 
tlie hearts of every generation! 

Leaving this chapel, we notice in the space behind the 
choir, and near to the once celebrated window, a tablet to 
the memory of the Rev, Adam Banks, formerly Fellow of 
the Church, who died in 1750; and another to the Rev. 
George Ogden, who was also Fellow of the Church, and 
died in 1706. Against one of the pillars is likewise an 
inscription to the children of James and Margaret Light- 
bourne, of Manchester. Passing down the south aisle, in 
which is a tablet intimating that in 1700 one "Nathaniel 
Edmondson, a woollen-draper, ordered the marble pave- 
ment in the altar to be laid down at his own expense," we 
oome to the Chapter-house, over the door-way of which is 
that beautiful monument erected by the pupils of the Rev. 
Charles Lawson to the memory of their truly beloved in- 
structor; he died in 1807, having been fifty-eight years 
Head Master of the Grammar School. Near to this again 
is one to Thomas Ogden, of Manchester, who died in 1766; 
and in the immediate vicinity one to Sarah, the wife of 
the Rev. Thomas Moss, who died in child-bed, in 1752, aged 
twenty-seven years ; and another to Susannah Georgiana 
Mary, who died in 1790. Here is also an excellent piece of 
sculpture to the memory of Frances Hall, of Manchester, 
tkho died June 4th., 1828, aged eighty-four, and of whom 
whilst upon earth, itmight truly be said that '* whatever her 

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hands found to do she did it with all her might." She was 
the last of an ancient family,* and at her death left to four 
charitable institutions the sum of forty thousand pouuds. 

In Trafford's Chapel, which is on the south side of the 
nave, and which is now entirely 611ed with pews, there is a 
beautiful monument to the memories of Lieut. Edmund 
Trafford,of the First Royal Dragoons, and of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Trafford; both of whom died in 1813. There is also a very 
handsome one to Dauntsey Hulme, Esq., of Manchester, 
who died April 27th., 1828. He was a great benefactor 
to the town, and bequeathed a considerable sum of money 
to the Royal Infirmary, at the request of the Trustees of 
which this tablet was erected, *' not to perpetuate his 
memory, (which has a more durable monument,) but to 
show their respect and gratitude." 

In Brown's Chapel, adjoinine; this, are two tablets memo- 
rialising Gamalial Lloyd, merchant, who died in 1749; and 
his son George Lloyd, who died in 1783. and was buried 
in some village in Yorkshire. In the centre of this chapel, 
under a stone scarcely visible, is interred the body of the 
founder, who was a merchant of Manchester, and died in 
1508. In the chapel dedicated to Jesus Christ are interred 
many of the family of the Byroms of Kersal ; and monu- 
ments are erected to the memories of John Moss, Esq., 
who died in 1761 — William Clowes, of Hunt's Bank, Esq., 
who died in 1772 — and to Henry Atherton, of Lincoln's 
Inn, barrister-at-law,who died in 1816. In this neighbour- 
hood too there is a marble tablet to the memory of Walter 
Raleigh Soulsby, Major of the Second Dragoon Guards, 
who died January 8th., 1827, aged thirty-three years. Not 
in the tumult of battle did his soul pass from him — but on the 
sick-bed and in the peaceful bivouac was he tempered for 

* AmoDir other property which UiIb esteemed lady left behind her, were 
many palntincs of the Pretender, at ho appeared upon |ds en^ry into Man- 

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death. Near to the seats of the Municipal Officers are 
interred the Rev. Joshua Brookes, A.M., and Mr. Thomas 
Barritt The former was twenty-one years Chaplain of 
the Church, and was somewhat of an eccentric character, — 
but a man of great learning and rigid discipline, and 
of a most warm and benevolent disposition. He died 
November 11, 1821, aged 67 years. Of the latter, wt 
cannot speak better than in the words of his epitaph — 
** Here resteth the remains of Thomas Barritt, a profound 
antiquarian and a good man. He died honoured and 
respected by all ranks of society, October 29, 1820, aged 
77 years." We must not omit to notice also a beautiful 
marble monument which will be found near to Strangewayi 
Chapel, to the memory of the pious and charitable Mrs. 
Anne Hinde, widow of that Rev. John Hinde who was 
once a Fellow of this Church. She established a school 
for the education of a number of poor children — and 
though there may appear some ostentation in the manner 
of the charity, the good of it was " not interred with her 

We now come to the point whence we commenced 
our brief survey, and have merely to notice two other 
monuments which were omitted at the onset, and which 
are amongst the most modem in the whole building. 
They are situated on each side of the entrance into the 
north aisle of the choir. The one on the left hand is to 
the memory of Samuel Taylor, of Moston, in thb county^ 
a Magistrate, and Lieut Colonel of the Manchester and 
Salford Rifle Regimentof Volunteers, who died October 23, 
1820, aged forty-eight years: the monument is of marble, 
and is in the Grecian style. The other, opposite to it, on the 
right of the entrance, is by Chantrey, to the memory of 
Edward Greaves, of Culcheth Hall, in Lancashire, who 
was in 1812 High Sheriff of the county, and died March 
29, 1 824, aged sixty-two. Numerous other memorials may 

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be fooad by thoae who have time and inclination to ramble 
through the hoary edifice which is at once the ornament 
and history of the town; but in a sketchy outline like the 
present it would be almost superfluous to note them down. 
Of the building itself we w'dl not attempt to discourse, 
for it is one of those "venerable piles" — those ancient 
gothic " immensities" — which genius alone must pourtray. 
Something resembling it might Childe Harold have had 
in view when he apostrophised — 

" The Trnst and wondrous dome 
To which Dtana*s marrd was a cdl**— 

for the dull language of prose in either instance would 
fail to give an idea of the vast structure under contem- 
plation : — 

'* Oar outward senee 
la but of gradual grasp— and as it is. 
That what we have of feeling most intense 
Oatstitps oar foint ezoression; even so ttds 
Outshining and o'erwhelming edifice 
Fools our fond gaxe, and, greatest of the grea^ 
Defies at first our nature's littleness, . 
Tin, growing with its growth, we thus dilate 
Our spirits to the size of that they contemplate. 

In our idle peregrination we have confined our description 
to that which is within its sphere, in the hope that some 
reader who has hitherto passed through the portal of the 
Church ingloriously may be induced to penetrate further 
into its ''dim religious aisles," and to draw therefrom, and 
not from our recital, a fund of thought that in its applica- 
tion shall be made capable " to point a moral and adorn a 
tale." For ourselves, we trust there is iome benefit de- 
rivable even from this our hundredth stroll through these 
habitations of the departed ones — that there is some good 
to be yet learnt, though the book and the lesson are alike 
worn and thumbed. We have taken our solitary ramble, 
and the light tramp of our foot has echoed through the 
empty passages; we have pored over the grotesque carved 
work and carried our mind back to those feudal days when 
the Church was all powerful, and when the word of its 

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mintsters was "sharper than a two-edged sword ;^ and we 
have endeavoured to imagine^ from what has been, what 
stay in all human probability even yet be, when another 
hundred years have succeeded to the last In the womb of 
such an ^ifice as this how palpably do our own insigni* 
ficance and futility appear to us, and how easily may we 
persuade ourselves that "man walketh in a vain shadow 
and disquieteth himself in vain, — he heapeth up riches 
and cannot tell who shall gather them !" As the banner 
that floated over the throne of Saladin, so are the monu- 
ments and memorials of the dead — on the one, as on the 
other, we read inscribed the same awful remembrancer, 
" Saladin must die ! ** * 


Name, and when Cotueeraied, MMaiert, 

CbUeffiate Warden, Rer.T.CBlTOtfD.D. 

' 'Rer. J. OatUlfc, MA. 
Rev. C. D. Wray. M.A. 
Rev. O. Senesnty M.A. 
^Rer. R. Purkinaoiit MJL 


Rer. H. FlekUng. MJL 
•{ Rev. J. Johii8on» M.A.« 
pro, tern, 

erk in Oiden, Rer. J. Manden, 


St Anne'B, 171s Rev. Jeremiah Smith, D.D., Rector 1179 

St. Mar7*B, 176S Rev. J. GatUffis, M.A., Rector 997 

St. Faiil*s (Turner-street), ijdi • Rev. J. Plcoope, M.A., Incumbent IU7 

8t John's, 1709 Rev. W. Hontington, M.A., Rector lOgo 

St James** (George-st), 1788. . Rev. J. HoUist, M.A., Incombent 1807 

St. Peter's (Modey-st), 1794 ..Rev. N. Qermon, M.A., Incnmbent b90 

• Tlie CoDegiate Cliarch was thorooghlj repaired some yean ago at an 
ezpaiae approaching in the whole to ^S0,000j ue &ct is recorded on a brasa 
plate insfrtfid into one at the pUlars and bearing the following inscrip<ioo:— 
**T1ie8e five pillars were erected, and the gaU^ies and pews uronghout the 
Church rebnflt, in die year of oar Lord 1815. 

Tbonas BuLCKBiTRirs, LL.D., Warden. 
JOBN Gatliff, A.M., ^ 

C. W. BtHBL^TON, A.M., I uujinwa 

JOBM Clowbs, A.M., ^wno^- 
J. H. Mallobt, A.M., J 
J08BUA Bbooebs, A.M., \ f 

J. H. HINDLT, A.M., / ^ 

C. D. Wbay, A.M., Assistant Chaphdo. 
William Sandfobd, "] 
Jonathan Oawson, vCharchwirdens." 
Jambs Bbabdob, J 

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^^Mif, amd wkm CmumnmUd, MbtUien, %iMmg9, 
8L Bfichael*B (Anfel-at), 1780. .Rev. W. Manden, B.D., Incumbent 900 

"^8S!^.A?^'?T!1'}R«^-''-^^*«'M-^'^*^^* *»* 

^iai??!^!A^!!?* '^ 

St Andrew'V (Aniroflta),' VuV . . Rer. O. Dogvd, M. A., Incumbent 90M 

All Saints (Choftton-npoo-) Rer. C. Boiton, LL.D., Incumbent and ) ,^|^- 
MedlodE), 18S0 } Foonder. f '"•• 


'^..!^'!^.i?!?^f:!'}*^-'-»«*^>«-^''"»«^^ »• 

St Stmiien'Viri^!! \\ \\ .'.'!!.. Rer. B. BooUi, BJk., Incumbent 1440 

St PhOip's, 1895 Rer. J. Robler, MJL, Incumbent 1928 

^1!?!!!!^.^^^.'!*!!^; } *«^- ^- ^^""^ *^- In«»°*«t. itfiO 

St Tbomas*s (Pendleton), 18S1 . Rer. Ambraae Lane^ MJL« Incumbent*. l6o« 

St George*! (Hnlme), 1888 .... Rer. J. lingaid, M.A.. Incumbent 1600 

St Thomas's (Ardwlck). 1741 . . Rer. N. W. Qibaon, MJL, Incumbent. . . . UM 

uifCOKSSonATBD cauECBas. 
Staemenfs,LeTer.street....ReT. W.Nunn,MJL... 1810 

"^aiSS^a,2:!SSiS!^}'^-A-H«''«-«^"'» »^ 

StSaTioni's.PljmouthQroTe.ReT.W. Birch, BJL 

St Bfaxk's, Cheetham Rer. H. Bthelston 888 

Brouffaton New Church The site fixed upon is between Mnrray-street 

and Welliogton-street near the New Bury 
Road, about one and a half miles from tiie 
CoOegriate Church. The land, indnding looo 
yards fhr a house for the Incumbent has 
been g:iveu by the Rev. J. Clowes, of Brongiu 
ton Uall. The Trustees, elected on the Bth. 
May, 1835, are— The Rev. John Clowes, 
Thomas Hardman, Esq.« William Bayley, 
Esq., Joseph Peel, Enq., and Richard M. 
Whit ow, Esq. The first stone of tiie buiUttm^ 
was laid on Wednesday the 6th. July, 183^ 
by the Rev. J. Qowes. 

St Luke's A new church at Cheetham HID, of which the 

first stone was laid on the tpth. of June, 1836> 
calculated to accommodate about isoo. 
(Note.)— Of some of the principal churches here enumerated the content of 

Collegiate Church 7,400 

St Mary's 6,440 

St. George's, Hulme 6,970 

AD Saints' 1I,M0 

Bronghton (intended) Church 10,000 

The following is a published sammary of the existing 
church accommodation in the two towns of Manchester 
and Salford: — 

Population. Churches. Clergy. Church Aoeom, 

Manchester U:i,096 \t ss 18,400 

Salford 40,786 4 S 5,400 

Ardwick .S524 1 1 1,300 

Chorifcon-upon-Medlock.. 20,f>96 s S s,500 

Hulme 9,6it 1 1 1,800 

Out-Townships* 59,405 H 8,600 

* Chortton.cum-Hardy,' Stretford, Newton, BlacUey, Denton, Birch, Didabnry, 
Cortoo, and Heaton N<nrTis. 

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The dearth of church accommodation which this tahle 
exhibits is likely to be efficiently remedied in the course of 
a few years by the exertions of a " Society for Promoting 
the Building and Enlargement of Churches and Chapels 
in the parishes of Manchester and Eccles.'' An appeal has 
recently been made to the Public by the Committee, and 
in about a mouth a sum of nearly £ 15,000 was subscribed, 
besides that sites of land were given for chnrches in 
now neglected districts. Nothing can speak more highly 
for the character of the people of Manchester than does 
the promptitude with which they have answered the call 
made upon them by this Society; but it must be remem- 
bered, that as the grievance it is proposed to remedy is a 
permanent and growing one, so ought the sanatory 
measures to be of endnring operation. 


Denommation. Where Situate. SitUnga. 

St. Andrew's (Scotch Kirk) Modex-stroet 1009 

Scotch Secesnbn Uojrd-street 

Sodetfof Friends Dickenson-street. 

Woslejran Methodists* . 

'Oldham-street 1700 

Great Bridffewater-street.... 800 

Oldham'road 800 

Oratrix's Gardens 

Anooats 800 

Oxford-road 1000 

Grosrenor-streett Oxford-road 1 100 

Irwdl-street, Salford looo 

Gravel-lane, do 1900 

Bmnswick-tflrrace, Pendleton 000 

.Chancenr-lane, Ardwick soo 

• About the year 1740-7 Methodism bad its origin here, when some yxmnm 
men "bernn a society and took a room'* near the Irwell rirer, on or near the 
present stte of Bateman*s Bnildings. Wesley had previously visited the town 
on several occasions. He bad a Mend in the Rev. J. aayton, Chaphdn and 
afterwards Fellow at the Collegiate Orarch, whom be first met in 1739, and 
iadooed tojoin a Methodist Society in Oxford, then havfang only about a dozen 
members. He was also intimate with Mr. John Byrom, of Kersal HaU. In 
I7S3 he visited Bfandiestar twice, and preached both at the Collegiate Chortih 
and at St Ann's. In 1735, on the occasion of a visit to consult his friends on 
Us niewhr-fbrmed prefect of going out a missionary to Georgia, he preached in 
SaUbrd Chapel. Whitfldd also visited the town about the same time. Method> 
Ism 6btalned several disdples in this county and Cheshire, but few persona 
joined the society in Manchester ; its members were in bad odour with the 
popolaoe, who sospected that thnr were emissaries of the Pretender. Wesley 
mmseif was indecorously treated by the multitude: preaching at Sahbrd Cross 
In 1747, be looked with great apprrhenston on the '* unbroken spbtts'* around 
him, one of whom threatened to *'biing out the engine " and i^y it imoa 
him. la April, lyas, we read oThls again being in Manchester! in May, 1781, 

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Where SUmmie. 

Wdah Methodisto PariiAinent.street 

PrimitiTe Do Chapel-ttreet, Londoii.^oiL . 

it Do.. 

Primitive Mettiodiats. 

Tent Do.. 

Shaw.fltTMt, SaUord 

\Nortb.8trBet, MiUer's.lane t3o 

^Sterenson's-aquare 15M 

OldhuD-rOttd 400 

Gfo«veiior-«t,ClbarttDii.a|wii-Medlock IMO 

Toiiinui.ttreet, Deanagate 000 

Jiprj-tltnbt, BeOtacd MO 

Jersej-atTMt sso 

Mayer-atrMt 400 

Ormond.stzeet 300 

New Ooonezion Do. . 


Welsh Indepeodeoti . 







Broad>8tn0ty FttuQeton .... 
^P6ter«itfciet .•••••.•••>•.... 



OrosTenor-street, FlooadiUjr 

CautpeUfltreet, Salford 

Brook-ttreet, Raahotane .... 

J f^^ fftt ^ 'g ^anr, Holme 

^George-^treet^ New Windsor 



Yotk-stnet 800 

Oearge-ttreet OIT 

Wlthy.grovc lao 

St. Geofge*8.ioad 800 

Great MooDt^treet SOO 

Gie^.«zeet, Oak-stxeot sso 

Granb7^-rDW. l««o 

Rook-ctreet 400 

Miilberr7.streett 1000 

.UVteser-street, St. Geocse'a-road 800 

'Mosley-street 500 

Qroes-etzeet ... looo 

,DawBoo*8-croft, Salfonl 

Swedaoborglans . 
Bible Chriatlaiis . 

r Bolton.ttreet, Sallbrd 


I Peter-street TOO 

fHulme 300 


be preacbed in OUbam-stveet Cbapd; In Jnljr. IT8T» bebeld bis anunal oonler- 
ence in Mandiester. atwbicb 150 preacbers attended. A Local print states tihat 
'•Mr. Wesler preached on Sondaf last in the Meeting Hoiue, and waiving all 
reiigloQS opinions, it was trulf pleasing to see a dernrman at tlie great age of 
cigbtjr-flve deUvering a discourse without notes, dear and rational in ttsd( 
wttb the strength of voice of a man tbirtjr years foonger; and what is more 
eiLtraordinarx, be does not use glasses to assist his sight in reading. Tbongh 
so fex advanced in life, he still continues bis coarse of travelling, and in all 
probabiUtf br the same regolaritj which he has p«vsaed so long bis health and 
fe^Mes mar be preserved for a nomber of years.*' He paid sabseqnent vioa 
to Manchester and to the neighbouring districts. In a sermon which be 
preached at Bradford in 1T88, he predicted that the worid would end in 1836 1 

t The roof of this edifice having reoentif follen in and destroyed the whole of 
the interior of the diapd, it is said that a new building is to be erected on a 
vwre eligible site. 

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Nei Ine<me, Popuimtkm, Patram. 

Aocrington ^158 0S83 Vicar of Wballer. 

Aitwiart ih (in Luicashire) .... 44 .... Vicar of Luicaster. 

AinswarthCinMiddleton}.... 130 1584 Rector of Middktoo. 

AldhigtMtfn togs 844 TlieCrowii. 

Altcar. 95 505 EtrlofSefton. 

Attliam (in Whaller) 117 S705 R. T. W. Walton, Eaq. 

Antwick. 194 5584 Collegiate Chordi. 

Arlcholme (in MelUng) 51 849 Vicar of MeHinf. 

Aahton (in Winwidc) 181* 1918 Rector of WinWick. 


StMidiad 1407* 88597 Sail Stamidnl. 

St. Peter 137 .... Rector of Aabton. 

Aiftiwarth(inMiddleton).... 119 894 W. Egerton, Esq. 

Astley (in Leic^) laO* 1898 Vicar of Leigli. 

AtiiertonOnLeic^) 100 4181 LordUIfard. 

Anghton Qn Halton) 140 Rector of Halton. 

StMidwd 070 1408 J. P. Tempest Eiq. 

B«eiip(inWlia]le7) lis .... Vicar of WluUley. 

Baktenton (in BladOmm) ... 90 058 Vicar of Bladcbom. 

BeoooDBall 538 Rector of Croston* 

"wg£)!?;?!^..^..^!"} 884 1879 Rector Of Wigan. 

Btodi On Sfiddi^ion) .'!.'.*.'.' 48 Rector of Middleton. 

Ditto On WaiTington).... 100 J. Dickinson, Esq. 

Bispham 875 1850 P. H. Fleetwood, Eaq. 

BlMklmniv St. Mary 693^ .... f ArdiUsliop of GantertMry. 

SLJolm 115 I J Vicar of Blackburn. 

St. Peter 15S f 59791 1 Vicar of Blackburn. 

SLPanl 07J Lvicarof Blackbom. 

Blackler (in Manchester).... 140 8080 CoOeciate Cirardi. 

Blackpool (in Bispham) iso 800 Ceitam Trustees. 

Blackrod (in Bolton) lOO 8591 Vicar of Bolton. 

BUwltfa (in Uldenton) 59 171 T. R. G. BraddyQ, Esq. 

Bottaule-Moon, St. Peter... 404* 03034 Bi^iop of Chester. 

Holy Trinity 181 .... Vicar of Bolton. 

St. George.. 108 .... Certain Trustees. 

All Saints.. 1S8 .... T. Taping, Esq. 

Bolton.le.Sands 109 1781 Bishop of Chester. 

Bootle (in Walton) 104 liss W. S. Millar, Esq. 

BradBhaw (in Bolton) 97 778 Vicar of Bolton. 

Brindle, St James's 515 1558 Dnke of Deronshlrs. 

Bronghtoo (in Preston) io0* 0so Sir H. P. Hoghton, Bart. 

Brooghton East (in Cartmel). 07* 410 Earl of Buriincton. 

Brougfaton (in Pumess) 108* I875 J. G. Sanrey, Esq. 

Bumley (in Whalley) 770* 7551 R. T. Parker, Esq. 

Barton Wood (in Warrington) 90 944 Rector of Wanrinjstoo. 

Bury, St Mary 1987* 47889 Eari of Derby. 

Owtmel, St. Mary m 4808 Earl of Burlington. 

Otftmel PeU. 07 347 Eari of Burlington. 

Oston (in Lancaster) loo 1100 Vicar of Lancaster. 

Oieetham (in Manchester) .. 858 4085 Rer. C. W. Ethdston. 

ChUdwall, AU Saints 450 7700 Bishop of Chester. 

Chipping, St Bartholomew.. 153 1850 Bislwq) of Chester. 

Cborley, St Lawrence loas* 9888 Rer. J. W. Master, BJ>. 

Cbortton (in Bfanchester). ... 108 008 CoQegiate Church. 

Choilton Row (in Manchester) 107 80509 Rer. C. Barton. 

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CUtheroe,8t.]iidiMl 199 M>s 

Cockerbam^St. MichMl .... 6A5* 1794 

Colne (in Whalley} 179* 8090 

ConistoiM 100* A87 

^PP*J^.^^^,^} df 9S1 

Ooppon (in stuuibh)! !!!!!.. n 908 

Oootton, HolyTrinitjr 84* 1786 

Ctoobjr Qraat On Sefton) 119 ifoi 

QfOtton, St. MidiMl I6S8* 6S78 

Daltoa.iii.Piinien» St. Matt. IIS* 8097 

Dorwen Lower (in Biacklmni) 48 8007 

OT«r Ditto.... 185 

Hdr Trinity.. 74 .. . 

DotttStManr 818 88994 

Dendron (in Aldinshun) 45 .. . 

Denton (in Manchester) 135 8798 

Derby Weet (in Walton-on- > , ^ 

the-mU) St Mary f ^^ 

Dertyy Wett, St. Ann 78 

St. Jade 300 

Didsbory (in Manchester). . . . <in54 lofiy 

Dooflas, (in Eccleston) 70 .... 

Downham (in Whalley) 190 688 

Ecdes, St. Ecdes.. 500* 88068 

Eccleston. St. Mary 905* 8008 

Bdenfield(inBnry).. 117 .... 

Edre HiU (in Walton-ano j^ 

gton (in inrenton) !!*.*.!!.. 98 499 

d (in Cockerham) 94 88I7 

Enzton (in Leyland) 185 1581 

Brerton (in Walton) 800 4518 

Do., StAu^o^ine 300 

Famworth (in Dean) 90* 8988 

Do. (inPrescot) 17a* 

Flnsthwaite (in Coulton) .... 70 

Flixton. St. BQchael 103* 8099 

Flookboroagh(inCartmel).. 181 

Formby (in Walton) 184* 1318 

Friermere (in Rochdale) .... 90 

Oantang,StHelen(Viaai«e) 888 0987 

Perp. Curacy. 93 — 

Garston (in Oiildwall) ]S8 1147 

Goldshaw Booth (in WhaUey) 121* 703 

Goosnargh (in Kirkham) . . . . 97* 1844 

Gorton (in Manchester) .... uo 9083 

Gressingfaam (in Lancaster).. 60 177 

Orimsarfh (In Preston) 77* 310 

Haigh (in Wiran) 94 1871 

Hale (in Chiidwail) I05* 578 

HalsaU, St. Cuthbert 30Sl* 4159 

Halton 479 834 

Hambleton (in Kirkham) .... 108 8S4 

Harwood. Great. 180* 8430 

HasUngden (in WhaUey).... 176* 7770 

Harerthwaite (in Coolton) .. 58 .... 

Hawkshead, St. Michael .... 1 10* 80O0 

Heapey (in Leyland) ill 405 

Heaton Norria (Manchester) 110 11938 

Hesketh (in Croston) 95 .... 

fne mm i . P ^f ufaiUm . Patrmu 

- Taylor, Esq., 
Lord of the Manor. 
Vicar of Whalley. 
T. R. O. BraddylL 

H. Honiby» Ba<i. 

Rector of Standiah. 
Rector of ScAon. 
8. Mastera, Esq. 
Duke of Lancaster. 
VIcurof Blackbom. 
VIcurof Blackbnm. 
The Crown. 


sssof Wastal 

0804 Rector of Walton. 

Rer. T. Gardner. 
Certain Trustees. 
S. NewaU, Esq. 
Rector of EodiBston. 
Rer. W. Yates. 
Rector cf Bory. 

Bfias Mason. 

J. P. MadieD. Bm). 
Vicar of Oockeiliam. 

r Representatives of lite Rtr. 
\ J. Arme< 


The Sobsorlbcri. 
The Crown 
Vicar of PrwooC 
S. Madan, Esq. 
Eari of Burlington. 
Rector of Walton. 
VIcur of Rochdale. 
Rer. J. Pedder. 
Vicar of Garstaag. 
R. Watt, Esq. 
Vicar of Whalley. 
Vicar of Kirkham. 
Collegiate Church. 
Vicar of Lancaster. 
Vicar of Preston. 
Rector of Wigan. 
J. Blackburn, Esq. 
Miss BlundeU. 
R. F. Bradshaw, Esq. 
Vicar of Kirkham. 
Vicar of Blackbnm. 
^car of Whalley. 
Iiibambent of Coulton. 
Duke of Lancaster. 
Vicar of Leyland. 
Collegiate Church. 
Rer. S. Master. 

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Heyaliam, 8t Fetor 5««* 

HeTWood (in But) 196 

Hindle7 (in Wigu) 148* 

Hoffbton (In Leyland) 55* 

Rdoombe (in But) 118* 

Up-HoU«nd(inWiean) 16a* 

HoOingflure (in Warrington) 

Holme (in WhaUey) 101 

Hoole, HolyTrinltf \7S 

Hombr (in MeDing) 08 

Horwich (in Dean) . SSO 

Hoogtaton West (in Dean) .. 140* 

Hotane (in Mandiester) S8S 

Hnlton, little (In Dean) .... l6l 

Hnndersfleld (in Rodidale) . . 07* 

Hnyton, St. Micbael ISO* 

Ireletli (InDalton, in Pomeas) 0s 

KeOet, Over (In Bolton.]e.\ ..^ 

Sanda) / ''^ 

Kirkb7anWatton.oo.tfae.l1in 08 

Kirkbr imcb ^ISS 

Kirkham, St. Michael Otl* 

Lancaster, St. Mary 170O* 

StJohn 80S 

St Ann lis 

Lango (in Bladcbom) its 

Latham (in Ormakirk) 178 

Leek (in Tonstall) 60* 

Lees (in A>hton.nnder.L]me) isi 

Leigh, StMaiy 86s* 

Lever, Little (Bolton) 09* 

Leyland, St Andrew 400* 

Undall (in Cartrnd) 71* 

Uttleboroogh (In Rodidale) . 190* 

Uttledale (In Lancaster) .... 48 

Longridge (In Ribshester) .. 107* 

Longton (in Pc n wo r t h am) .. 148 

Lowick (in Ulverstone) 90* 

Lowton (in Winwick) 180* 

Land (In Kirkban) 198* 

Lftbaro (St. Cathbert) 131 

Magboll (In Walsall) 188* 


Trinlt7Cbapel(SaUd.) .... 

St.Ann*s 388 

St.Mary*s 160 

StPanrs 893 

St John's 890 

StJames^ 168 

St Michael's 78 

St Mark's. 

St Peter's lOO 

StStepben's(lnSaUd) us 

StOeor8«*s 880 


St Matthew's 871 

8t PhUlp's (Salford). 410 

St George's (Holme) 8S0 

St Andrew's 144 

St. Thomas's (Ardwk) .... 

Marsden Great (In Whaller).. 94* 

Martoo (in Poolton) lOO* 

PopulMikm. Painm. 


Eev.T.Y. RkBey. 




Rector of Wlgan. 


Vicar of Leyland. 

Rector of Bonr. 


Rector of Wlgan. 


Rector of Warrington. 

Certain Trustees. 


Rev. M. Barton. 


Proprietor of Hornby Castle. 


Vicar of Dean. 


Vicar of Dean. 


Collegiate Chudi. 


Lord Kenyon. 

Vicar of RodMkle. 


Earl Derby. 


Vicar of Dalton. 


R. P. Bradahaw, Esq. 


Rector of Walton. 


Dean and Chapter of York. 


Christ Chorch, Oxford. 


, O.BCartin,Bsq. 


Vicar of Blackbom. 


Vicar of OrmsUrk. 


Vicar of TonstalL 

.. .• 

Rector of Ashton. 


Lord Lilford. 


Vicar of Bolton. 


T. J. Baldwin, Bsq. 

Earl of Bnrlington. 



Tnistees of lata W. Hotane, Esq 



J. Bvarard, Esq. 


Rector of Winwick. 

Vicar of Kirkham. 


T. CUftoo, Esq. 


Rector of Halsall. 


Sir. R. 0. Booth, Bart 

Bishop of Chester. 


Manchester Collegiate Chorch 


Manchester OoUeglate Church 

.. .. 

Rev. W. HnnUngdon. 


Rev. J. Plccope. 

.. .. 

Helm of Rev. H.Owen. 


Hehrs of Rev. E. Bthelston. 

.. .. 



Heirs of the Rev. N. M. Cheek. 


Bishop of Chester. 

.. .. 

C. Burton. L.L.O. 


Collegiate Church. 

.. . 

Collegiate Church. 


OoUeglate Church. 

.. .. 

Collegiate Church. 


Vicar of Whalley. 






MeUiiif (8t Piter) ^IIS* 

DittoOa BateU) uo* 

lleUor(UiBlMkbani) S4 

MeotoNorth(8t. Cathbcrt).. 844* 

MichMlSt. 783* 

Milnrow (In Boebdale) 1S7 

MlttOD (8t. MIchMl) 159* 

MoMler (Asbtoo.aiutor.Une) W 

M«wehorofa (in Wlnwlok). . < . lOl* 

(InWhalley) / *" 

Vewchareh, In Rotnndntoi ««, 

Ftorert(lnWhnWer) / 

Newton (In Mmohagter) .... iw 

Hewton, In llMkwfleld (In \ , , .« 

WInwick) / "* 

Oldhan^St.PMil'B. lai 

StPeteff*! 116 

8t.jMnM*s 7S 

ORnildrk,8t.PM«rft8tFnnL 807* 

Orerton (in LuMMter) 15ft 

PMilwm (in WhiOler) IM* 

Pwpbcr U w (in Wignn) 40 

Pendleton (in lodes) S44 

Pennington, St. Michael .... 141 

Penwortbnni, 8L Mary. ie6 

PiUinff (in Gentnng) Iti* 

PlamptonWood(inStlflchMl) 96 

Fralton (in Leneuter) ...... 88»8t.Clind tST* 

Pmoott, 8L lUrf 80S* 

PreMoo, 8t Johnl. ^ (Mft 

SLGeorfe^ f 161 

HolrTHnity .... > 110 

8t.Pnnl*t i 95 

8t. Peters J no* 

PreRwlcb, St. Mary 1190* 

BedcliffB 840 

8t.l[lioaiM 100 

Renfnrtf (in Preecot) iss* 

lUuntjrde (pelton-in-ForneM) 7S* 

Rlbbf (In Kiridwm) 70 

Blbcherter,8t.WilMd 188* 

Slngler (In Oldlwm) mo* 

RlTioffton (in Bolton) 90* 

Roeh^ric^ StChed itso* 

StJamet loo* 

Boyton (In Oldlinm) 140 

Roffovd, St Mary 49s 

Ro8land(inCoalton) ftO 

St. Helen's (in Piescot) 940* 

St. llidiael 781* 

Salesbory (in Blackborn)!'.!. 118 

Samletflrary (inBladibiini).. 110* 

Sankey, Great (in Prescot).. 101* 

Satterthwaite (in Hawkshead) 71 

Seateth (In Sefton) 87* 

Seatiiwaite(inKiildiylreletfa) 00* 

Sefton (St Helen) 1178* 

Shaw (In Oldham) no* 

1901 The Crown. 

ft09 Rector of HalnlL 

1071 Vicar of Blackbom. 

A06O P.H.Fleetwood. 

47O8 H. Hornby, Esq. 

.... Vicar of Rochdale. 

5177 T. AsplnaU. Esq. 

.... Rector of Ashton. 

.... Rector of Winwiek. 
















Tmiteet of Holow^ Cbartty. 

Vicar of Whalley. 

Oolkflate Choreh. 

T. Leffa. Esq. 

Rector of Prestwich. 

Rector <rf Prestwich. 

Rector of Prestwich. 

Bart Derby. 

Vicar of Lancaster. 

Le Qendre P. Starkie, Bsq. 

Rector of WIgan. 

Vicar of Bociee. 

Dnke of Lancaster. 

L. Rawstome, Esq. 

Lord of the Manor. 


Vicar of Lancaster. 

P. H. Fleetwood, Bsq. 

KlnK*s CoUege, Oambrldge. 

Trosteee of the late Mr. Bnlme 


Itosteca ft Vioar attwnately. 



Marqnis of Westminster. 

Barl of WUtoo. 

Vicar of Preeeot. 
Vicar of Dalton. 
Vicar of KIrkham. 
Bishop of Chester. 

i Rectors of Prsstwicfa, Bvy. 
and Middleton. 
\t Inhabitants. 
Archbishop of Ganterhnry. 
Tlie Vicar 

Rector of Prestwich. 
/ RepresentetiTes of L. K. Star- 
t kle, Esq. 
locombent of Walton. 
Ceitaln Itnstees. 
H. Hornby, Esq. 
Lord de Tsbley. 
Vicar of Blackbnm. 

Incnmbent of Hawlcahead. 
John Gladstone, Esq. 
Derlseesof late R. Towen, Eaq. 
Rev. R. R. RoQiweU. 
Rector of Prestwich. 

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Net Income, Popmlaiion, Painn. 

Shinhotd (in Cockextaam) .. j^93 .... Vicar of Cockerham. 

SOverdale (in Warton) 47 S40 Vicar of Warton. 

Singleton (in Kirkham) 110 499 H. Hornby, Esq. 

Skelmar8daIe(inOrmskirk).. 142 W Vicar of Ormsldrk. 

Soathport (In North Meols).. 107 .... P. H. Heetwood. 

Spotland (in Rochdale) 1»3S5 ^car of Rochdale. 

Statanine (in Lancaster) .... S07 004 Vicar of Lancaster. 

Stalybridge 143 ISOOO Earl of Stamford & Warrington. 

Standish, St. WQftvd. 1874* 7719 C. Standiah, Esq. 

Stavdey (tn Cartmd) 108 820 Earl of Burlington. 

Stldd Unitedto Vicarage of Ribchesfeer 

Stretford (in Manchester) .. 124 S403 Collegiate Church. 

Swfaiton (in Socles) 120* .... Vicar of Bodes. 

Tsdeton, St. Marj. 1880 Rector of Croeton. 

lUham, St James 19ft* 8ft3 Devisees of late J. Marsden^Beq. 

Tatham Fen On l^iktham) . . . . 128 .... RectcvofTatham. 

Tockholes (in Blackburn).... 9ft 1124 Vicar of Blackburn. 

Todmonlen(hiRodulale).... 184* 0084 Vicar of Rochdale. 

Torrer (bi Ulverston) 89 924 T. R. O. BraddyU, Bsq. 

Tottington, Lower (in Bivy) . 14S 9280 Certain Trustees. 

ToxteOi Park, St. James.... 188 24007 Rector of Walton-on-tbe-HUL 

St Michael.. 210 ...4 Rector of Walton-on-the-HiU. 

Tnnsta]]* St John 832* 8O2 R. T. North, Eaq. 

Turtoo ^ Bolton) isft* 2ft03 O. N. Hoare, Esq. 

ffldesley, St George iSft ft038 LoidLilford. 

"^^^HoirSBji^:::: !« "*» T.R.Q.B™dd,ii.B«,. 

tJtaswofth (in Oldham) Os .... Rector of Prestwich. 

Urswick, St Blichael 80 7B9 Hie landowners. 

Wahnsley (in Boltoo) O9 .... Vicar of Bolton. 

^F^^.?!.,?Z^,^} ^ •••• Vicar of Dalton. 

Watton-le-DideOnBiadkbinrn) IftO* 57O7 Vicar of Blackburn. 

WaIton.^m.tfae.Hi]], St Mary 294* 22S7ft J. S. Leigh, Esq. 

Warrington, St Helen...., I9lftft LordLOford. 

Trinity ChapeL. ISO .... Thomas Leigh, Esq. 

StPanl 110 .... Rector. 

Walton (hi Blrkham) 80 831 Vicar of Kirkham 

Warton, Holy Trinity 187* 2lS9 Dean and Chapter of Woroeeter. 

WaTertreeOnCUldwan).... 117 1932 Certain "nrustees. 

Whaller, iUl Saints < 187* 97808 Archbishop of Cantertnry. 

Whiterhapel 0n Kirkham) .. 104 .... Vicar of Kirkham. 

Whitewdl (in Whalley) 88 .... Vicar of Whalley. 

Whittington 416* 542 E. Hornby, Esq. 

WhittleJe.woodi(faiLey]and) 40* 201ft Vicar of Leyland. 

Wlgan, An Saints 2230* 44480 Earl Bradford. 

St George 118 Rector. 

Wtaiwick, St Oswald 30l0* 179GI Earl Derby. 

Woodland (In Kirkby Irdeth) 08 302 The landowners. 

Woolton Much (in ChDdwaU) 170* 1344 Vicar of ChildwaO. 

Wyersdale, Over (hi Lancaster 135* 872 Vicar of Lancaster. 

MAircnsna Collkoiats Chubch:— Gross yearly income, je4050} average 
yearly payments, ^025} net income, subject to temporary charges, ^4025 . This 
amottnt is divided into six equal parts, of which the Warden takes two and the 
Fellows one each. The two Chaplains receive each ^17 lOs. and the Herk hi 
Order* ^33 108. aimnaUy. The remainder of the Chaplains* income arises from 
pew rents and dnirch dues, and that of Uie Clerk in Orders from fees. Thelatter 
have no house assigned to them for residenoe. The average sum divided is 
jff390i. There is reason to expect that the fines and rents fbcmhig a portion of 

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the income of the fofinar wffl decfwtaf M ftr M ntpMte tto renews 
•ndtitbei tber are eleo likelr to tfeeneae in amoaiit. In oClicrretpectB there 
Is no proipect cf increaee. The Wenlen and Fellow»he;vehoaeee, but they are 
unfit for reeidence, and they are let on repairinf leases. AH lepaiis of the 
choir and diancd are paid by the Warden and FeDotrs. 

The Bishop of Chester has the prefennent to twenty- 
eight livings in his own Diocese and to seven in others. 
Of the former, nx are in Lancashire; and of the whole, 
fourteen are perpetaal curacies, seventeen vicarages, and 
four rectories. The gross yearly income of the Bishopric, 
including preferments, is £3951; payments, (^rmanent) 
£690; net income, £3261. A decrease is expected in 
this amount, as the revenues chiefly arise from tithes, 
which are declining in value. 

The total number of Benefices in the Diocese, excluding 
23 annexed to other preferments, is 630; the gross total 
income of Incumbents, £169,495; the average gross, 
£269; the net total, £159,372; average net, £252. 
The total number of Curates is 267; their total stipends 
are £23,239; the average amount for each being £87. 
Total Benefices not returned to Commissioners, 4. The 
emoluments of the clergy are thus classified : — There are 
under £10 per annum none; under £20, none; under 
£30, none; £40, 2; £50, 17; £60, 25; £70, 27; 
£80, 28; £90, 36; £100, 51; £110, 47; £120, 40; 
£130,37; £140,33; £150, 23; £160, 14; £170, 15; 
£180, 13; £190, 9; £200, 8; £220, 21; £240, 13; 
£260, 24; £280, 9; £300, 16; £320, 8; £340, 7; 
£360,5; £380, 5; £400,5; £420,6; £440, 3; £460, 
3; £480,5; £500, 2; £550, 11; £600,4; £650,7; 
£700, 7; £750,4; £800,3; £850,6; £900,2; £950,2; 
£1000,3; £1100,6; ££1200,0; £1300,2; £1400,2; 
£1500,2; £1600,1; £1700, 0; £1800,2; £1900, 2; 
£2000,2; £2500,1; £3000,1; £3500, 1; £4000, 1; 
£4000 and upwards, none. No sinecure rectories are 
returned. Of the benefices in the diocese of Chester there 
re vested in the Crown, 26; Archbbhops and Bisliops, 

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34 ; Deans, Chapters and Ecclemastical Corporations, 34 ; 
Dignitaries and other Ecclesiastical Corporations, in- 
cluding Rectors, Vicars, &c, 227; Universities, Colleges, 
Hospitals!, &c., 13; private owners, 299; Municipal Cor- 
porations, 6. The King, as Duke of Cornwall, has pre- 
sentation to 46 benefices in the various counties. 

The second report of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
states, that in the Diocese of Chester there are, of livings 
which ought to be raised to £ 150 per annum— in private 
patronage, 43^ and the sum required £2815 ; in public 
patronage, 18; and the sum required £ 1274: of those to 
be raised to £200, in private patronage, 106, sum required 
£9817; in public patronage, 46, required sum, £4128: 
of t)i08e to be raised to £300, in pnvate patronage, 50, 
sum, £7575; in public patronage, 30, sum, £4796: to be 
raised to £400, in private patronage, 27, sum, £5661 ; in 
public patronage, 28, sum, £5788; making the total of 
proposed augmentations in the Diocese, 348, for which 
£41354 will be necessary. 

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Sunday schools were first established in Manchester in 
1784, the project havmg been brought before the inhabit- 
ants at a meeting specially convened by the Boroughreeve 
and Constables, in August of that year. The Bishop of 
the Diocese favoured them, and their local success was 
promoted by the active services of the Lord of the Manor 
and the leading inhabitants. SubscripUons were sefton foot, 
and in a short time schoob were established in Manchester 
and the out-districts: Mr. Raikes himself sent a hundred 
books to aid the formation of one at Hollinwood. In Septem- 
ber 1786, schools were opened in Salford, and so general was 
their adoption, that in the year ending April 1786-7 there 
were in Manchester 41 schools, containing 2,022 boys and 
2,221 girls, shewing an increase of 1,407 in the year. At 
the close of the same year, Mr. Raikes intimates in a letter 
that the schools in England have already 250,000 scholars. 
A report for August, 1788, states, that there are 10,596 
children taught in the Sunday schools of Salford Hundred. 
In October of that year there were 5,006 children in 
the Manchester schools, under the superintendence of 119 

In each succeeding year there has been an increase in 
these excellent institutions, of which the present condition, 
relatively to neighbouring towns or to other distant parts 
of the county, is exceeding creditable to the inhabitants. 

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The subjoined list of them was obtained from au actual 
survey made for the Statistical Society : — 


St. Pftal*8. No. 1, Oon-street Charchof England, 80 

,, No. 2, Copperas-street. ,, ,, 244 

,, No. 3, German-street ,, ,, 1330 

., No. 4, Bennett-street „ ,, 2550 

St. George's, No. 1. St. George's- fields ,, ,, 250 

„ No. 2, Oldhara-road „ „ ago 

Collegiate Chorcb, Redfem-street „ ,, 231 

St Michael's, MiUer-street i, „ ayo 

St. Clement's, How-ttreet , ,, O^Q 

St. Andrew's, Ancoats „ „ 130 

St. James's, No. 1, Pine-street „ ,, 150 

No. 2, Granbf-row „ „ 150 

St Ann's, Essex-street. „ ,, 167 

St Peter's, Oxford-street „ „ 280 

St. Mary's, Bank Parade „ „ 200 

St John's, Gartslde-street „ ,, 600 

St. Matthew's, LiTerpool-road „ ,, 280 

AllSaints', Nol. York-st., Cborlton-npon-Medlock.. „ ,, 380 

„ No. 2, Clarendon-st, ditto „ ,, 300 

St. Savioar's, Clifford-street, ditto „ ,, 42o 

St. Lake's, Bedford-street. ditto „ ,, 1 40 

8t George's, Tatton-street Holme „ ,. 373 

St Mark's, Cbeetham Hill , „ iso 

UtUe Bridge-street, Strangeways „ ,, ^0 

St. Thomas's, , „ 270 

Newton „ „ 500 

Wesleyan, New Islington 120 • 

„ Elm-street 5fto 

„ Lamb-lane 213 

„ Collyhorst 240 

„ Angel-meadow 79e 

M OreatAncoats Ooo 

„ Lever-street 547 

„ Tib-street 543 

„ Britain-street 1042 

„ David-strcet 720 

,. Trumpet-street B30 

„ Parsonage 297 

„ Oxford-street, Chorlton-npon-Medlock 513 

„ Qneen-street, Holme 455 

„ Oeorge-street 400 

„ Beswick Mills, Beswick 150 

„ Chancery-lane, Ardwick 871 

Newton 173 

Catholic, Sycamore-street 231 

„ Grammar-street 420 

„ George Leigh-street 350 

„ Dyche-street 1050 

„ Granby-row 900 

„ Little Ireland 335 

„ Lloyd-street 416 

„ Green-street, Hulme 104 

„ Newton 75 

lodependent, Canal-street 300 

„ Ashler-lane 58o 

„ Collyhnrst 150 

„ Mather-street 255 


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Independent, Back Tomer-ttnet wim 

„ Groerenor-ttreet 9flS 

M Back Mosler-ttrect 401 

,, RoshoUne-roed, Chorlton-apon-Medloek flipt 

„ Jadaon's-lane, Holme. ilO 

Methodist New Oonnexion, Selter-itreet 179 

^ „ F6luid.street. Iflft 

,, M GtMoont-itreet 49 

„ ,} Cbeetwood..... ...• 19B 

.. » Newton .. 490 

Beptiit, Bheip-etreet 9» 

„ Plne-street S9 

» HaU-ttreet ftS4 

Welsh Independent, Whrnrf-ttreet gD 

„ Cooper-street 649 

M Gmrtstde-street 140 

General Baptiflt, Jerser-Btreet S7t 

„ Oak-8treet ^ m 

PiifflitiTe Methodist, Jenejotreet lat 

H „ Onnood^t., Choriton.apon.Medlodc 911 

Bible Christians, ETery-street 151 

„ „ Qaeen-straet. Holme 9U 

Bootch Cborch, Lower Mosler-street lU 

Scotch Secession, Uofd-street 18B 

New Jwosalem, Peter-street. laO 

Unitarian, Back Mosder-street 98S 

Independent Methodirtt Bdward-street. am 

Arminian Methodist, Cnapel-street. 79 

Welch Methodist, Parliament-street 178 

Welch Baptist, Clarence-street 90 


ReUgkms DsnooBlDatlan. 



Chnrch Establishment 

Wesleyan Methodist 



Methodist New OonneyJon. 

General Baptist 

Primitive Methodist 

BQde Christian 

Wfekh Independent 

Scotch Chnrai 

Seotdi Secession Chorch ... 
New Jemsalem Chorch .. .. 


Independent Methodist 

Armmlan M^odist 

Weldi Baptist 

Weldi Metfiodist 

































































Total . 

80 10803 10893 8319fl| 8*8101 888 





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Ko. at Schools where ttie No. on\ 

the Books is less than 100 .... / 

Where it exceeds lOO 

Total. 80 

No. of Schools where the aver- \ . . 

age attendance is less than 100 5 
Where it exceeds 79 


Excepfting one School belonging to the BiUe Christians, containing isi 
Scholars, who each par id. per month, the Sondar Schools of Manchester are 
■n free. Of the whole nomber, 36 were established prior to 1880. 

In an these Schools, save two, reading is taoght; in ten writing is taught on 
tiie Sonday, and in forty-one on other evenings ; arithmetic is taoght in three, 
■nd in aU religion is inculcated. Sixty-eight of these Schools have visitors, 
and in sixty-four there are periodical examinations. In fifty-three the diildren 
■re questioned on what they read. Sixty-eight have lending libraries} twelve 
rikithing societies ; forty-six benefit societies ; and two a savings* bank attached. 

In connexion with the Collegiate Church, a fine edifice has been erected in 
Todd-street, Long MiUgate, the first stone having been laid late in the year 
1 835. It is applied to the doable use of a Sunday and Day school . For the former 
purpose it is calculated to accommodate about a thousand children. For 
the latter it has connected with it the "Collegiate Church Charity school," 
which hitherto has been held in premises belonging to the charity, near the 
new school. A school-room, and a residence for the teacher in the new erec* 
tion, will be paid for out of the funds of the charity, which clothes sixty 
gtrls and educates them in reading, religion, morals, and needle-work. Its 
rands consist of about ji$2 us. 8d. In chief-rents, and ^38 the rental of other 
premises in Fennel-street, and additional support is rendered to the school by 
the appropriation of one-half the ofllrrtory money, and the collections on the 
four festivals, at the Collegiate Church. The Warden and Fellows, with the 
Churchwardens, select the children.— Attached to St. John's Church there is a 
Day sehool, endowed by Mr. Byrom about 1770, and aided by other legacies 
•s well as the offiBrtory money. IVenty ^rls, from six to eif^t years old, are 
Instructed in reading, their religious and moral duties, and in needle- workj and 
they are also clothed.— St. Mark's Snndav school-room, Cheetham, is also used 
for a Day.scbool, which was established in I8l8,and is maintained by subscrip- 
tion : thirty-six boys and twenty-elght girls (besides those received by the 
master on his own account— upwards of one hundred in number) are taught 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, their religious duties being also inculcated.— 
8t Mary's and St. Paul's have similar advantages, as will be seen by reference 
to the Reports of the Charitable Commissioners.— In connexion with St. 
George's, Holme, is a National school, conducted upon the principles of Dr. 
BeU, and supported by subscription, with a small weekly payment fhim the 
children— of sd. for reading, 4d. for reading and writing, or 6d. fbr read- 
log, vrriting and arithmetic. The school contains one hondred boys and 
•eventy girls. United with it are a lending library, and clothiog and benefit 

Attached to the Scotch Cborch is a Day school, established in 1834, opon the 
plan of the Sdinborgh Sessional school, and onder the oare of the Minister 
■Dd Kirk Session. Its benefits are not confined to the members of any religious 
denomination. One hundred boys and thirty girls are taoght readhag for 4d. 
per week, writing and arithmetic for sd. additiooal, and grammar and geogim- 
pby Ibr another id. If these payments be insoffident to defray the expenses oT 
the ocbool, the congregation make op the deficiency. 


IMnlty, KiBg^ Head l^rd. ...Cliiiidi of Kngtend* 180 

at Stephen's, No. 1, B6oth.street „ „ 013 

., H a. Canal-street „ „ 880 

8t PhiUp% Oldfield Road „ 7, 404 

Christ Oiorcb, Crescent ,, ., 401 

lnf«ll.itreet School Wedeyu, 819 

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OldBridge-tt. Sdiool 
Onvel Lane „ 
Broncbton Road „ 
RefeoUstrMt ,. 
Chftpel-ttreet ,, 
Hope-street ., 
New Windsor •, 
Bmy-street t* 
])ale>«treet „ 
Cook.8treet ,* 
Greenfate h • 

Bolton-ttreet •» . 
Bombfty-rtreet „ 
King-street h • 
Jackson's Squtre, . 
Great Qeorfe-8t„ 
Georfe-street „ 
Poor Hoose 
St. Tliomas's 

. Wesleyan A seoda t ioo, Sis 

Independent, do 


Primitive Methodist, 

.... Independent Methodist, 


New Jerusalem, 

> Welsh Independent, 

Bible Christians, 

. New Connexion Methodist, 

No religions profesrioo 

United Christians, 

PBtroLKTOir . 




.New Connexion Methodist, 

. Church of England 







KenalMoor, Brooobton 


Religions Denomination. 



= 1 

D «S 5 2 


« i 







Church Establishment* . . .. 

Ditto at Poorhonse 

Westeyan Methodist 


Mettiodiit New Connexion. 

PrimittTe Methodist 


Wesleyan Association 

Welsh Independent 

BiMe Christian 

New Jerusalem Church ... 
Independent MethodUt . . . . 

United Christian 

Unconnected with any reli- 

65 2333 
10) 49 
64 1 209 

291 1972, 
330 1318 

1410|2089 1841 
^ 59 69 
1312 S03O 



















67.S 128 
6t.g 134 
94.3 166 




2998030 142514826 4928V54 6091 68.1 


TO ascertain the ayerage attendance tn one of the Catholic Schools, and In 
that attached to St. Philip's Church, the children have been occasiooally counted. 
No books beinr kept in the New Jerusalem Sunday School, an average attend- 
ance of two-thirds of the number on the books has been assumed.— AH these 
Sdioofai are free. 

• Many of the smaller schools do not keep accurate books ; the average 
attendance tiietefore may not, in every case, be quite correctly given. 

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In eight of these Schcx>ls writing is taught, and in flye arithmetic ) In thirty 
reli^on and morals ; tn one morals without reUglon I Nineteen of the Bchncib 
have viaitors. In dghteen the children are questioned on what tbej read. 
Nine of the Sunday Schools (two Church Establishment, four Wesleyan, and 
four Independent) have evening schools attached to them; twelve of the 
schools have Lending Libraries ; one a Benefit Society; nine Lending lihrariea 
Benefit Societies; and one Savings' Bank also. 

The members of C3irlst Church, Salford, have opened a school for adnltt, 
who are taught to read their Bible. Itiey assemble every Friday evening. 

In the year 1833 inquiries were instituted, by order of 
the House ol Commons, to ascertain the extent and nature 
of the schools for the education of the young in this coun- 
try. The returns then made from Manchester (as from 
other places) were, however, so insufficient as to afford no 
correct data for forming a calculation. Since that time 
the Statistical Society of Manchester have at considerable 
labour aud expense made a more close and rigid inves- 
tigation, the results of which have been liberally com- 
municated to the public in two pamphlets having reference, 
the one to the borough of Manchester, the other to the 
neighbour borough of Salford. The details are very com- 
plete, but without descending to their minute particulars, 
the tables which follow comprise in a small compass all the 
essential results of the inquiry : — 

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* In this calcalatiou it will of coarse be 

seen tliat the 9,000 Weslejan Methodists 1 

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. /EALFORD, 18S5. 

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* In this oOcnlatiou tt will of cotme be 
1 adaded. 

seen that the 9,000 Wealeyan Metbodiits aie 

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. /BALFORD, 1835. 

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Hie Romftn CmthoUcs htve « Dty School, in which apwmrds of four hundred 
bors and firli are taa^ht readiof , writiof , arithmetic, needle- worti, and the 
rudiments of Catholicism. They are erectinf a new school calcolated forthe 
accommodation of a much larger namber. Two ** brothers** of the Christian 
Schools, a lar fratemitf in Dublin, enfayed excluslvelr in edncatinf the yoonff, 
are the masters. About 1837, the New Jerusalem Connexion, their conference 
havinf a fund in trust to promote education, established a School, in which 
about two hundred boys are Uui^t, a charge of 2d. per week for reading, and 
8d. for reading, writing and arithmetic, being made to them : the proceeds are 
expended in books and writing materials. In connexion with the Cross-street 
and Hosier .street Unitarian Chapels, there is a School supported by donations 
and subscriptions, in which fortjr.three girls are taught reading, writhig, arith. 
meUc, needle- work, &c. fee. Thejr undergo a monthly exemination. A lend- 
ing library and a clothing society are attached to the School. The girls sab- 
scribe a penny per week to a prize fund. 

The Statistical Society complain of the exceeding incompetency of those self 
styled instructors who preside over the *• Dame" Schools, and who furnish such 
an exceedingly minute modicum of education, that the only possible object in 
sending children to them seems to be to relieve their parenta of the care of 
them. In this respect, however, Manchester does not appear to present any 
contrast to other places. Every person who feels or fancies an incompetency to 
earn a livelihood otherwise, conceives him or herself capacitated (and indeed 
bound in self-defence) to open a seminary. If. however, children acquire such 
a power of /eading as enables them hereafter to make some advance in the mdi- 
menta of knowledge, a great good is effected, even by '* Dame*' Schools. 

It has been already stated that the returns furnished to 
the House of Commons in 1833, do not afford abstractedly 
a correct view of the state of education in Manchester or 
Salford. Probably, however, they may furnish sufficiently 
accurate data for a comparison of the extent of education 
in this and other counties. It appears that in Lancashire 
there are, according to the analysis of these returns, 
198,777 persons attending Sunday schools, and 97,534 
attending Day schools.^ It has been calculated that in 
Manchester one-half of the pei'sous attending the latter 

* The returns state that in Lancashire there are 133 Infant schools, support- 
ing 6360 scholars; SO87 Day schools, having 61,174 scholars; that in these 
schools 18,454 children are instructed in Endowed schools, ll,g73:in schoola 
supported by subscription, 60,657 pay for their own education, 12,550 are taught 
in Schools maintained by the Jnint contributions of scholars and subscribers of 
479 Sunday schools in the coanty, having 37,523 scholars, s(^ with 1731 
scholars are maintained by endowment, 410 with 32,011 scholars, by subscrip- 
tion, 1, with 30 scholars, by payments from the children, and 42 with 3/51 
scholars, by subscriptions Joined with paymenta from the scholars : of these 
schools 12 of the Infant and Day schools with 844 scholars, and 148 of the 
Sunday schools, with 15,456 scholars, were e^^tablished by Dissenters. Since 
1818, there has been an increase of 986 Infant and Day schools; with 31,410 
scholars, and of 349 Sunday schools, with 29,333 scholars. There are 53 
schools, to which lending libraries are attached. At the time this inquiry was 
made, the calculation was that the children under education In Day and Infant 
Schools in England and Wales, (1,275,947,) were nearly nine per cent., and 
those who attended Sunday schools, (1,548,890 in number,} nearly eleren per 
cent.} of the population. 

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attend the former also; so that the number of children 
under education in Lancashire would be on this supposi- 
tion about 247,544, or 18.51 per cent, of the population. 
In Cheshire, according to the same standard, the propor- 
tion is 21.85. per cent; in Derbyshire, 21.68. per cent In 
Kent, it is only 18.51.; in Berks, another agricultural 
county, 15.4.; whilst in some other rural districts the 
average is a little higher. We must bear in mind, however, 
that as to Manchester and Salford this return is really no 
test. In regard to the former town an error of 10,61 1 is 
committed, and as to the latter there is an omission of 
3,600. — The proportion of the population in the borough of 
Manchester actually receiving education is, as the tables 
shew, 21.65. per cent., and in Salford 23.4. per cent,— no 
trifling proportion, though less than could be desired.* 

* Ao EdacsUontl Inttitatioii of a deBcription new to this part of the country 
has recently been originated in Manchester, and a structure is about to be 
raised in the neig:hbonrinf village of Didsbnry in which its principles will be 
carried out. It has been named **the Manchester Proprietary School,*' and its 
design is " to provide a course of education for youth, comprising classical 
learning, mathematical and commercial instruction, and such modem languages 
and other branches of science and general literature as it may from time to 
time be practicable and advantageous to introduce, combined with religUnu and 
morat inglnteNon, in conformity with the principle* of ike Church of England.** 
To the maintenance of this distinctive feature each Proprietor is bound, on pain 
of forfeiture, by signing a ** declaration}'* the whole property is vested in 
twelve Trustees, who, as well as the Proprietors, are *' members of the Church of 
Bnglaod;** the Head Master must be a Clergyman of the Church, and, as weU 
as the second, a graduate of Oxford or Cambridge } the daily school duties are 
to be opened and closed ** by a short devotional service, conformable to the 
Liturgy of the Church of England}" and at a Midsummer examination of the 
pui^ls, " inquiry shall be made into the knowledge which each pupil may have 
acquired of the evidences of natural and revealed religion, and of the doc- 
trines and duties of Christianity, as taught by the Church of England j and 
every pupil will be expected to exhibit a certain degree of proficiency in these 
soblects." To render these bases permanent, it is provided, in the 17th. rule, 
'* that no proposition affecting the fundamental principles of the Institution, 
as defined In the Trust Deed, be ever entertained by any meeting whatsoever." 
The Pro p rietary consists of SOO shares of ^so each, bearing interest at not 
more than four per cent, the principal money going to the purchase of land 
and erecUon of a school, and any surplus being applicable to the general pur- 
poses of the Institution. The Trustees are eligible by a ballot of the Pro- 
prletors, eadi of whom has only one vote, except in matters of finance, when 
every share gives a votes, but no individual can hold more than four shares, 
which may be transferred, or bequeathed, under limitations. Each share gives 
a Proprietor the right to nominate one pupil, but the Committee must first 
assent to his admission} unless he be a son, stepson, grandson, brother, nephew, 
or ward. An entrance fee of ^5 is required in addition to the yearly payment, 
which is expected not to exceed jffso for washing, lodging, board, and educa- 
tion, in English, LaUn, Greek, Hebrew, French, Italian and German, writing, 

s 2 

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The folio wiDg digests have been collated from the Reports 
of the Commissioners on Public Charities, the results of 
whose labours, so far as this county is concerned, are very 
imperfectly known. 


[The details comprise. In briet the names and amoonts of the sereral 
Charities in Manchester and Salford, the modes and ol^ects of their uppropA- 
ation: as to other townsh^ a mere catalogue is ftimished.] 

CHSTHAM*8 HOSPrTAL, on, THB COLLEGE, was foonded by charter, 
bearlnf date the soth. November, 1066 . Hnmphre/ Chetham, the foonder, was 
of an ancient family, which derived its name from the existinc township. He 
was baptized at the Collegiate Church on the lOth. of July, iftSO, and there is 
reason to believe that he received his edacatlon in the Manchester Pree SchooL 
The most active years of his life were spent in the Blanchester and Bolton trade, 
which yielded him an ample fortune, and enabled him to make such a flgture in 
the world that Charles the Pirst imposed upon him, as upon others of the rich 
men of the land, the necessity either of purchasing a Baronetcy or paying 
heavily for not having one forced opoo him. He accepted the alternative. 
In 10S4 he was appointed Sheriff of the County, much against his own incli- 
nation, and to the great chagrin of the magistracy and more ancient fkmiUes 
of the district, who were ihociced that a tradesman should be thus honourably 

geography, matbemstics and drawing mechanical and architectoral. Poplta 
must be seven years old, and have some knoiidedge of readlnir, writing, and 
the first rules of arithmetic, before they become eligible for admission. One 
hundred boys, residing with their parents, guardians, or nominating Pro- 
prietors, may also be admitted ss day-boarders. The school is to be placed 
under the management of a Committee of the Proprirtors, who will 
appoint the Masters and all other functionaries, (the head and second 
Master being, however, only removeable "for incapacity, negligence, im- 
moral conduct, or other sufildent cause, established to the satitfootioo of a 
Keneral^meeting of Proprietors convened for ttiat express purpose^**;— direct 
the whole internal economy of the establishment, and arrange with the 
Head Master the plan of education— regulate the income and expenditure—fix 
the rate of payment for pupils— supply such vacancies as Proprietors ntter 
notice may neglect to fill up in the<r tumi and make such bye-laws for the 
conduct of the Institution as are compatible with its fundamental roles. Two 
of the Committee and two Proprietors, selected monthly from an alphabetical 
list, will be appointed to act as Visitors to the Institution, and two Auditors 
also to supervise the accounts. The first Committee, chosen to carry these 
plans Into operation, consists of the Very Rev. T. Calvert, D.D., Warden 
of the Collegiate Church i Rev. Oswald Sergeant, M.A., Fellow of the Col- 
legiate Church) Rev. Richard Parkinson, M.A., Fellow of the Collegiate 
Church} Rev. Hugh Stowell, M.A., Incumbent of Christ Church} Rev. J. 
Flcoope, MJk., Incumbent of Saint Paul's} Rev. W. Gibson, M.A., Incom- 
tient of Saint Thomas'sj Joseph Armstrong, Bsq., William Atkinson, Esq., 
Thomas Broadbent, Esq., Daniel Broadhurst, Esq., Samuel Brooks, Esq., 
William Cooper, Esq., James Femley, Esq., Samuel Green, Esq., John Heap, 
Smi., Josiah Howard, Esq., Stockport, Richard Lane, Esq., Edward Loyd, Esq., 
John Macvlcar, Esq., Robert Ogden, Esq., Joseph Peel, Esq., George Peel, 
Esq., George Sandars, Esq., Thomas Sharp, Esq., Samuel Stocks, Jun., Esq., 
Richard Sykes, Esq., Bdgeley, Henry Tootal, Esq., Thomas Townend, Esq., 
John Walch, Esq., Tbomss Walmsley, Esq., Stockport, J. B. Wanklyn, Esq., 
J. P. Westhcad, Esq., J K. Wlnterbottom, Esq., Stockport. 

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dlstiDgiilthed. Bat hit was not an enviable office. In 1084, he was required 
to lery the thip-monAy imposed b/ Charies on this coonty : Lancashire belnff 
commanded to proride monex for a ship '*fomished in all points," 
which Chetham tbonght woold cost ift,fiOO, and he had the irlcsome taslc of 
apportioninf to each district its fiOr share. This he desired to effect bj a meet- 
incat Warrington, and in aletter written at the time he obsenres, •*If yon 
shall taze and assess men according to their estate, then LiTerpool being poora, 
and now goes, as it were, a beginge, most paj Tery little, • « and if yoa 
shall tax men according to their trading and profit by shipping, then Lan- 
cashire, as J Terily think, hath little to do that waie." In the next year he was 
ordered to lery ^9,600 for a vessel of 850 tons, towards which Salford Hao- 
dred paid j^40O, being very maoh less than any other Hundred, save Leyland. 
Liverpool paid dt95 { Lancaster j^, and Wigan tffso I The Sheriff was taken 
sharply to account for levying mom than the specified amount, and wm told 
that it was a " Stanre Chamber bnsioess.'' On a former occasion he bad paid 
the eipenses of collection himself} on the second he was so prudent as to 
dkarge them in the levy. After this public service, and probably in conse- 
quence of its efBdent discharge, he was appointed treasurer fbr the county, 
in spite of his pn»test againt it On the isth. October, lOftS, he died at 
Clayton Hall, and was buried at the Collegiate Church, in a chapel at 
the east end. He made various bequests to the poor of Manchester, Salford, 
Droylsden, Tnrton, Bolton, and for the maintenance of a Protestant 
Minister at Cmmpsal, Gorton, &c., and having, during his life, fed 
and brought up fourteen boys of Manchester and Salford, and of Oroysden, 
he ordered in his will that the number should be augmented by the 
addition of one from Droylsden, two from Crumpsall, four from Turton, and 
ten from Bolton, leaving j^OOO for their maintenance and instruction from six 
to fourteen years of age, at which latter period of their lives they were to be put 
out to some trade. The institution was to be managed by Trustees, and one 
of the stipulations of Chetham*s will was, that so long as any of his name, 
blood, <v kindred, should dwell at Turton, ClaytiMi, Chetham, OrdsaU, or 
Crumpsall, in the county of Lancaster, or elsewhere near the same places, and 
tfiould be lit to be made Feoffees, they should be nominated Feoffees with the 
resL He directed that his orders and directions, when they should be fbund 
defective or insuAdent for managing the poor boys and the aflhirs of the 
Hospital, should from time to time be "supidied, altered, or amended, by the 
discretion of the Feoffees." By the charter, the Feoffees, twenty-four in 
number, constituted a body corporate, having the entire management of the 
funds, ftc. Chetham left jtf 1000 for the purchase of books { jtf too (besides the 
residue of his personalty, about 4^2,000,) towards the purchase of a suitable 
boildlng. He alsogave jtfsoo for the purchase of godly English books, tobe 
chained to the desks in the churches and chapels of Manchester, Boltoo, 
Turton, Gorton, Walmersley; but the <* chaining** has fisllen Into desuetude. 
The ** College,** now known as "Chatham's Hospital,** was purchased from 
these ftands. The building, which succeeded to the **Baron*s HaU," was 
occupied as a residence by the Clergy of the Collegiate Church till 1547, when 
it fell into the hands of the Barl of Derby, but was again taken fifom his family, 
in the time of the rebellion, by the sequestrators. In 1054, it was handed 
over to the Feoffees of Cbetham's Charity, and in 1050 the boys were flrst 
lodged there, but the purchase was not completed until after the Restoratioii. 
It is n oarioos and very andeot buikling, and very much of its pristine 

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ehartcter remains. In addition to the school and lodging booae for the 
charity bofs, which occupy of course a principal portion of ttie ediileer 
there is a floe library, comprising a collection of all the rare 8taD<tarcl 
aathors. ancient and modern, of which the custody is assigned to a UbrariaD, the 
Rev. G. Dngard, M.A., and his assistant. To the perosal of these works aU per- 
sons may have access during the prescribed hours: no book ia allowed to go oat 
of the library, but a spaciooi and very comfortable room is prorlded, 
in which readers may pass as much time as it pleases them to expend in stody . 
The following regulation as to this room is taken from the ca^Uogoe, dated 
MDCCJtCI :— *' Unustuisque tidmiitut qviete et «/ mode$tmm deett M germtf 
nee moleitis ambulaliunibus aut improba canorave garrutitate c«gtero$ inter- 
turbet aut offendat, immo potiu* $tudii» ipse incumbat nb sUenHo; 9uper Uhrog 
eubitiMp brachiigte non reclinet, tednotat ettrtamque esceptoriam tuper Phtteog 
ipsot omnino reponet, apertos non dimittet, $ed loeit ordinibu9qn9 proprHt ($me 
omni morota catcnarum intricatione) reponet; librot etitm emUrumque eulhttm 
$ic tractabit ut guperesie quam diuttMsime postint.** The library contaios 
about 25,000 volumes, among which are many rare and exceedingly valuable 
works, to which new and valuable accensicns are constantly being made, and 
it is enriched with some curious M.S. It it decidedly the most taiuable library 
in England, after those of the Universities and the British Museum, and 
contains many works which those libiaries have not. The resort of readers la 
coDsideraable; but the popular attraction is a collection of curioaiUes. Hoo. 
dreds of the lower orders of the town and vicinity, as well as very many of 
the strangers passing through Manchester, annually visit the College, for 
the purpose of inspecting the relic!i, the catalogue of which is always recited 
with peculiar emphasis by one of the scholars. 

The '* Hospital" is under the direction of a governor, Mr. Crossley; and the 
roaster of the School is Mr. Thomas Davenport, late master of the Endowed 
School at Henbnry, near Bristol. The funds having increased, 80 bojrs arenow 
received; namely,— from Manchester 28, Salford 12, Droylsden 6, Crumpsall 4, 
Bolton 20, Torton 10. They are instructed in reading, writing, grammar and 
arithmatic, and In their moral and religious duties. They are clothed, fed, 
boarded and lodged. The clothing consists of a blue frock with a yellow under 
coat, with blue cap and stockings. The Feoffees elect the boys at their annual 
meeting in Easter^ there are always many applicants, who are required to send to 
the governor, within six days of Easter Monday, a printed note of recommenda- 
tion, signed by the overseers and churchwardens of the place in which they reside. 
At the proper age the lK>ys are bound apprentice to some respectable person in 
a suitable trade; a premium of ^i is given; the boys receive two suits ofclotiiea 
as an outfit. The indenture of apprenticeship is not signed till Ascensloo-day, 
a short period after the boy is put out, in order that he may try his trade befbre 
he is finally bound to it : a Bible a Prayer Book are given to each l>oy on his 
leaving the College. The children are a fine healthy community, remark- 
able for their neat, cleanly and happy appearance. They attend the Collegiate 
Ciiurcb twice on the Sunday, (headed by their governor,) and occupy a portion 
of the west gallery, which has been erected for their accommodation. The 
names of the present Feoffees are as follows;— 

The Earl of Stamford and Warrington 

The Earl of Wilton 

Lord F. Egerton, M.P. 

Rev. Tbos. Foxley, M.A., Rector of Radcliffe, appointed in 1789 

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Rev. James L700, Rector of Prestwich 

Col. Ford, Abbeyfield, Cheshire 

WilUam Fox. B»q. 

John Leaf, Esq., Hale, Cheshire 

Wllbraham Egerton, Esq. 

Benjamio Rawson, Esq., Nead Hall, Yorkshire 

William Halton, Esq., Halton Park 

Rev. Joho Clowes, M.A., Broagbton Hall 

Wm. Marriott, Esq.. Ed^e HiU, near Liverpool 

Thomas Legh, Esq., Lyme Hall, Cheshire 

Wm. Legh Clowes, Esq. 

John Entwistle, Esq., M.P., Foxholes 

General Heron, Moor, near Warrington 

The Very Reverend the Warden of Manchester 

The Rev. Thomas Blackbnrne, Vicar of Ecdes 

Wm. Tatton Egerton, Esq., M.P. 

Robt. Orec Hopwood, Esq. 

John Wilson Patten. Esq., M.P. 

Thomas Hardman, Esq. 

J.Fred. Foster, Esq. 

THE FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL was founded in the early part of the 
sixteenth century, by Hugh Oldham, LL.B., Bishop of Exeter, the place of 
whose nativity is in dispute between Manchester andUie town whose name he 
bore. The income of the School is 4^4,550 6 6; the average expenditure ^2483 8s., 
leaving an annual surplus of 10^1007 12 8, the appropriation of which to some use- 
ful purpose was the object of an application to the Coort of Chancery, in Aogost, 
1 833. The Court authorized the expenditure of a sum not exceeding ^10,^ in 
the erection of a new school and a house for the High Master, and that purpose 
has been accomplished by an actual outlay (upon the building alone) of j^soo. 
The old and the new schools will be carried on in combined operation, as the 
Higher and Lower School. The learned languages, the English language, writ- 
inc. arithmetic, matbematios, French, German, and other modem languages, 
the modem arts and sciences, wiU be taught there, and illustrative lectures will 
be deUvered, the new scheme authorizing an expenditure of i^soo a year for the 
purchase of apparatus, &c. Attached to the new tchool there will be a library, 
to the formation of which j^o a jeu is to be devoted. There will be an 
annual examination of the pupils by three Master* of Arty, or Bachelors of Law 
at two years* standing, and resident in the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge 
-4wo to be appointed by the Feoffees, and one by the High Master. They will 
examine the scholars in classics, mathematics, and such other branches of 
leaming as the Warden of the Collegiate Church and the High Master may 
appoint; they will report on the proficiency of the scholars, classify them, and 
such awards may then be given— the whole not exceeding jfi'so— as the Feoffee* 
may detennine. The twelve exhibitions of 4^60 each, for four years, are in the 
gift d the Warden and the High Master, but the Examiners, after the general 
examination, will examine all candidates for exhibitions, and report which they 
consider qualified to receive them, regard being had to the moral conduct of 
the boys, and no boy can receive an exhibition unless be has been reported 
worthy. If, further, they report any scholar* eminently entitled to special 
reward, the Feoffees may apportion books, or mathematical instruments, to a 
total value not exceeding ^£'25 in one year. The Examiners are to receive jtffo 
each, for their services. There are besides those named about fifteen exhibi- 
tions the bequest of a person named Hulme, to under Graduates of Brazennosc 
College, Oxford, to be continued for four yeara, from their thirteenth term 

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after mafricaI«tioii : the uooant bcioc dtteretkxMnr, bat not to eieeed ^IM 
per tnnnm. Their ralae is aboat jtflSft. Iliere are stzteeo ■choia n h ip e to 
BraceoDOM CoUefe, Oxford, and tizteen to St. John% Oombrldge^ Taryiiir In 
ralae en>m jtflS to ift0, wbieh are shared In rotation with the paplls of Mart- 
borooffh and Hereford schools; and there are six of s8%i attached to Macdalen 
Collece, Oxford, to which papUs trom the Manchester school hare the preCtr- 
eooe. An oration In honour of Holme's memorr is periodlcaUj delivered bf 
one of the exhibitioDers at Braxennose, who reeeiTes a prixe of books to the 
valne of jtf lO. The masters* salaries are flxed as follows :— 

Hie High Master not exceeding jMOO, with boose, rent and tax free, 
and Lower to take 80 boarders. 

High Master's Usher 4^900 with boose^ and 15 boardeia. 

'* " Assistant.... too '< 19 ** 

Uiher's ditto 150 " 10 <' 

Master of Lower School ... 150 ** 

Writing Master 100 " 

Mathematical Master SOO * 

Master in English Uteratore 900 ** 

Masters of Foreign Langoages 150 each. 

Librarian SO (being the Usher.) 

Sucb Assistant Masters as are deemed necessary. 

All the Teachers, except the High Master and his Usher, are mnoveable bf 
thi Warden and High Master, who are to appoint to sll vacant sitoationa 
within a month, otherwise the appointment devolves on the FeolTeea. The High 
Master, or his Usher, resigning in consequence of length of service, age, iU- 
ness, inflrmltr of body or mind, may be aUowed a pension not exceeding a 
moiety of their salarr . Boys are admissible at the age of six, and may oontinoe 
in the school to their twentieth year. The FeolTees, of whom the following Is 
a list, are empowered to make fresh statates from time to time, as occasion may 

The Karl of Stamford and War- 

The Earl of Wilton 
Sir Robert Holt Ulgh, Bart. 
The Rev. Thoe. Foxley 
John Ford, Esq. 
The Rev. John Clowes 

WIUiamHoItoo, Esq. 
Wilbrahsm Egerton, Esq. 
Peter Heron, Esq. 
William Leigh Clowes, Esq. 
John Bntwisle, Esq., M.P. 
WilUam Tattoo Bgerton, Esq., M,P. 

The new School will. In all probability, be opened at the commencement of 
the year 1837. The ballding contains (me large and two small School rooms, 
a library, and a Master's room. 

CLARKE'S, ia90.~Hoases, «cc.— MARSHALL'S, 1034.— 4^S,950, 3 per cents. 
— Tnistees manage the property.— These two Charities intxinced, in I8t5, 
^ I ,SSO. They are called the Boroughreeve*s Charity, and expended chielly 
in clothing for the poor, who obtain the advantage by means of tickets 
from the principal inhabitants. <^20 to 4^40 are also given in small soma 
to poor housekeepers.* 

* Last year abont ^l 500 were expended upon 5000 objects } jtf 1350 in linen, 
blankets, &c., and about ^loo in small sums of money entrusted fbr distribution 
to several gentlemen. The expenses attendant on the distribution were about 
^9 or .^80. Trustees manage the property, and hand over for distribution by 
the Borooghreeve such an amount as the state of the funds will admit 

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HUDSON'S, i787.--'tf500.~Sev«iTniitMt.---SzpeDd6dl)ytheBoioiiglir6efe. 
— In abeyftocefcur some time. 

DICKBNSON*S, i66S--jtfl00.— jft per aim.— duuchwvdens. 

ALEXANDER'S, lQS8.— Land.— BROWN'S, 1094.— ^lOO.—ChurdiwwdeDsmDd 
OTer»een.—'* Manchester Poor Landa," prodndng with the propertr oo 
them j€30 a-year.— These C!harities prodaoe j^o is. 6d. per ann.} whicii 
is expended on the sist. December and the 6th. Jannary in loaves di». 
trUrated at the Coll e g i ate Chorch. A separate account of these and 
Moss's Charity is kept by the Assistant Orerseer. 

PBRCIVAL'S, 1003.— 4^IS0.— Chnrchwardena and Oreraeen. — Rrodnolng 

CHAMPION'S, l784.'-4^00.^Char(diwanifln8 and Overs e er s . 

MOSS'S, 1705.— ^100.— jtfs 5s. per ann.— Chorchwardena and Oveneera.— 
Five or more coats ** of a hoosewife'a kersey, of a sad bios ooloor," 
given on Christmas Day at the CoDegiafee Chorch. 

NUGBNT'S, 1009.— «^ per annum.— Ttnstees.— Two chief rents of 90b. each, 
to be expended in torf for tlie poor : one is lost, and in 18S0 payment of 
tiie other was suspended. 

MATER'S, 1021.— ^130.— Trustees: Bir. T. Maikland, manager.— Hie property 
of this Charity used to consist of annmber of almshouses in Miller's-lane, 
which have been pulled down: it now brings in a rental of about ^430. 
which is distributed among the Trustees, and by them dispensed to the 
poor.— The abnshouwes were originally erected In lOso-i, by the Church- 
wardens, who laid out various sums of money amounting to i^l58 3s., 
the bequests of Rd. Holland (jtf 100}, Mr. Coale (jff30), BCr. Mosier (aeio), 
and others. 

HARTLEY'S, (N.)— ^50.- iff 15. 15s. per ann.— Ttustees. of whom are T. Hard- 
man and W. Gamett, Esqrs.— Distributed in sums erf from 5s. to 2s. by the 
Trustees. Accounts produced at the Church on Easter Tuesday. 

HARTLEY'S (B.) 1030.— Property in Market^treeUlane.— Trustees.— The pre- 
mlses were sold to the Market-street Commissioners for jtfl,370, the net 
balance of which is now invested in the public funds for the benefit of the 
poor, to whom the interest is required to be dispensed by the Churchwardens 
and Constables, who with the Trustees are to produce their accounts at the 
Church on Easter Tuesday. 

PARTINGTON'S, 1077.— iff 100.— Distrlbiited by the Chundiwardens of Man- 
Chester.— Lost for a time. 

BARLOWS, 1084.— iffis per ann.— jffO towards maintining a schoohnastar at 
Shrigtey, to teach poor children*, ^86 to bind apprentice poor boys in 
Shrigley and Manchester} jffl to buy books for the schooL— Lost so Ikr as 
Manchester is concerned. 

SUTTON'S, 1067.- iffSOO originaUy.— Interest— H. Fsrington, J. Fielding, T. 
Markland, Esqrs., and three other Trustees.— Twenty-four necestttooa 
hoQsekeepen.- Porty-eight gowns generally given. 

MTNSHULL'S, 1080.— Houses In Hanging-bridge.- The rental.— Stx Itus. 
tees.— Poor, soimd, healthful boys, bom and living in Manchester.— To 
bind them apprentice, giving a fee of 50s., and lOs. to buy them dothes. 

OLDFISLIVS, 1090.— 4^70.- The interest— T1rustees.—jff50 to poor of SaUbrd, 
and j^io to Manchester.— In sums varying from Ss. 0d. to 5s. 

CARTWRIGirrS, 1708.— jtf420.— Six Trustees, for whom Bfr. Markland acts.— 
^1 is paid annually for a sermon, and the residue is applied in loans of 
iTSO to young men, members of the Church of England, to aid in establishing 
them in business, (they giving two sureties for repayment in seven years,) 
and in binding children apprentices. 

RICHARD'S, 1711.— jtf 100 per annum, now charged on the Poors' Rats.— 
Managed by Mr. lings, under direction of the Warden and Lord Dude.— 
In relief of poor widowst in educating poor boys and girls, ftc— Children 
are now educated at the National School, to which a contribution is made 
from the Charity, and sometimes they are apprenticed. 

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* 400 

SHUTTLE WORTH'S, iflgs.—jtf 50.— Interest expended In the ( 
and with the foregoing. 

BAGULEY'S, 1725.— j€*200.— Only 4^2 per annom now obtained.— No Trnstees 
now : Churchwardens receive Uie j^3.— Endowing a Charity School, for 
educating poor cliildren In Manchester. 

HINDERS 1723.— Lands. Scc.—£]99 1 88. 4d. per ann.— Six Trnstees: E. Lioyd, 
Esq., Treasurer.— To clothe and educate poor children of Manchester and 
Salford.— From sixty to seventy children are educated at St. Mary's Charity 
School in Manchester, and at a School in Btretford. 

CORLES'S, 1732.— j^55.— Interest.— Two Chaplains d Collegiate Church.— 
Distributed on Cbristmas Eve to twenty or more poor widows attmding 
service at the Collegiate Church. 

SEDGWICK'S, 1733.— Lands worth j^OO.— y^ 3s. Qd. per ann.— J. Sedgwick* 
Esq., Hoole Hall, Cheshire.— Distributed among necessltons poor in Man- 

SCHOLES'S, 1740.- Lands worth jtf«l, jtflSO and ^52.— Three TYnstees.— 
^l to Chaplain of Collegiate Church, for a sermon on John tiie Baptist's 
Day; ^2 los. for loaves to be dLttributed every Sunday after service, at 
Chapel-en-le- Frith; and the interest of j^iso to l>e given to poor widows in 

BUTTERWORTH and BAYLEY'S, 1735.— rf'500; now ^,066 13s. 4d. fai Sper 
cents., and a considerable balance in hand.— Three Trustees: B. Heywood* 
James Darbyshire and Joseph PIlkington.-'To bind appruitlce children at 
poOT Protestant Dissenters (Ministers or Laymen), " not exdoding other 
Protestants/* and in rewards to set tiiem np in business. — Up to I82S the 
full annual Income had not been applied. 

DAVID MOSLEY'S.— 4^400, to purchase lands, ftc.— .a^20 10s. per ann.— Sb- 
veral Trusteed and others, being Dissenters.— Presbyterians or other 
ProtestantDLssenters.— Distributed in small sums of firom 7s. to 20s. 

SHBLMERDINE'S, 1801.— 120 guineas.- j^ Os. Sd. per ann.— Tmsbeea of 
Mosley-street Independent Chapel.— Distribnted by the Deacons to the poor 
of the congregation on Sacrament days. 

NICHOLSON'S, 1742.— ji* 120.— je6 per ann.— Three Trnstees: Mr. Jackson, 
acting.— Ten poor widows. 

BENT'S, 1773— if 300. and two j6'60.— Lost.— Warden and Fellows of OoU 
leglate Church— First sum to snpport a school ; and two 4^50 to be applied 
hf the Boronghreeve, to relief of poor housekeepers in Manchesto' azul 

FISHER'S, 1779.— Houses, &c.— Mr. J. Qongh.— a^is lis. 6d. given at Cbrfat- 
mas, to forty poor widows of the Established Church (ss. eadi), and for 
providing loaves to be given at Collegiate Church on Good Friday, Ascex^ 
sion and Christmas Day, to thirty poor; and 50s. in sums of 5s. to poor of 
Salford.- ^6o was also left to be lent out for terms of seven years, bat all 
record of it is lost. 

CLAYTON'S, 1784.— d^400.— Chorchwardens and Overseers.— Given, on St. 
Thomas's Day, to poor housekeepers, in blankets.* 

* The following are the names and other particulars of the Charities now 
administered by the Churchwardens and Overseers— through Mr. lings: — 
CLATToif's. itru I4S. Given in blankets on St. Thomas's Day. 
PsacivAL's. jtf28.— Dickinson's. 4^5.— Campion's. jCS lOs. 8d.— Pab- 

TiNOT02f*8. j^5.— Alkxandrr*s. j^30.— In the whole id7l lOs. 8d.— 

Last three or four years given in bread, flannel and bbinkets, on St. 

Thomas's Day. 
Moss's.— ^5 6d. per ann.^Blue coats, on Christmas Day, to five old men. 
Rich ARDS's. — ^loo per ann.— Warden and Lord Ducie.— Ten widows, ^ each 

per annum; the remainder in i^)prentice8hip fees and in the education of 

poor boys at the National School. 
CoLLVBURST CHAaiTT.— ^6*10, paid by the Lord of the Manor, in aid of the 


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BREARCLIFFE'S, 1792.-^^,000, minus legacy duty. — Prodaoea upwards 
of ^100 per ann.— Chaplains of Collegiate Chnrch and Proctors of St. 
Ann's and Trinity Church} on the death of three Trustees, of whom Miss 
Byrom is one.— Fifteen old housekeepers of Manchester or Salford receive 
annually from jtf 7 to ^es. In quarterly payments.— Miss Byrom selects the 

ST. PAUL'S CHARITY SCHOOL. 1777-—A Charity School In Great Turner- 
street, and other property.— jf34 58. per ann.— Curate and Chapelwardens 
of St Paul's.— To educate twelve poor children: in 1 81 6, given up, and 
diUdren (increased to twenty-six) sent to National SchooL— l^is plan is 
now abandoned. 

There are four other Charities in Manchester, to the Tahie of ^^390, which 
sre set down in the CoimnisaiQners' report as "lost." 


HUMPHREY BOOTH'S, Iflso.— Lands, &c.— About jffl.OOO per annum.— 
H. BOOTH'S, (Junior) 1672.— Lands, &c.— From jftoo to ^dOO per ann.— 
Managed by six Trustees. The Constables and Churchwarden of Salford 
to distribute the Charities. Mr. C. Cooke is agent for the Trustees. These 
parties are required to produce their accounts in the Collegiate Chnrch on 
each Easter Tuesday.- The former for the relief of the poor of Salford; the 
latter for the repairs of Salford Chapel and the relief of the poor. The pro- 
ceeds of these Charities, which were not to beneflt persons receiving pairlsh 
reUef, teod greatfy to diminish the poor's rate, those who must otherwise 
fall upon it being relieved out of the fund thus accruing. The distribution 
takes place on the Thursday afternoon. The former Charity advanced about 
^9,000 at the close of the last century for the erection of the Workhouse in 

BROSTBR'S.— ^150 (by accumulation of Interest).— j^ lOs. per ann. Six 
Trustees— One half in coal, for poor widows and housekeepers in Salford : 
the other in clothing poor children and furnishing them Church Catechisms, 
distributed by the Minister, Constable, Churchwarden and Overseers of 
Salford.— The principal sum was lent for buUding the Workhouse to 
Booth's Trustees, who now pay interest on it 

HA WORTH'S, l63fl.— ^16.— lOs. per ann.— To Humphrey Booth and others.— 
Half to the Minister of Salford Chapel and half to the poor.— Expended by 
the Churchwarden and Constable. 

OVTHBERTSON'S. Ifl83.—tfi00.— Dispensed by the Churchwarden and Con- 
stables.— For ** the best benefit and advantage of the poor of Salford," with 
Booth's Charity.— Payments were suspended for several years, but are 
now resumed. 

BUERDSELL'S, l(J90.— Houses, &c.— Trustees to pay over proceeds to Borough- 
reeve and Constables.— For the beneflt of the poor of Salford, to whom 
proceeds were to be distributed on every Sd. of February.— The same person 
left ^50. and a moiety of the residue of his personal estate, to the same 
purposes; but aU trace of those bequests is lost. 

WCKANSOK'S. lfl97.-House, Orchard, Ac-Produces £i2 158. S^d. per ann.- 
Six Feoffees: Mr. C Cooke, manager.— Eight coats for eight poor men of 
Salford regularly attending Church, to be given on Christmas Day. with such 
badge on them as the Feoffees think fit.— Various articles of clothing are 
given shortly before Christmas to such poor, above 60, as are recommended 
bf respectable inhabitanU. 

.. o i?L2*^5S!^J^' V^f ^* y«^ *^ persons were receiving relief fhnn the 
" Salford Charities," in weekly sums not exceeding 4s. fid. The poor's rate is 
thus very materiaUy reUeved. From the published yearly report it appears 
that Salford Chapel Charity producel last year ^745 l0s.5d.,StandleySrn 
Chanty, ^1878 ifis. 5id.} Dickenson's Charity, jffsi 5s. lid. Of the first of 
these the the Trustees are Messrs. Thomas Peel, William Gamett, Richard 

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AlexftDder and Marf.}— Rent chano of ^fs lOt. and Intemt on 
fft per anih— Chapalwafdena of Salwrd.— With theie anma and ift 
had by J. Haward, forty-eiKht loaTM are dlstrlbated eyery Suidajs 

CALDWELL'S, I744.*4ffi00.— Ititee tx t atttm - Oob half the iataraak to the 
Clerk of Itloity Cborcb} (he other half expended in shirts and ehifla to 
persons, abore 60, not reoelTing parish r^icf.— Mr. T. Boardman, as one of 
the lYostees appointed in 1895, selected the obileots, who continue to reoatw 
the benefits of the Charity trom year to year. 

D4VIE8»8 (Alexander i 

beQoeathe . , _ 

ODM>haIfto tweoty-foor poor children, and the other to twelTeaged pc»^ 
sons, the deficiency in price belnf made-op ont of tlie Sacrament mooey. 


OLDFISLirs, VMaoobeatcr Charitica, in which SaUiard paitidpatea. 


DABfS BOOTH'S, jtf SO per ann. 
PICKFORirs, 1790.— jtfM per ann. 
HILTOITS, 1740.— jtf ISO. 
HBYWOOD'S 1740.-4^15 per ann. 
WALK ER'S, (James) 1740.— ifflM.— ^19 loa. per snn. 
NEWTON'S.— j^ per ami. 
WALKER'S, (J) 1775— J«JOO. 

HOBSON'S.— Hooaes, Lands, &c. 
E ARL O F WARRINGTON'S, 1758.— Land, te. 
ATTT'S, 1893.— jtfpO. 

SCHOOL and PCK)R'S MONEY.— jff69. 
BRAD6HAWS, 1800.— ^43 38. fi^ per aan. 


WARBUBTON'S.— rf60, 
WOOD'S, 1770.-^30. 

GREGORY'S.— itflO.—j^ per ann. 
HAYWARD'S, 1681.— iff 10. 
COUPE'S, 1705.-4^30. 
SHERLOCK'S.— ^90. 
NEWTON'S, 1800.— jfflOO. 

LICHFORD'S, 1710.— Annuity of jffS. 

CHBTHAM'S, 1095.— House, land, &c.— Prododnf about itfflo per ann. 
THOMAS and JOHN TRAVIS'8*-Two jtf90. 

Gould, Nathaniel Shebnerdine, wnUam Hatton, William Beerer ; of the a 
Rev. John Clowes, Messrs. John Bradshaw and Thomas DarweU; of the third, 
Messrs. Jerry Lees, W. Jenkinson and John Adamtfawaite. The amn dis> 
tributed last vear in money and bbmkets firom the proceeds of tlie two flxat- 
named Charities was (Indudioff yarioas expenses) npwards of i^SOO. 

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BBNT*8.— (See Ifanebeater.) 

USHBEWOOO^ 1749.-4^100. 


SIR B. MOSLET*S.— DAME BLAND'S.— (See Didtborf.) 

SCHOOL COTTAGBS.— Itiree eottaffes.— Mr. J. Bowker and J. Taylor.— 
Erected for a Charity School about 1785, bat the ioteotioii was oot forieyeral 
year* fnUllled. Now the property ia used ai cottacee, reotiof at jtfSS, ci 
wbleh 4ffl3 is paid to St. Maxk*s school, Cheetham, for the edocatioo of a 
eertalo Dumber of childreni and the rest is expended in dotfainc for the 

SCHOOL.— F^ the benefit of the four townshipa conitttotlnc the Cbapelry.— 

Maintained by Tolontary contribotlooa. 
MOSLEVS SIR B., Bart, 1085.— Land.— Aboat ^B97 per annom. 
MOSUrrs sir B., Knight, 1095.- Two soma of 4ff4 per annum. 
CHORLTON*S, 17S8.— jtfft per annum. 

BOARDMAN'S, 1708.— i^so £2 Is. 0d. per annum. 

BLAND'S and LINNBT*S.-^iftOO. 

BAMPSON*S, 1750.— ifflMw 

PARKER'S.— itfMO. 


TAYLOR'S, 10M.-TWO jtfSO. 

BOLUNO PRIESTS', 1785.— ifflOO.- jtfO per ann. 
TITBB BARN HOUSE.— Cottages, Am;.- About 4^1 per ann. 

Moaley% Cborlton's. Boardman's and Bland's Charities (for which see 
Didsbury) are also participated by this township. 


SCHOOL FUND.— jtfi50.— The proceeds of the sale of an old house, erected 
to 17S4, by Thomas Fletcher, Mary Dickinson and John Siddall : a dispute 
kmic existed in the township as to whether a new school should be built 
with this sum and other subseriptiona on land given by James Wildt, Esq., 
or whether a school, built in 1835, should be purchased instead. 

PARNALL'S, 1709.— 'fl'SOO.— O. Hadlield and other Tm8teea.—To the endow. 

ment of Newton School, wltere fifteen boys and gitU are taught reading, 

gratU, bat pay for writing and accounts. 
TODD'S, l83i — jtf200.— To Newton Sunday-school, so long as it had 900 

scholara, but when it feU short of that number the interest to go to 

Manchester Infirmary. 
CHETHAM'S, 1069. — ^^90. — Trosteea.— FOr instructinfr poor chUdren of 

MoKtou and Newton till they should be able to read the English Bible.- 

The interest is paid to the master of Newton School for this purpose. 
QUILLAM'S, 1039.-4090.-1^1 4s. per ann.— For the poor of Newton.— This 

seems to be lost. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOL.— Land, and 40a. rental.— Producing 90s. Od. per ann 
GRAMMAR SCHOOL.— Rental of iffSS. 
WALKER'S, 17ftS. 
HEN8HAW8, 1807.-<See A«htOD.imder.Lyne.} 

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HIKDE*8.~(8ee lUnchester.) 

POOR'S FIELD.— Lands.— jffao. ft«. per. ann. 
TETLOW'S, 1704.— lAnds.— Upfwards of itfSO per ann. 
HA WARD'S, 1704.— Rent Charges of je25 per ann. 
BYRE'S.— jflOO. 

SCHOLES'S, 1747.— Rentals of ^12 and i^4. 

HOLLINWOOD SCHOOL, 1796.— School and House for the Maitv, built by 

WYUyS, 167S — ^» P« «"». 

POOR'S FIELD.-.^1 17ft. 3d. per ann. 

SIR T. G. EGERTON'S, 1756.— j?200. 
BENTS.— (See Manchester.) 
POOR'S MONEY.— 4^98 128. 
SIR H. EQERTON'S. 1730.— j^20. 
EARL OF WILTON'S, 1814.— Two sums 0* jtfSOO. 

WOLSTENHOLME'S and ROGER'S.— Two «ffl0. 
SIR H. EGERTON'S— EARL OP WILTON'S.— (See Prestwich.) 

POOR'S MONEY.— itf 112 88. yd.- ^5 per ann. 
HARDMAN'S, 1762.— jff40. 
STAND SCHOOL, 1666.— House. «cc.— (Henry Siddall's Charity.) 

RINGLEY SCHOOL, 1640.— School House, Lands, &c.—(Wallwortt'i Cbaitty.) 

— £50 per ann. 
BAGULEY'S, 1725.-^180. 


FREE GRAMMAR SCHOOL.— Lands in Harwood, Houses In MandMfter. 

Bolton, Tockholes, &c. ^ . ^ 

GOSNELL'S CHARITY. l622.-Housc & Land«, PJr«iac*o« ^56 ts. Od. pcr ano. 
LOMAX'S CHARI nr.— 4^7 per ann. 
HULTON'S CHARITY, 16«1.— Houses, &c., In Whltworth. produolne ^277 

per ann. 
GUEST'S CHARITY.— itf57 2s. 8d., for purchase of Lands. 

STONES'S, 1764.— ^3 per ann. 
GREENHALGH'S, 1780.— J^4 108. per ann. 
WRIGHT'S (and others).— Producing about jtfl 6b. per ann.— I/»t. 

UtUe Bolton also participates the benefits of Gosnell'ft. Brookw' and AspflO- 
dell's Charities (already named), and of Eaglcy Bridge School, Tnrton. 

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BROOKES', 1744.— jtf 130., now prodacinf aboat j^u per ann. 
PARK£R*S.~itf5 per ann. 
PARK£R'S.<-jff3 per aou. 
CROMPTON»S. 1784.-^150. 
ASTLEVS, 1734.— *C1(J0. 
COCKER'S, 1744.— itfiao. 

ASPINDELL*S, 1800 itflOO. 

MORT'S (Adam aod Thomas).— jffs per ano. (aboat) 
HIGH STYLE SCHOOL.— (See Dean Township.) 

This Township (with Anderton, Rivington and Heath Chamock) participates 
the benefits of *' John and George Shaw's Charity." The share of Anglezark 
and Anderton appears to be aboat j^SO per ann., which is expended (by tl« 
Itastees resident in the neighboarhood) among poor hoosekeepers. in small 

TURNER'S (and others.) 

PARKER'S.— ^5 per ann. 
LOMAX'S.-(See Bolton.) 

SCHOOL.— jtf33 iss. per ann. 
SCHOOL.— i^O. 

GOODWIN'S and BROOKS'S.— ^150: lost. 

BROWNLOWS and GOSNELL'S.— (See Tonge-with-Haolgh and Bolton.) 



BROADHURSrS, 1661.— j^SO. 
8HAWS.— Lands, and j^IOO. 
CHARNLEY'S.-08. 8d. per ann. 



HIGH STYLE SCHOOL.— (See also charities of "Brookes" and " Greenalgb." 

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CHITHAirS (AUffSil) CBARITT, IM^— ^» P« ua. 
CHBTHAirS (Hompbreyh 1748.— Lndi, debt •»■. te. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOU— LmmIs, &&, In B^oOaad tad riwhwi, 

4^111 per ann. 
GUESTS CHARITT, lOM.— Lunta, te. 


BANKS'S (RCT.) CHARITT, 174S.— ifM. 
LOMAX*S (Ber.) CHARITT, 1094.^1^10. 

WARING^ (and otbera) CHARITT*— J01BO, or 4ff4 4*. per ann. 

SUEPHERirS CHARITT, l6M.-4f9 per aim. 
TATB8*S CHARITT, 1810.-.je40f. 
HOWARD'S CHARITT, 1806.-^107 7i.P«r aim. 

HA WORTH'S, 17(I7*— ^8 10s. per ana. 
NOTTALL'S, 1703.— ^fflO. 
BAMFORO'S, l778.^iflrsop«raiui. 

HAWORTH'S, 1700.-^481. 

BRIDGE'S.— jflOO. 
BUCKLET'S.— jtflO. 


DONOR, UNKNOWN.— ^4 par aan. 
MORTS.— jffftftO. 


PILKINGTON'S, 1780.-4^0. 
MORRIS'S.— i^fs. 
GREENHALGH'B, 1807«-Cottas«s. 

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DOKOR UKKHOWK.— jtf 1 per ann. 


CROSS'S, 1814.— 40MO. 
BAOULET'S — £2 ot. idd. per aim. 

CROMFTON^ and other CharitieB. 


RTCROFTS and FRANCE'S.— itf75. 

GUEST'S.— jffliO. 
STOCK'S. IQOS.— J^39 18. 
HOPWOOIVS (Catharine) and ottera.— 4M00. 

M0e8% 1779"" ^0. 
BUCKLETS, 18a7--^50 


LANCASHIRE'S and otber Charftiea.— 4^60. 
HOFWOOIVS, (Dr.) 17«8.— ^1 P«r ann. 

GUBST'S.— ^ per ann. 
LOWE'S and LAWSON'S — ^90. 
YATES'.— jffft 

OARTSIDB'S. 1719. 
GRAMTHAM'S. 1717.- 

HOLrs. 1717.— ^«o. 


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HILL'S. 1737.-^80 iss. 0^ per man,' 
BUTTERWORTS, 1714.— jff6 perann. 

WOLFENDEN'S, lfi88— ^100. 

BREARLEY'S, Iflgs.— itfSO. 
SHEPHERD'S, ITOfl.— jffllO. 

•uEsrs, 1731. 

CLEGQ'S.— Jffl6. 
BUCKLEY'S CHARITY, 1737.— 40«. 

The Charities in Lancashire are 1181 in number, being 
more than in any other county except Devon, Norfork, 
Somerset and York. Their total annual income is rated 
at dE35.734 lis. lOd., of which £18,716 28. 8d. is 
devoted to education. The total Charities in England, 
investigated up to 1835, are 26751, and in Wales 890, 
and there still remained in that year many counties wholly 
unexamined. The commission, however, has lately been 
renewed, and will doubtless now complete its work. The 
expense of the investigation, up to the middle of 1835, 
was £208,527 13s. 

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THE ROYAL MANXHESTER INSTITUTION claims in its design to rank. 
if not at the head, certainly second in the hst of the literary and sdcntiflc asso- 
ciations of Manchester.* It had its public origin in a general meeting of the 
inhabitants, held in the Exchange Room on Wednesday the 1st. October, 1823, 
Dr. Davenport Hulme in the chair, " to take into consideration the suggestion 
of an Establishment in Manchester for the encooragement of the Fine Arts.'* 
The first resolution of that meeting defined the objects for which the Society was 
formed to be— the establishment of a collection of the best models that can be 
obtained, in painting and sculpture, the opening a channel through which the 
works of meritorious artists may be brought before the public, and the encou- 
ragement of literary and scientiflc pursuits by facilitating the delivery of 
popular courses of public lectures. Such briefly was the basis of "the Man- 
chester Institution for the Promotion of Literature, Science, and the Arts." 
Other resolutions of the same meeting fixed the qualification of members and 
the mode of government. The management of the Institution was vested in a 
President and twelve Vice-Presidents, and the current direction was confided 
to a Council of twenty-four, to be annually chosen at the general meeting of 
Govomor»— the President to be capable of serving only twelve months, three 
Vice-Presidents to be changed every year, and those six members of the 
Council who have been least pimctual in their attendance during the past to 
be ineligible for the ensuing year. 

Tlie Governors, however, were authorized to make any change in the regu- 
lations which might be found necessary, provided it had the sanction of three- 
fourths of the Governors present at each of two meetings duly convened within 
an interval of one month. At the time of its formation the Institution set sail 
with modest pretensions, the intention being to purchase premises in King- 
■treet, (then occupied by Mr. Howe) to model them to the purposes of the 
Society, and, if possible, to strengthen it In its infancy by a junction with th« 
Natural History Society, as to which the meeting expressed "their hope that 
arrangements in every respect satisfactory to its members may be made for the 
accommodatioa of its valuable collections in the apartments of the house pur- 
chased for the Institution, [L e. m King-itreet] and that the two Societies may 
ever be distinguished by a cordial and zealous co-operation for the furtherance 
of their common object.'* Other resolutions were passed by this meetin?, one 
of which conveyed its " warmest thanks" to Mr. G. W. Wood "for the un- 
wearied exertions and great ability which be had displayed in promoting the 
formation of the Institution.*' The crowning point of the proceedings was tlie 
dection of a Committee to carry the design into operation, five members bcin^ 

* Some notice of the Literary and Philosophical Society will be found in 
connexion with the memoir of its President, Dr. Dalton. 

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qoalifled to act Tlie gentlemen were— Sir Oswald Mosley* Bart., P. Dabio. 
field Astiey, Esq., J. D. Holme, M. D., Edward Holme, M. D., WilUam Henir. 
M. D., E. J. liojrd, Esq., Mr. Thomas Hardman, Mr. Edward Loyd, Mr. Robt. 
Hindley, Bfr. William Gamett, Mr. G. F. Bury, Mr. David Holt, Mr. G. W. 
Wood, Mr. H. H. Birley, Mr. Robert Christie, Mr. John Kirkman, Mr. WiUiam 
Brifham, Mr. J. A. Ransome, Mr. W. Townend, Mr. Jon. Dawson, Mr. Itkos. 
Ainswortti, Mr. Francis PhilUps, Mr. James Beardoe, Mr. Joseph Birler, Mr. 
James Hibbert, Mr. William Cririe, Mr. John Toochet, Mr. Robert H. Greg.— 
Unfortunately, the success oi the projected Institution was so 8:reat as to 
overturn the sober views of some leading^ members of the Council. No sooner 
were the hundred pounds of contributions converted into thousands, and the 
sin^e Uiousands swollen into tens, than some members of the Committee 
(for it appears that on this question there was a ** difference of oplnicm*^ 
abandoned the original plan, warmly advocating the erection of a new and 
expensive structure, ** combining elegance with utility," *' which would reflect 
honor on the public spirit and good taste of the fiDunders, and be considered 
more accordant with the wealth and consequence of the town of Manchester.** 
A strong appeal for authority to erect a new building was successfully made 
to the general body oi Governors, who, with an available fund oi only 
jfll.soo, authorized the Committee actively to prepare for the erection of a 
building as to which they reported that "any sum leas than jfi 5,000 would be 
totally insufficient.** That point conceded, another step was attempted, and 
the Council brought forward for adoption, as the best of four architectural 
plans, the model of an erection (by Mr. Barry, of London) which wotdd cost 
from jff 1 8,000 to jf 20,000 . To warrant this expenditure the Committee acknow- 
ledged that there must be a f uxther accession to the funds of firom 4^8,000 to 
iff 10,000, the subscription amounting to only JiffSl,600, whereas jff3t,000 would 
be required if the Governors adhered to their excellent intention of devoting 
one-fourth their capital as a permanent fund to the u$e/ul purposes of the 
Institution. In I83S this sum of 4^32,000 was subsoibedi 4^S8,177 were 
actually paid into the bank. Tlie King*s special patronage of the Institution 
had also been obtained through the mediation of Mr. Secretary PeeL Still, 
however, a portion of the Committee dung cautiously to the maxim /edtea 
leiUe, and vrbilst one section of their body were zealous to break ground at once, 
oUiers thought that "it was desirable to know in detail what would be the abso- 
lute cost of the whole structure, before the pU^is were begun to be acted upon.** 
The latter section were defeated, and tenders for parts of the work were 
forthwith publicly required. Land had been pnrdiased in Mosley-strect at a 
net outlay of 4^,935 ; other small sums had been expended, and then then 
remained in hand, deducting 4^7,044 as a permanent fund, the sum of j^i 3,083 
available for a building which was to cost i(f30,000. In addition to this amount 
there were promised (but not paid) subscriptions to the extent of ^4,ooo, of 
which iff3,000, when received, would be ^pUcaUe to the building, making a 
conjectural total of 4^10,083 for that object StiU therefcve, under ttie most 
favorable circumstances, there was a deficiency of ^4,000, and the season was 
one the least probable to produce a change for the better, the town having 
recently been visited by and being scarcely recovered from titat terrible com- 
merdal panic which carried desolation on Its wings. The Committee, however, 
buoyant and sanguine, dung to their expensive designs— prodaimed the ''great 
pain and regret** with which they should abandon them— urged as an argument 

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in their favor the patronage they had obtained "In the highest quarter"— and 
anticipated tliat as there vna nothing in the " splendid model** of a j^0,ooo 
bnilding ''inconsistent with the rank which Manch^ter holds among the cities 
of the world,'* so was there " nothing in the plan beyond what the resources of 
tiie town could easily accomplish.*' The expensive scheme was sanctioned by 
the Governors, and its first-fruit was the imposition, within six months, of an 
annual charge of one guinea upon the Hereditary Governors resident within a 
prescribed distance of the tOMm, (or the payment in lieu of twenty pounds) in 
addition to their forty guinea subscription. The outlay of twenty-one thou- 
sand pounds upon the building was by this to be completely covered. " A perma- 
nent income (they said) will thus be obtained equal to the income derivable 
from the permanent fund, which may then be advanced on mortgage of the 
building, and made available towards the cost of erection.** This step was 
taken, and the works proceeded. In December, 1830, the Conmiittee an- 
nounced the state of their funds :— 4^2,365 lis. l^d. had been expended on the 
building alone; the total incomings had been jff 31,687 5s. 74d., of which 
there remained a balance in hand of j^6,884 3s. 8d.— At the dose of 1831 the 
outlay in land and buildings* amounted to ^26,070 128. 24d., and there was an 
ominous reduction in the " balance in hand.** On the 8th. January. 1834, a 
circular to each Governor conveyed, in the foUowbig statement of account, a 
tolerably decisive notification that the whole jff32,000 had been absorbed. 

Present Annual Income from Hereditary and Annual Governors. . . j^480 18 
Permanent Annual Expenses estimated on the average of the last 
three years:— 

Chief Rents itfllS 10 

Poor, Church and Highway Rates, and Land Tax 73 17 9 

Insurance on ^5,000 13 15 

Repairs 50 

Cleaning, Coals and Candles so 

Assistant Secretary's Salary 104 

Porter's Wages 62 

Printing, Stationery, &c 15 8 

451 10 9 

Balance, applicable for Casual Expenses, Lectures, &c 29 7 3 

Hie Institution has now, therefore, no assured means of carrying out the 
legitimate desi^^ of its founders. The permanent annual charges very neariy 
swallow its annual income, and its only other sources of revenue consist in those 
vacant parts of the edifice whence perhaps a fluctuating rental may be obtained, 
and the proceeds of the exhibitions, which vary from four to six hundred 
pounds per annum. This money, however, was designed originally to be ex- 
pended in enriching the interior of the edifice with works of art. The permm- 
nent fond has almost disappeared, and no eflldent substitute for it seems 
likely to arise. The balance sheet at the dose of the year 1835-6 stated the 

* Since that time the following additional amounts have been expended on 

1832 itf853 16 10 I 1834 I^l669 1 

1833 1538 9 6 I 1835 858 14 6 

Makinf a total outlay for the land and edifice of about thirty-one tbooiand 

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exb,tin? means of the Institution u follows:— 

Balance of the Exhibition Fund jff80I 5 5 

Ditto ditto General Fund 1088 18 2 

Ditto ditto Permanent Fund 168 3 9 

Ditto ditto lucomeAccount 187 5 2 

2345 12 6 

Instead of three, as originally* the InstitotioQ now comprises four dasaes of 
raenibers.— 1. The Hereditary Governors, consisting of those who paid forty 
cuineas before a certain date, and of those who subsequently have consented 
to pay an annual subscription of one guinea. The shares of the latter have 
been made transferable, and another additional privilege, in requital for the 
annual pa>'ment, is that of being allowed to take to the lectures and exhibitions 
such visitors in their families as do not reside within twelve miles of the town. 
B^>th classes have the right of admission for their own families, which embrace, 
be>: 't>s the wife or husband, daughters and other female rdativm, sons and 
hr-^tlaT^ unmarried and under twenty .four years of age, so long as they are 
perMnucntly resident.— 2. Life Governors, contributors of 4^35 prior to tlie 
irtli. May, 1827, &nd of iff 42 subsequently.— 3. Annual Governors, subscribecs 
oi .£ J 3s. per annum in advance. These two classes are placed on an equality, 
each havinpT free admission to the exhibitions for himself and family, and 
admi sion for hiuMclf and two of his funily to the lectures.— 4. A class of not 
exceeding flity persons, to whom, on payment of jff2 2s. per annum in 
advance, the Council have power to grant personal admission to the lectores 
and exhibitions. With the exception of the last class, who are admisalhlft by 
the Council, the election of Governors is by ballot at the annual meeting, a 
majority of three-fourths being requisite for the admission of candidates, who 
must be recommended by three members of Council, or six Hereditary or Life 

The interior of the Institution Is already adorned with a considerable number 
of worlcs of art, but for the reasons already specified it is as yet by no means 
rich in such acquisitions, none of its means having been applied in that diann^ 

NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY.-The Manchester Museum, in Pettf. 
street, has long been celebrated for the extent and beauty of its collection of birds. 
At the old building, in King.street, want of space precluded the possibility of 
their being displayed in an adequate manner; but since Ute Society has taken 
possession of ito new Hall, in Peter-street, a systematic dassiflcatton has been 
commenced, which in time, it is hoped, will be extended to every part of the 
collection.* The present Museum consists of three stories, the central portioa 
of which is occupied by an entrance-hall that rises to the summit of the build- 
ing and is lighted from above by a large dome-light. On a level with the first 
and second floors, galleries run round the central hall, the lower of whidi is 
devoted to quadrupeds, and the upper to birds. On each side of the hall, whicii 
may be conceived to represent the body of the building, spacious wings are 
erected, each of which on the groimd floor is occupied by one large apartment, 
and in the upper stories by two smaller ones. "Hie ground floor of the left wing is 
set apart for Geology and Bfineralogy. The MLneraloglcal department was one 

* It is said to be in contemplation materially to alter some of the existing 
arrangements o( the Museum. 

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of the first In the Moseom to asstime a character of importance. A valuable 
collection of minerals was purchased that happened to be on sale soon after the 
formation of the Society— and this collection has since been enriched by the 
addition of a series of volcanic minerals from the district of Aaver^e, which 
was presented to the Moseom by Mr. Stanley, of Alderley— and by that of a 
second of the same nature from the Lipary islands, which was presented by Mr. 
E. P. Thompson, of Manchester. In the Geological collection the most inter- 
esting fossils are those lately obtained from the Ardwick limestone. These 
organic remains identify the Ardwick limestone with similar fonnations in 
Yorkshire and Shropshire— a drcomstance which renders it highly probable 
that the coalfields, which are now surmonnted by this identical deposit, consti- 
tnted originally bat portions of one great carboniferoos formation, extending 
continuooaly from the heart of the West Riding to the centre of Shropshire. 
The groond fioor of the right wing is occupied by the foreign Fish, foreign 
Crustacea, and foreign Shells. The fish and crostacea can, in their present 
state, only be regarded as an indication of more extensive collections that are to 
be formed hereafter. The same remark does not apply, however, to the collec- 
tion of shells, whii^ is both large in numerical amount and rich in valuable 
spedmens. The collection of Quadrupeds, which, as we before observed, is 
placed in the lower gallery, is good as far as it goes, but inconsiderable if we 
compare it with the whole race of mammiferous animals. On the first floor of 
the left whig, we find, in the ante-room, a beautiful collection of South American 
Fruits, which cannot fail to present to the horticulturist of our Northern climate 
many points of intense interest In the a^JolniDg room, which is called the 
Mummy room, are to be seen an Egyptian Mummy, in excellent preservation— 
the Skeleton of an Elephant— trophies of the Burmese War— Grecian relics— 
and a number of curiosities imported from the South Seas. The corresponding 
portion of the right wing is occupied for the present by the foreign Insects. The 
upper gallery is allotted to the foreign Birds, in the arrangement of which 
Cnvier's classification has been exclusively followed. A great number of spe- 
dmens, however, will be found in the cc41ection, which are not named by 
Caviar— all such specimens are either left unnamed, or have the names affixed 
which have been assigned to tiiem by other ornithologists. The number and 
beauty of the birds of the hawk tribe that are here brought together cannot but 
be noticed by every visitor— but what consUtutes the greatest charm of Urn part 
of the collection is the exquisite tact displayed in the stufling and mounting of 
the birds— an excellence for which the Museum is wholly indebted to the Sub- 
curator, Mr. Timothy Uarrop. The upper story of the left wing is appropriated 
to the purposes of business, being taken up by the Coundl-room and the prirata 
room of the Curator. The corresponding apartments of the right wing ar« 
devoted to the British portion of the collection, which consists of the British 
Birds, the British Insects, and the British Shells. These are the only branches of 
the Zoology of Great Britain that have hitherto received an especial considera- 
tion in the Museum. The number of the British birds has of late been very 
materially aa{?mented by the collection of the late James Newton, Esq., which 
was presented to the Museum after his death. This collection has recently 
been incorporated with the British birds previously in the possession of the 
Sodetyj and they altogether now form a group which for the beauty of the 
individual spedmens is unequalled in Great Britain. What gives greater 
interest to this part of the collection is the fact, that many of the rarer t)irdji 

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were taken in tbe immediate neighboarhood of Mmdiestcr. Of this number 
are the Irish Ea^e, which was killed in Cheshire— both the ^den Oricdea— the 
Roseate Thmsh, which was shot by Mr. Huiton*s keeper— and the Egyptian 
goose wtiich was shot bj Lord de Tablet's keeper. The British bhrds are anang. 
ed after Jenyns, whose little work on the *' British Vertibrate Animals'* exhibits 
the most hi^y-flnished specimen of descriptive Zoology that has hitherto 
appeared before the public. The collection of British insects was (mginaHj 
the property of Mr. Leigh Phillips, and was porchaaed by the Natural History 
Society from the late Mr. Robinson, of Woodlands. It has recently been re- 
arranged by Mr. Williamson. The classification adopted is that proposed by 
Stephens in his " Nomenclature of British Insects,** which differs, in some 
d^ree, from that employed by the same author in bis larger work, the " Sys- 
tematic Catalogue.** The British shells have recently been separated from the 
general collection by Mr. Williamson, and transferred to the Britiah roooi. 
They are arranged after Fleming. 

was founded in 1834. It is a neat, unpretending structure, upon whidi 
about jf^ooo, raised In shares, were expended. In its origin it had many 
difficulties to encounter, but it appears now to have glided into smooth waters, 
and to be fulfilling the warmest expectationi of its friends. A main public 
object of the Institution has been the delivery of courses of lectures, for wbidi 
purpose there is an excellent and spacious theatre. There is also an osefol and 
valuable library of 8595 volumes, which is greatly resorted to, the number of 
books delivered out in the last year being 43,946. All works are now admitted 
by vote of the Directors, but great part of tbe existing library consists of dona> 
tions. Attached to the library is a reading-room, at which all the leading Eng. 
lish and Foreign periodicals are Uken. The Institution is principally active 
in privately educating its operative members, wbo, by attending *' evening 
classes,** may be instructed in English grammar, writing, arithmetic Latin, 
French and German, algebra, georaetrjr, mechanical drawing, figure, landscape 
and flower drawing, gymnasia and vocal music. In 1834, a boys* Day School, 
on the plan of the Sessional School in Edinburgh, was established: 210 boys art 
educated in it, and its success being complete, a girPs school on the same 
principle has since been^formed— it contains above one hundred pupils. The 
boys are instructed in reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic, algebra, geome- 
try, geography, history, &c. The girls are instructed in reading, writing, 
arithmetic, geography, history, plain sewing and knitting. The hours of 
attendance are from nine to twelve in the morning, and from two to five in 
the afternoon; the terms, four shillings per quarter for tbe sons and daughtoa, 
or sisters and brothers of members of the Institution; and five shillings per 
quarter for all other scholars. There Is a well-selected library attached to the 
day schools. The evening classes are attended by about one half the ordinary 
members, whose assiduity receives an impulse from the distribution of prizes 
annually among the most proficient. Some of these classes are attended by 
upwards of one hundred members, many of whom, no doubt, derive ioforma- 
tion from their studies which they can render practically useful* and the 
consequence has been that mechanics and others educated at the lusti- 
tutloo are pecnUarly sought after by machinists and master tradesmen of 
the town. Frequent applications (says a recent Report of the Directors) are 

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made bj oar machino-makers, ballden aod merchantf » for yooiif mea who 
are good accoootants, good draughtsmen, or who have distinguished them- 
selves by diligent application to study, aod it is only by reference to the class 
list and the teachers* reports that satisfactory answers can be given.** Added 
to these varied pursuits, there has been established a *' Mutual Improvement 
Societ)','* at which papers on any subject connected with literature, science, 
or the arts, are read and discussed. At the date of the last report the number 
of members of the Institution was 1365, of whom 53 were life members by 
virtue of a ten guinea donation. It has been remarked, however, that though 
the payment is only 2M. a year, or about 4|d. a week,* the annual subscribers 
are not composed of those classes for whom such Institutions were originally 
designed. One of the fathers of Mechanic Societies, Lord Brougham, took 
occasion, on visiting the members in July, 1835, to observe upon this fact, and 
as it is one of some interest, it may be desirable to give the analysis furnished 
in the last annual report:— 

At the doae of the year the number of subacribers was 1520, namely,— 
Members whose subscriptions expire on the 

25th. December 1098 

25th. March 100 

24tb. Jane 60 

20th. September 44 

Annual members of 21s 171 

Lifemembers 63 

Of this Dumber there were— 

131 Under 14 years of age. 

626 Between 14 and 21 years of ago. 

769 Above 21 years of age. 

Total.. 1526 
The following is a general classification of their respective employments :— 
305 Principals, engaged as merchants, manufacturers and machixiists. 
117 Mechanics, millwrights and engineers. 

54 Overlookers, spinners, and other mill hands. 

02 Building trades. 

78 Sundry trades, chiefiy handicraft 
l6t Warehousemen. 
240 Clerks. 

53 Artists, architects, engravers, 6cc. 

13 Professional men. 

15 Schoolmasters. 
Ill Shopkeepers and their asOstants. 

18 No profession. 

21 Ladies. 
242 Youths. 

The Institution is goremed by a Board of Directors who have latterly been 
elected from the general body. Until 1834 half of the Directors were chosen 

* The pupils of the class for figure, landscape and flower drawing, pay an 
admission fee of flve shillings. A fee of two shillings in paid on entering the 
Mutual Improreroent Society, aod no one can be admitted unless he be 
eighteen years of age, and have been a member of the Institution at least 
three months. The pupils of the French, German, Latin and vocal music 
classes pay an additional subscription of five shillings per quarter in each 

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from the honorary memben, bat since that time the only qoaliflcation for office 
has been, that a Director most be twenty-one years of ace or upwards, and of two 
yeara* standing as a member of the Institution— and an elector eighteen yean of 
age or upwards, and of six montlis' standing. It is considered tliat the Institatioa 
has progressed more satisfsctorily since its entire management was conceded 
to the general body. In 1835 the ineome amounted to .^173 l4s. yd. By 
a Judicious mode of procedure many eminent lecturers have latterly beeo 
engaged without any serious inroad upon the funds, which now appear amply 
sufficient to meet all the purposes of the Institution. 

Another, or <<New*' Mechanics* Institution was established in 1829, and for 
some time it was in contemplation to erect a large Hall, but although the plan 
was advocated by Mr. Home, M.P., who presided at a public dinner for its 
furtherance, it was not sufficiently supported, and is now abandoned. The 
subscription to the existing rooms is aos., and there are about 1 30 members, 
who have the use of a small library, and pursue their studies in the same way 
as at the older Institution. There is besides a Sunday evening school for 
young women, who are taught reading and writing; about forty females avail 
tbemselves of this facility. 

THB ATHENiEUM, an Instttutton for Uterary, political and scientific 
OSes, was established in October, 1835, by a number of gentlemen who felt a 
desire to bring together in such a Club the class of superior mercantile servants 
and young men. The subscription is 30s. per annum, which admits to the 
news-room, the library, lectures, &e. Money has been subscribed in f^hsres 
for the erection of a new building behind the Royal Institution, in whose 
rooms the Club is at present accommodated. It has a considerable number of 

THE EXCHANGE ROOM.— Of the existing Exchange, the commercial 
centre of the town, little need be said, a plan being now in agitation by which, 
if it be accomplished, a new and greatly enlarged edifice will be erected in 
place of it. The subscribers to the room are about l7;o in number, of whcm 
1300, being resident in the town, pay an annual subscription of two guineas, 
whilst the remainder, residing in the country, and availing themselves of the 
accommodati<Hi of the room twice or three times a week only, pay j«1 5 per 
annum. The Exchange was erected originally with a capital of ^3t^D0Q, 
derived flrom ^80 shares. The new jnrqlect contemplates the formation of 
another proprietary, having a capital of jtfl50,000 in ^loo shores. The present 
building, being purchased, will be taken down and replaced by a larger one. 

THE PORTICO, in Mosley-street, which combines the advantages of a 
news-room and library, was erected by a proprietary of four hundred share- 
holders. The present value of a share is jtf 13, and the annual income cf the 
Institution, which amounts to <:^1000, is derived from a subscription of jtt lOs. 
fh)m each shareholder. The library contains ten thousand volumes. 

THE MANCHESTER UNION CLUB occupy a new and very splendid 
edifice recently erected near the Royal Institution. The Club was established 
in April of 18S5, and among the most important of the rules then agreed upon 
(which cannot be altered or added to without the sanction of a majority am- 

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listing of two-thirds of an extraoTdinarj greneml meeting, composed of at 
least thirty members) it was stipalated that all candidates should be elected bf 
a ballot, to consist of at least twenty members, one black ball in five exclodine; 
the entrance money was fixed at twenty-five guineas, and the annual sub- 
scription at five, besides one gruinea towards forming a collection of books and 
maps; the Clab is managed by a Committee of twenty one, seven going out 
each year, the Trustees, (five in number) the Treasurer and the Secretary 
being ex-officio members { the Committee, of their own will, or on the requi- 
sition of forty of the members, may at any time call an extraordinary general 
meeting, its discussions to be confined to the one object for which it was con. 
voked; no subject but one relating to the management or concerns of the Club 
can ever be discussed. The Committee, in case the conduct of any member 
shall appear to Justify expulsion, most call an extraordinary general meeting, 
and in the event of its being voted at that meeting, by a majority of the per- 
sons present, (consisting of fifty at least) that the member ought to be ex- 
pelled, his subscription shall be returned, and he immediately cease to belong 
to the Club. Games of hazard are strictly forbidden in the Club; dice are 
not allowed except for backgammon, and no higher stake than crown points 
is to t>e played for, on pain of immediate expulsion. Members have the privi. 
lege of introducing one friend provided he do not reside within a prescribed 
distance (twenty miles) of Manchester i the charge for provisions (but not for 
wines) for such a person being double that for a member, who is bound to pay 
for his friend. The number of members was limited to three-hundred, but ba4 
been doubled, and the subscription has been successively increased to thirty 
aod forty guineas. 

THE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE consists of aboot one hundred and 
sixty members, chiefly of the mercantile classes. Its object is to protect 
generally the interests of trade, for which purpose a Board of twenty-four 
Directors is annually appointed, whose province It is to make such representa- 
tions to Qovernment or the Legislature, or otherwise to act, as emergencies 
may seem to require. One half the Directors, or one-fourth of the members, 
may at any time require the convocation of a general meeting. The Borough- 
reeve of Manche&tcr pro. tern, is ae^fficio a member of the Directory. 

siye of the kind in tlie town. It was established in the year 1765, by a number 
of shareholders, whose original contribution was ten guineas each. The shares, 
which arc transferable, are now selling at a reduced price. The annual sub- 
scriptiOQ, in addition to the share, is twenty shillings, to be paid in advance. 
Sabeoribcrs, or the members of their families, are entitled to liave out two 
volumes of an old, and one of a new work, with a Magazine, at the same 
time. At the close of the year 1835 there were nearly 18,000 volumes in the 
library, the demand for which is so great, that on the average about one hun- 
dred ftnd ten are taken out daily. The annual income is jtf390, of which there 
is expended about itf200 in new works. In the librarian's salary ^100. and 
the balance in current expenses. The mode of introducing works is by having 
a book in wbi^ subscribers can at any time note down any publication that 
they may deem an acquisition to tlie library, appending the name of some 
magazine or otb«r publication from which its character may be ascertained. 
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TbU book is then laid before the Committee at their meeting on fbe first 
Monday of the month, and thej accept or reject the proposed works as in their 
JndgrmcDt they may deem best. The members of the Committe are precluded 
lh>m proposing any work at the table before the meeting, though of course 
they possess the ordinary right o( subscribers. The Committee consists of 
twenty members and a President; they oflldate for a year, at the end of which 
time each member nominates a successor: should the parties thus chosen be 
unacceptable, any subscriber has the right to attend their first meeting mod 
require a f^esh election, by ballot, he and every other subscriber present having 
the power to vote. Members of the Committee absent at three successive 
meetings, and unable to give a '* satisfactory account** of their absence, arc 
''liable** to forfeit their seats; the three members who have attended the 
monthly committee meetings least frequently during the year are ineligibte 
for the next twelve months. The chief disadvantage of these arrangements 
consists in the delay which often of necessity occurs in the introduction of new 
works regarding which there may exist a strong interest on the part of the 
reading community. Should a work happen to be proposed early in one month, 
the subscribers are compelled to wait patiently the arrival of the next Com- 
mittee meeting, when, if it pass the ordeal, and the claim to its admission be 
i^yproved, further delay occurs in procuring it. On an average about two* 
thirds of the works proposed are admitted. The library is, upon the whole, 
well selected, although of course a considerable {voporlon of its shelves is 
occupied with works of fiction— many of them the mere teshionable novelties 
of the day. There are, however, many valueble standard worics. For their 
excellent room in the Exchange, the subscribers pay only a rental of jffso 
per annum. 

THE ASSEMBLY ROOMS in Mosley-street have also connected with 
them, in the same building, a readlng-room for gentlemen for the most 
part not engaged in commerce. 

THE CONCERT HALL (in Mosley-stieet) is less consplcnous for its ex- 
ternal architecture, than for its internal construction and beauty. The flmd 
annually applicable to concerts amounts to j£'3,000, and Is derived from six 
hundred subscribers of five guineas, each of whom has two tickets to evwy 
concert, one for himself and another for a female member of his family, for 
any male under age, or for any person not resident within a prescribed dis- 

THE THEATRES.— Manchester has two theatres-the " Royal,*' in Foun- 
tain-street, a very spacious building, which, however, has recently been shorn 
ot some of Its out-offices, in order to diminish the rental, and thus give the 
establishment a better chance of standing against the apathy for theatricals 
now prevalent among the better orders; and the " Queen's," in York-street, 
a building of small extent, which, formerly, was the only one of the kind in the 

nately extending the sphere and amount of its operations. The aathorixed 
table of its transactions exhibits the fact very pleasingly :— 

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The number of depositors Id Savings Banks Is greater in this than in anf 
cither county of England, save Middlesex and Yorkshire, which might be 
expected to bear away the pahn. After Lancashire, Devon stands highest on 
the list. According to a statement pubUshed at the close of the year i S25 in the 
Tables of Revenue, the account for Lancashire stood thus:— The number of 
Savings Banks was 34. and the number of depositors was dassifled as follows :— 




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16912: 101756 

4100' 1415 7&6 







itfl71026 ^13$448 jtf'5831.1 



There are in existence a greater variety of Benefit, Frimdly. and Mntuai 
Assurance Societies than can be enumerated in a brief space. The most 
valuable of them is the " LANCASHIRE COMMERCIAL CLERKS* SOCIETY." 
virhich since its foundation, in I809i has dispensed no less a sum than 
if3a,862 7 I to the widows and orphans of deceased members, or to those of 
its body who, from disease or decay, have been unable to pursue their ordinary 
means of subsistence. In addition to the annual income from sabscriptioua, 
the Society has an auxiliary fund of ^\8,0Q0. 

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MEDICAL SCHOOI^.— Amongst the other pablic Institutions of Man- 
chester, it is satisfactory to be enabled iodnde Schools of Medicine and Sur- 
gery; and since it cannot £aU to be interesting to the Pablic to be made ac. 
quainted with the origin and progress of these most useful establishments, we 
Shan briefly notice their early formation, and point out some of the benefits 
which they are calculated to confer, not merely upon the rising members of the 
medical profession, but on the community at large. 

A very few years ago, it would have been necessary to bring forward 
a series of arguments tending to prove the possibility of obtaining, beyond the 
immediate prednts of the metropolis, the professional knowledge requisite for 
the education of students. Happily the necessity for such a demonstration 
no longer exists ; for public evidence has been given before a Committee of 
the House of Commons, by the Court of Examiners of the Sodety of Apothe- 
caries, at London, of the eflldent system of education adopted hi provincial 
Schools. To Manchester belongs the honour of having established the first 
provincial School of Medicine and Surgery, and the example thus set has been 
followed by Birmingham, SheAdd, Bristol, HuU, Nottingham, and other towns. 
The locality of Manchester must also be considered as particularly favourable 
for the success of such Institutions. It has been shown to possess an Infirmary, 
which affords students most excellent op p ortunities of witnessing disease under 
its diversified forms ; of contrasting the results of different methods of practice -, 
and of becoming intimatdy familiar with the fhture duties of their profession. 
In proof of this statement, it may be mentioned that, during the year 1835, the 
total number of patients admitted on the books of this charity was 1084(S7, 
including 4058 acddents; that 135 ca^tal operations were performed in it ; and 
that it ii capable of accommodating within its walls soo patients. The Fever 
Wards containing 100 beds, the Lying-in Hoqiital, Lunatic Asylum, Chorlton- 
upon.Medlock Lying-in Charity, Bye Institution, Lock Hospital, and the six 
Dispensaries, also offer the most abundant supplies both of medical and surgical 
information. One great obstade, however, to the prosperity of the Medical 
Sshools in Manchester, is the unjust restriction placed upon the pupil's attend- 
ance on the surgical practice at; the Royal Infirmary, by the Council of the 
CoUege of Surgeons in London ; for this large Institution does not eajoy equal 
privileges respecting certificates of attendance on the surgical practice, with 
some of the hospitals in London, containing scarcdy fifty beds. To two appii- 
catlont made by the Surgical Oflicers of the Infirmary to the Council of the 
CoUege of Surgeons in 1830 and S4, to have the Royal Infirmary placed on the 
■ame footing with the hospitals in London, Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and 
Aberdeen, the following was the answer returned by the Court of Examiners 
of the College :—" We cannot comply with your request, because suffident 
time has not dapted to enable us to form an equitable Judgment as to the 

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ttdiieatkxi of pupili oomins from proriodal SdiooU."— Tlie ii^astice of tihis 
decision b shown by the foUowing unsolicited testimony given by another 
KTMnining Body, before a Committee of the House of Commons—*' That no 
daas of pc^iils is bettor prepared than those who have been educated solely at 
Manchester." The spirited memorial of the Surgeons, Just noticed, firmly 
maintains that, owing to the general ditfhston of knowledge, and increased 
amiability at appreciating ns^ul establishments, the dignity and respectaUlity 
of ttut College cannot be preserved without a recognition of such institutions 
•s are acknowledged by public consent to be fully competent to the essential 
porpoiet of professional education. It has been well observed, that this is not 
the time to enforce such illiberal restrictions. Provincial hospitals are con- 
ducted at least as well as those of the metropolis ; and the pupils have, on tbe 
whole, equal, if not betto*, oppcnrtunities of instsruction, in consequence of (hdr 
numbers being smaller, and tiie bedside remarks of the medical officers bdng 
more distinctly heard, and the several operations more clearly seen. Aregulsr 
system of clinical instruction is also now adopted in most o( the large provin- 
cial Hospitals, which forms a most important part of the studenst* education. 

On carefhl inquiry we find, that lectures on Anatomy and Physiology were 
ddivered many years ago by several eminent practitioners. Amongst this 
number, may be mentioned tbe celebrated Charies White, Dr. White, Mr. Gibson, 
Br. Roget, Mr. Ransome, and Mr. Ainsworth. To Mr. Jordan, however, 
belongs the high distinction of having first formed a regular Anatomical SchooL 
In 1814, he commenced a course of lectures on Anatomy; and in I8I7, his 
certificates were recognised by the London Royal College of Surgeons. In 
18SS, Mr. Tomer ddivered his first coarse of lectures on Anatomy, in the rooms 
of the Literary and Philosophical Society. It was not until I88t that an attempt 
was made by Bfr. Turner to combine the exertions of individual teachers in one 
complete system of medical Instruction. In I82ft, a School of Medicine and 
Surgery, in Pine-street, was fully organised ; and in that year Mr. Turner 
delivered a course of lectures on Anatomy ; Dr. James L. Bardsley, a course on 
the Princ^des apd Practice of Physic and Materia Medica ; Mr. Ransome, on 
Surgery) Dr. Dalton, on Chemistry; the late Mr. Kinder Wood, on Midwifery; 
and Mr. Thcnnson, on Botany. Anatomical Demonstrations were also con- 
ducted by Mr. Turner until 1827, when Mr. Guest and Mr. Joseph Ransome 
supplied his place in that department.— Shortly after the formation of the Pine- 
street Scho(^ Mr. Jordan obtained the co-operation of several of his ptafea- 
sional fldends, and thiu was established another School of Medicine and Surgery, 
in Mount-street Whilst Mr. Jordan continued his lectures on Anatomy, the 
ftactice of Medicine and Materia Medica were allotted to Dr. Freckleton ; Che- 
mistry to Mr. Davies } Midwifery to Mr. Radford; Surgery to Mr. Fawdington 
and Mr. Boutflower ; and Anatomical Demonstrations to the late Mr. Blund- 
stone and Dr. Pritdiard Hulme. It was not long before Dr. Freckleton relin- 
quished his course on Materia Medica in fisvour of Dr. Shaiv ; and the late 
Mr. JeA and Mr. Stephens succeeded to the Anatomical Demonstrations. — 
These arrangements were adopted during two or three sessions, when 'several 
of the lecturers retired from the Institution, and a third School of Medteine and 
Surgery was fbnned in Bfarsden-street. Mr. Jordan, however, persevered 
with his Anatomical lectures in Mount-street until 1834, when, after being 
engaged for twenty years in the cause of medical education, he retired fhnn the 
arduous andhonouible duties of a public teacher. His nephew, Mr. Stephens, 

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was tppointed, at the same time, one of the Demonstrators of Anatomy at the 
Pine, street School. Thns, there are at present two Schools of Medicine in 
Manchester, i^ch, let us trust, will always be considered as rivals only in the 
zeal, energy, su^d talents of their lecturers, and in the excellence of their 
arrangements—for in each of them there exists a complete system of medical 
and surgical instmctiou, which cannot faH to produce the most salutary Inflo- 
ence on the character and qualifications of the rising members of the professiou. 
Owing to the new regulations enforced by the Apothecaries* Company at the 
commencement of almost each winter session, several changes in the dilflerent 
departments of the schools, and some additions to the number of lecture- 
ships, become indispensable. Much praise is, however, due to the masten 
and wardens of that Society, for their renewed endeavours to promote the 
interests both of the profession and of the public, by rendering the prescribed 
course of medical education better adapted to the present enlightened state 
of Society. In fdrther proof of the Increasing Importance <tf ivovindal medical 
institutions, it may be stated that, during the last year, his Majesty was most 
graciously pleased to bestow his patronage upon one of our medical schools, 
in consideration of its being the first school embracing instruction in the 
several branches of medical science that was formed in the provinces. It 
now erOoys the honour of being named "The Manchester Royal School 
of Medicine and Surgery," in Pine-street In order to shew the complete 
course of study laid down in each of the Medical Schools, it may be proper to 
name the several lectares, and the subijects which they teach, according to the 
published list of the last winter session. In the Pine-street Royal School of 
Medicine and Surgery, Mr. Turner lectures on Human and Comparative Ana- 
tomy, Physiology, and Pathology; the Anatomical Demonstrations are given 
by Mr. Stephens and Mr. Stott; Dr. James L. Bardaley lectures on the Prin- 
dples and Practice of Physic ; and the same gentlemen and Dr. Philips on the 
Materia Medica; Mr. Ransomeon the Principles, Practice, and Opmitions<tf 
Surgery ; Mr. Radford and Mr. Partington on the Principles and Practice of 
Midwifery, and the Diseases of Women and Children ; and Bfr. Bryden gives 
that part of the course which embraces the subject of Embryology ; Mr. Davies 
and Mr. Joseph Ransome lecture on Chemistry ; Mr. Oilier on Medical Juris- 
prudence ; Mr. Hunt on the Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology of the Eye j 
Mr. Just on Botany ; and Mr. Stephens on Pathology. In tha Marsdenp street 
School, Mr. Fawdington lectures on Anatomy, Physicdogy, and Pathology; Dr. 
Pendlebury on the Principles and Practice of Physic and Matbia Medica; Mr. 
Bontflower on the Principles. Practice, and Operations of Surgery; Mr. 
Robcrton and Mr. Windsor on Midwifery, and the Diseases of Women and 
Children ; Mr. Leigh on Chemistry ; Mr. Boutflower and Mr. Roberson on 
Medical Jurisprudence ; Dr. Hardy on Botany ; Mr. Walker on the Anatomy, 
Physiology, and Pathology of the Eye. Mr. Fawdington, also, gives lectures 
in the summer on Pathology. The Anatomical Demonstrations are conducted 
by Mr. Clough and Mr. Mellor.— For the more perfect illustration of these 
dUTerent courses of lectures, these establishments have made the most ample 
provisions. They possess mnseimis both of natural and morbid stru c tur e, 
which are open to the pupils, and employed by the lecturers as a means of 
instruction. Connected with the Schools are Libraries and Medico-Chirurgfcal 
Societies for the students.— Such are the origin, progress, and present eflldent 
condition of Medical Schools in Manchester. It cannot fail to strike even the 

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nttyr }i\.-^-ional reader, that the leading object of these In'^.titations is t^ clcrate 
the scale of Information amongst the general body of medical practitk>De3% 
by sTJiipl>inff opportunities of improvement daring the eajller years of appreo- 
tjee«:hi;) ; and thus laying a solid fonnda^on for future attainments. It most, 
sorely, be admitted by every mnprcjudiced obserrcr, that this end has, in 
wmc measure, been accomplished, for it is a matter of daily remark, that young 
men now enter on the practice of their profession in a mach more efScient 
state erf preparation than could possibly attend ttie former limited system of 
medical education. Within the period of a few years, the performance erf most 
capital operations devolved upon the lidding London Surgeons, or a few emi- 
nent Hospital Surgeons in the provinces ; whereas, in the present day, there 
are few legally qualified practitioners who do not nndertake these operations 
with rea'^.iness, and execute them with dexterity and skill. The contrast be- 
tween the present and former situation of a provincial pupil, in entering on his 
studies in London or some other metropolis, must strikeevery one who reflects 
at all upon the subject. Ills mind may be compared to a soil that has been 
duly cultivated for the reception of seed, which, having advanced to the 
growth of yoimg shoots, require only time and further tndning for their foil 
develoi)ement. According to the former appointed plan of two winters* Resi- 
dence in London, the greater part of the pupil's time was consumed in obtaiix- 
Ing that elementary knowledge of anatomy and the oUier branches of medical 
science with which he is now fomiliar before he leaves the provinces; and thus 
he is prepared at once to take advantage of the more enlarged field of oteer- 
vation presented to his view, and to collect and arrange new materials for 
ftirther study and reflection. It is obvious, then, that provincial schools, so 
far from being calculated to supersede or interfere with the courses of Instruc- 
tion pursued in the metropolis, on the contrary directly tend to inoeaae their 
usefulness. The general interest of the profession, too, has been promoted by 
the spirit of emulation, and the stimtdns to increased exertion, excited amongst 
the metropolitan lecturers, by the generous rivalry of provincial teachers. It 
is well known that the lectures delivered at the present tune in some of tfoe 
leading Schools of Medicme hold a very different character, both with respoct 
to the amount and value of the information they contain, to what they formeily 
possessed. One advantage connected with provincial Schools especially de- 
serves notice, as it regards the happiness of parents equally with the wel&re of 
their oflfiqning. Wealludetotheusefulemploymentofmanyofthoseleisurehotirs 
^K^ch inexperienced youth are too apt to consume in idleness or dissipation. 
Thus whilst the mind is improved, the morals are protected. There is another 
benefit embraced by these establishments, which concerns society at large. It is 
the facility with which every educated person, not of the profession, may acquire 
such a degree of knowledge of the fundamental principles of anatomy and 
physiology as will enable him to detect the impositions of quackery, and to do 
justice to the intelligent, skilful and honourable practitioner. In ncme erf the 
more civilised parts of Europe is quackery more prevalent than in the kingdoms 
(rf Great Britain and Ireland. It is not confined to the more ignonmt and im- 
poverished classes, but extends equally to the highest in rank and fortune. 
We have thus directed the attention of our readers to some of the advantages 
(and it would not be difficult to lengthen the list) .that have already resulted, 
both to the profession and the public, from the establishment of provincial 
Schools, and we feel persuaded that the public will consider that great praise i* 

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justly dae to the early promoters of these Institutions, for the grenerons concern 
wtiicb they have displayed for the wel&re of the yonnger members of their pro- 
fession, and for the advancement of medical science. 


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THE HUMANE SOCIETY treated in 1835-6 93 cases : their expenditure 
WM only about ^^40. 

labonrs has been, ttiat in 1885-6 Oie number of patients treated is less by 
upwards oT a thousand than in 1834-5. There can be little doubt that the other 
charitable institutions of the town will gradually be induced to adopt a system 
of which the beneficial effects have been so striking. It is due to the con- 
tributors to our charities that attempts at fraud should be vigilantly watched 
and diecked, and it is desirable also to the successful conduct of the Institu- 
tions themselves. Taking, as an instance, the Infirmary, it is evident that 
every possible precautkm is necessary to prevent an overwhelming prrasnre 
upon the funds. In 1885-6 the expenditure was upwards of ^£'7,083, whilst the 
income was cmlv ^6,938} of this amount, i6^.5,ll5 )4s. was derived from 
annual snbscriptloas, the renmining 4^1,355 lOs. id. being "income from 
funded property.** If the principal of this permanent fund be once absorbed. 
It will be very difBcolt to restore it. 

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was founded earlf in the yev 1833, after the model of similar institutions in 
Liverpool, Brighton, London, &c. Its design, as expressed in the fonda- 
mental resolatlons, is to encourage in the poor a judicions management of 
their own resources, to suppress mendicancy, and to impart occasional relief 
to die indigent who may be afBicted with sickness or onavoidable misfortune. 
Iliese ottjects are effected by a digested and extenslTe system of organization. 
The town has been dirided into twenty-four districts, those districts being 
subdivided to an extent proportioned to the necessities of each : gentlemen or 
lady visitors are obtained for the sections, whose office It is, periodically, to 
call among the poor inhabitants for the purpose of encouraging them to make 
small deposits of money with the Society for the provision of winter stores, 
clothing, fuel, rent, to meet the exigencies of sickness, or for other objects. 
The money thus entrusted to the Society is placed in the Savings* Bank, and a 
premium is allowed on repayment, according to a scale fixed in 1834, but since 
somewhat modified. The original rate of premium was as follows :— 

Onsumsof 6s., and under lOs 3d. 

>» M 10»., .. tf »5s fid. 

„ „ 15S., „ „ SOS 9d. 

„ „ SOS., „ „ 30s IS. od. 

„ „ 30s., „ „ 40s is. fid. 

„ „ 40S., „ ,. 6te SS. Od. 

&c. &c. ftc. 

No premium allowed on any less amount than Ss., or on any hutermedlato 
sum between 6s., lOs., 15s., SOs., sos., 40s., 60s., &c. &c.— Subsequently, how- 
ever, the Committee discovered that a premium could not be given on deposits 
made in large, as well as small sums, without interfering perniciously with 
the design of Savings* Banks, and encouraging frauds upon the Provident 
Society. The premium tias therefore been confined to sums deposited at or 
beneath the rate of two shiiiiogs per week, and the visitors are now requested 
to encourage and assist the depositors in opening accounts with the Savings* 
Bank, whenever their deposiu have accumulated to a sum exceeding two 
pounds, for which they have no present need, or whenever they are able to 
save larger sums. 

To facUiUte the working of the system, district maps on a large scale were 
drawn, and from them sections were marked on cards for the assistance of the 
visitors. Each district is placed under the direction of its own Committee, 
which regulates all its concerns, except the granting of relief to the distressed, 
a general Committee, specially organized, being alone competent to that duty. 
The next object of the Society, the suppression of mendicity, is affected by 
the members undertaking, and soliciting their friends, to abstain from giving 
occasional alms in the streets, or at their residences, to beggars, whom they 
furnish instead with a ticltet of reference to the Society's agent, who first 
inquires into the necessities of the mendicant, and relief is then given or 
withheld, as the Committee may determine. Another more recent object of 
the Society has been the establishment of a Benefit Club, which, whilst It 
aflbrds to the poor man the usual advantage, might save him from the aetoal 
losses too frequently suffered from the dishonesty or the ignorance of nn* 
principled or thoughtless scheorers. In addition to the gratuitous senricet 
rendered by ladies and gentlemen, the Society some time ago found it 
necessary to appoint two paid agents, who act as regular visitors for two 

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districts, inqolre Into all the cases of mendicancy, &c. Tbe Society alio 
nudertook, lu 1835. to 8aperTif>e tbe canes of applicants for the benefit of the 
Lyio^-in Charitr, and tbe beneficial froit of their inqolries was that in six 
months, of 184 patient, the Charity was relieved of 47» which would otherwise 
have been Inflicted upon it by iKirtles whose resources were such aa to place 
them quite above the need of aid. 

The working of the Society is to a considerable depree in the hands of tbe 
Clergy. In their first annual report tbe Committee adverted to the difficulty 
they had experienced in obtaining an onion of parties, and in maintaining a 
** neutral ground. '* They stated that "a proper deference to the established 
authorities was shewn by electing the municipal authorities of the town and 
the parochial Clergy to honorary offices;*' adding that tbe districts were 
marked out with a view to the convenience of the Clergy (of all denomina- 
tions)— and that as Chairman and Secretaries of District Committees, the 
Clergy and Dissenting Ministers were usually preferred. Professing to be 
" deeply impressed with the paramount importance of religion, in elevating 
the character and ameliorating the condition of the poor,** the framers of the 
same report observe, that as otherwise it would have been impossible to obtain 
an onion of parties, if the promotion of religious principles and observances 
had been made a prominent part of the Society*5 plan, they were ccmstraioed 
to adopt a more secular design, not doubting *' that in correcting the vicee, 
encouraging the virtues, multiplying the comforts, increasing the indepen- 
dence, and civilizing the manners of tbe poor, they are doing essential service 
to the cause of our holy religion, the purity of whose doctrines, and tbe 
authority of whose precepts, will ever be more certainly recognised as man 
advances in the social scale.*' The Very Rev. the Warden is President of the 
Society; the Fellows of the Colleglftte Church are of its Vice-Presidents; the 
Rev. O. Uugard, M.A., la one of the Honorary Secretaries; and the Com- 
mittee embraces tbe names of twenty-six Clergymen of the English and 
Scotch Churches, the Wesleyan Connexion and Dissenting Societies. 

THE SCHOOL FOR THE PEAF AND DUMB was founded in the year 
1825. It is supported by subscriptions and donations from annual, life, and 
hereditary Governors. Children from nine to fourteen years of age, of sound 
intellect, are eliftible to its gratuitous benefits.* When, as is invariably the case, 
the eligible applicants for admission exceed the number of vacitnoles, a ballot 
of the aabscribers is taken, votes by proxy being allowed. The children of 
persons capable of paying for their board and education are also adoUtted to 
tbe Institution, and the sons of several highly- respectable persons (one or two 
of some note) have availed themselves of the facility. Until March, 1834, the 
School was under the superintendence of Mr. William Vaughan. (formerly a 
pupil of Dr. Vaughan.) of very eminent capabilitiea for his office, and one 
whose loss, therefore, tbe friends of the Institution felt deeply. It is believed 
that the untiring assiduity with which he pursued his professional* avocations 
hastened his death. The sincere regard in which bedied induced the supporters 
of tbe School to erect a mural tablet to his memory. He had brought the In- 
stitution to so hiKh a state of perfection as to be a model for tbe estabHsbment 
of other»i ; and an American, Dr. Mliner, visiting it, paid Its Conductor a high 

* Children who have not had the cow and small pox are inadmiwible. 

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coniplimeDt» when, selectine it from a hacdred aoil twenty-seven similftr 
Seminaries in the world, he declared that in none had he discovered so ready 
a communication between the master and bis scholars as he had observed in 
that at Manchester. Ho is succeeded by Mr. Bingham, of the Exeter School. 

The School is at present situated in Stanley-street, near the New Bailey, 
bot this confined and unhealthy locality is about to be abandoned so soon as 
the new boildingri for which land has been purchased near the Botanic Gardens, 
on the Stretford Road, (a part of which will be apportioned to the projected 
Asylum for the Blind,) shall be completed. For this purpoee a fund of 
j^l 0,000 was required, and the facility with which it was obtained redounds 
highly to the credit of this great community. 46*4017 6s. 5d. were raised 
by snbscnption } and in 1836, a " Bazaar, or Fancy Fair,** was held, which 
realised a liberal sum. The joint building of the Blind Asylum and the 
Deaf and Dumb Charity (of which the first stone was laid on the 23d. March, 
1836, by William Grant, Esq., the ever zealous promoter of charitable objects,) 
is of the English academic style of architecture, and was designed by 
Mr. Lane. The number of pupils in the School In 1835 was forty.seveni 
the expenditure, £lU2 iss. 9^6. An auxiliary fund, of upwards of 4^50, 
has, for a few years, been derived from the town of Bolton, which sends 
pupils. Children from distant places— Macclesfield, Haslingden, Burnley, 
High Leigh, seven from Lincolnshire, Warwickshiie, and Shropahire, 
are at present inmates of tho Institution. Three are ** pay boarders )** the 
parent of one contributes ^S a-year, and another is supported by his 
parish. The united amount of these payments is about ^£'150. In 1833, no 
less ttian fifty applicants for admission were necessarily rejected i and in a 
recent report, nrging the extension of the Institution, it was stated that the 
town of Manchester alone contains more than three times as many deaf mutes 
aa the present limited state of the building can accommodate. Sincerely, then, 
is it to be hoped that the operations of the Charity will be speedily enlarged. 

Of the Building, of which one half is to be occupied as a School for the Deaf 
and Dumb, the opposite portion is intended to be used as a Bliko Asvlum. 
Mr. Henshaw, an inhabitant of Oldham, dying some years ago, bequeathed a 
a sum of 4^90,000, to be devoted to the maintenance of an Asylum for the 
Blind in Manchester, so soon as the Inhabitants were sufficiently liberal to 
provide and furnish a building. The money remained at interest until it 
amounted to about ^40,000 of 3 per cent. Stock, producing an annual income 
of thirteen or fourteen hundred pounds a year, when the inhabitants of Man- 
chester had their attention properly aroused, and a subscription for the building 
was originated, wliich amounted to at>out 4^9.000. The erection will cost 
about j^6,000. A small Church, for the joint benefit of he Deaf and Dumb 
School and the Blind Asylum, will occupy the centre of the pile of building : 
its ooet will be j^,000, which amount will be derived from subscriptions, and 
the sale of pews and vaults. The Asylum, to which workshops, &c., are attach- 
ed, will accommodate about one hundred and fifty inmates. Mr. Henshaw's 
funds are In the hands of Trustees, among whom are, the Very Reverend the 
Warden, H. H. Blrlcy, T. Drinkwater, J. Norris, E. Loyd, — Atkinson, — 
Barker, (Oldhan,) J. Taylor, (Oldham,) Esqrs. The building, &c., are in the 
hands of eleven Trustees, comprising th6 Rev. B. Parkinson, (Fellow of the 
Collegiate Church) } R. W. Barton, John Bradshaw, R. Braldlcy, £. Buckley, 
T. Darwell, 8. Fletcher, R. Gamett, J. C. Harter, B. Hey wood, F. R. Hodgson, 

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T. Townend. and 8. Walker, Esqrt.— The reg:nlatioiw for the management of 
ttie Aiylam, which bare been MiDctiooed by the Court of Chancery, provide 
that the Instltation shall aflbrd tocb instra^on to the iodigent blind, of both 
•exet, capaple of employment, ae wUl enable them to provide, either wholly or 
In part, for their own snbalstence, and afford an atylnm to the impotent and 
aged blind. The food in the Coort of Chancery, arisinr from Mr. Henttaaw'a 
beqnett, is to remain in the names of the Trustees for the time beinir* under 
Mr. Heoshaw's will ) bat the income arising therefrom Is to be paid over by 
them at received, to the treasurer of the Charity { and the additional Income, 
required to support the expenditure, will be raised by annual subscripUona, 
donations, or otherwise, as may be deemed expedient. The land, boildinsi, 
and furniture, required for the esUbllshment, are vested in the thirteen Trasteea 
already named, who vrlll henceforth be elected by ballot, by the annual sob- 
•cribers of one guinea or upwards, and donors in any one year of ten goineM 
or upwards t the annual subecrlbers of two guineas or upwards, and Dooota 
in any one year of ten guineas or upwards, are alone eligible as Trustees. A 
new election of Trustees, to be made in lllte manner, takes place whenever tha 
nnmber is reduced by death, resignation, or otherwise, to seven, (or oftener, 
if required,) at a general meeting of the Board of Management. The Trosteea 
for the time being, under Mr. Henshaw*s will, together with the Trusteea of 
the land, building, and furniture, and all Annual Subscribers of two gulneaa 
or upwards, and donors in any one year of twenty guineas or upwards, form a 
Board of Management, to whom the whole directio<i and control of the Instl- 
tatlon lb entrusted : they have power, from time to time, to make alterationa 
In, and additions to, the rules of the Institution, not inconsistent with the 
fundamental regulations of the Charity. The Board of Management meet at 
four stated times in the year, viz : in some day in the first week of the moatba 
of February, May, August, and November, and at other times, on special occa- 
sions. The General Board in February is considered the Ahnoal Board , at 
which a President, a Treasurer, two or more Deputy .Treasurers, and Two 
Auditors, are chosen out of the Board of Management, one of which Aoditoia 
may be appointed by the Trustees under Mr. Henshaw*8 will, and the other by 
the remaining Members of the Board of Management A Weekly Board, coo. 
•Isting of at least three members of the General Board of Management, meet 
once a week at the Asylum. Letters are to be transmitted every Monday to 
aeven subscribers. In the order In which they stand In the alphabetical list, 
requesting their attendanceat the following weekly board, to take upon than the 
offices of Inspectors and House Visitors for the ensuing week i their doty beiav 
to visit the Asylum and School, to Inspect the conduct of all persons employed 
in the EsUbllshment, and of all the Inmates; to Inquire into the circumstances 
of the persons applying for admission, when necessary, and Into any other 
incidental affairs, and to report the result, either personally or in writing, to 
the weekly board. Any subscriber, applying for admission of a blind person, 
may receive from the Secretary printed papers of questions and engagements^ 
to which answers, in writing, will be required, properly attested i and whea 
fUled up the paper Is to be returned to the Secretary, by whom it will be laid 
before the weekly board, for examination, their report being submitted for 
confirmation to the general board, by whose order alone the names are to be 
placed on the list of candidates. The election wiU then be by majority of 
votes, given by the Members of the Board of BCanagement, at some spedai 

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meeting to be called for that parpo»e ^ erery tabtcriber of two ctdneat or 
npwardi, aod anj donor in any one year of twenty ruined or upvrarda, bavknff 
one rote for every candidate, and every Trasten under Mr. Uenahaw*s wiU 
having one vote for every candidate. In bis capacity as Trostee, in addition to 
the vote he may be entitled to at a subacriber. Where any donation, or annoal 
sabscriptioo, is received from any public company, or mercantile or other 
firm, the privileges conferred thereby may be exercised by any member or 
partner of the company or firm. 

in 1806, until which period the town possessed no institotion for the gratuitous 
education, nor any one for the maintenance, of destitute females. In 1809, 
ten girls were admitted into the school, then situated in Broughton-lane. Iliis 
number was shortly after increased to fourteen. In 1810, the inhabitants, in 
commemoration of Uie fiftieth anniversary of the reign of his Mi^^sty George III., 
contributed funds for the erection of the present building, in Dude-road, on a 
plot of land presented by Lord Dude. In 1 811, the structure vras finished, viiien 
six more children were admitted. In 1812, four more were added, making in 
all twenty-four. In 1 8 1 5, the number was increased to thirty, and afterwards to 
thirty-two ; at which number it remained until March, 183S, when a splendid 
legacy of af 10,766 16s. lod. from the late Mrs. Frances HaU enabled the Com- 
mittee to add to the conveniences of the present structure, and to raise the number 
of girls to forty. Withapartof this money they built a sub- ward, and an addi- 
tional dormitory, by which the Charity will be enabled to accommodate fifty 
diildren, whenever its funds warrant such an increase. The institution 
is under the direction of a Committee of twenty ladies, and an assistant 
Committee of the like number of gentlemen; upon the former devolves 
the appointment of a Matron, the formation of the necessary regulations 
for the internal management of tiie house and the general inspection of 
the institution: the latter take npon themselves the flnandal department 
of the institution, and give their assistance whenever required by the Ladies' 
Committee. The benefits of the Charity are extended to all children who 
have lived three months in Manchester, Salford, or within a distance of three 
miles, and who are from ten to twdve years of age. Candidates for admission 
are previously examined by the medical ofllcers of the Charity, and it Is neces- 
sary that they should be reported free firom imperfections in their limbe and 
eyes— from sores— from scroMous and infectiotts disorders— not deformed, nor 
subject to fits, and having passed through the small or cow pox. If, after 
admission, it shall appear that any disqualification existed at the time, or that 
the children are subject to any of the above-named disorders, they may be dis- 
mlMed by the Committee fhim the School. It is necessary also that the mar- 
riage of thdr parents should be duly verified. When tiie number of candidatea 
exceeds the vacancies, the election is made by ballot. At a suitable age the 
children are put out as domestic servants, a preference being given to sat»- 
scribers to the Charity. The girls thus obtained are found so valuable that the 
appUcatious for them far exceed the supply afforded by the Charity. 

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Within the last twenty years agriculture, in the vicinity 
of Manchester, has made a rapid advance, particnlarly on 
the lands lying south-west and north-west of the town. In 
these districts the farmers form a respectable class of 
society; many of them are liberal in their views, and 
desirous of making any improvements that hold out a 
reasonable prospect of success. In general the peasantry 
are active and industrious. The size of farms varies, some 
containing upwards of 130 acres of the customary measure,^ 
others not more than ten acres. About Worsley,J 
AsTLEY and Tyldesley, there may be one fifth of the land 
in tillage; the soil is generally of a strong clayey loam, 
which is both difficult and expensive to drain : some fields 
on the higher part of Worsley farm have latterly been 
very much improved, and are well worth the inspection of 
any person who is an occupier of strong soils. The farms 
in this district are chiefly devoted to the keep of milch 
cows; the milk is churned, (many farmers having availed 
themselves of the steam-engine to perform this process) 
and the butter and milk are conveyed to Manchester, 
where such products find a ready market. 

From Worsley, through Winton to Barton, there is 
little land in tillage. The soil is excellent, and contains, 

* Of seven yardi to the rood. 

t Woraley is the property of the Trustees of the late Duke of Bridg-water, 

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in suitable quantities, almost all the requisites for a good 
crop. Some of the meadows will grow four or five tons of 
hay on the acre; wheat and oats, so far as they are the 
produce of this district, are generally of excellent quality. 
In Flixton, Urmston, Stretford, Sale, Chorlton, 
NoRTHEN, and adjacent townships, the soil is generally 
of a light loam, on substrata of silicious earth or gravel, 
and in some places it is of a peaty nature. The principal 
landed proprietors are Mr. Egerton, of Tatton Park, and 
Mr. Trafford, of Trafford. Urmston and Flixton have 
land inferior to none in the kingdom. This peculiar brown 
or hazel soil, as it is termed, is not so light and sandy as 
some before noticed; it contains a sufficiency of aluminous 
and calcareous earth, together with silica and vegetable 
mould in such proportions as to render it capable of pro- 
ducing most abundant crops. In the townships just alluded 
to there is more land in tillage than in the neighbourhood 
of Worsley. A greater breadth of it here is devoted to 
market gardening. The farmers sow the white Lisbon 
onions in autumn, send them to the Manchester market in 
spring, and will have the land cleared of the onion crop 
in sufficient time to plant potatos or other vegetables. 
Many of the farmers sow large quantities of onion seed in 
spring also: they are liberal with their seed, and conse- 
quently have many supernumeraries; these are plucked 
during the summer, sent to market, and by this manage- 
ment upwards of £ 150 is often raised from an acre of 
land.^ Early potatos, cabbages, peas and other vegetables, 
are cultivated to great extent, and almost every one 
farming, or rather gardening, in this way will manage to 
draw two or three crops from the same land ; eighteen or 
twenty tons of potatos are often produced on an acre in one 
year. Some of the large farmers cultivate twenty or thirty 

* It is Baid that in the township of Sale there is now mora land cultivated for 
onions than there was for potatos forty years ago. 

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acres for potatos on the drill system. Ploughmea here are 
uncommonly expert at drawing out the ridges, whole acres 
being executed with the exactness of a line, and being 
peculiarly agreeable to look upon. The potato soil is 
sown with wheat, (by which course the ancient practice of 
summer fallowing for a wheat crop is entirely superseded) 
and then with oats and clover seeds for a crop in the 
ensuing year. Perhaps no land in England is in a higher 
state of cultivation than that in tlie district here alluded 
to ; the quantity of manure requisite to keep up a necessary 
sttfnulus in the soil is, to any one not conversant with agri- 
culture, almost astonishing. Some months ago, a person 
appointed to take the number of carts laden with manure 
passing through one toll bar on the Stretford road counted, 
in one day, there, upwards of 400 loads, averaging from 
two to three tons each. To the farm house there is gene- 
rally attached a neat garden and orchard, and any one 
fond of rural associations may here find them in luxuriance. 

In Cheadlb, Didsbury, Heaton Norris, and some 
other adjoining townships, the soil is various; it is chiefly 
in grass, well cultivated, and devoted to the keep of milch 
cows, or the production of hay for the Manchester market 

From Stockport, through Hyde, Denton, Gorton, 
Reddish, Audenshaw, Ashton-under-Lyne and Fails- 
worth, the soil for the most pait is a strong heavy loam, 
on a substratum of ferruginous clay. The great pro- 
prietor in this district is the Earl of Stamford. Farms 
are generally small, and Much of tlie land is capable 
of great improvement, but being in the holding of 
persons whose attention is divided between farming and 
other occupations connected with the coal and cotton trades 
of the district, the farm, perhaps for this reason, is, in 
many cases, apparently neglected. There are some farms 
highly cultivated, but these generally are the property of, 
and occupied by, the master manufacturers and other 

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resident gentry of the neighbourhood. Ashton Moss is 
the property of the Earl of Stamford. The first attempt 
to cultivate it was made a few years ago,^ when all opera- 
tions were carried on under the superintendence of Mr. 
Reed. The object was praiseworthy, and it promises to 
prove a satisfactory undertakiog. — In the township of 
Oldham the land is generally of a strong loam, on a 
retentive subsoil, containing a large portion of ferru^ous 
matter. In draining some at Hathsrshaw, near Oldham, 
portions of stone have been found in the clay, and, near 
the surface, of almost the specific gravity of iron. In 
the same neighbourhood are to be seen the remains of 
some description of smelting works, which must have been 
abandoned some centuries ago; two oak trees on the 
site are now in a state of decay from old age, and yet it is 
evident that they must have been planted since the works 
were given up. The dross has been dug through in 
several places, but no part of any manufacture has yet 
been found, except a small piece of an earthenware vessel. 
Wood ashes and wood charcoal are plentiful, but not a 
particle of coal ashes has yet been discovered; the 
smelting process must therefore have been performed by I 
heat obtained from wood. Similar remains are to be seen 
on a clay field belonging to Worsley farm, north-west of 
the Hall. A great proportion of this township is pos- 
sessed by small proprietors, the majority of whom are 
engaged in the coal or cotton trade. They are liberal in 
their attention to their respective estates, and land which 
fifty years ago was almost a barren waste now vies in 
produce with some of the naturally fertile soils in more 
favoured situatious. The principal landed proprietors are 
Mr. Jones, of Hope House, Mr. Jones, of Wallshaw 
House, Messrs. Heron and Starkey, and J. F. Lees, Esq., 
M.P. There is scarcely any hedge-row timber, nor indeed 
are there any plantations, except those on the estates of 

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Mr. Jones, of Hope House, and Mr. J. F. l^ees. A great 
part of the township is bleak and elevated, hot the aspect 
might be much improved and the temperature rendered 
more congenial to vegetation if the proprietary would 
encourage, under a proper system, the growth of hedge-row 
timber, with occasional other plantations, cultivated on 
the most exposed points of their respective estates. 

The township of Chadderton is principally the pro- 
perty of Mr. Radcliffe, Captain Reece, the Rev. J. T. 
Uorton and Miss Alsop. Moston is the property of the 
Trustees of the late Mr. Samuel Chetham Hilton, and 
Mr. Taylor, of Eccleston. Alkrington is the property of 
Mr Lever. About one-fifth of the land in these townships is 
in tillage. The farms are generally small and badly culti- 
vated, with some few exceptions. The soil is various, in 
part strong loam with occasional tracts of sandy loam, and 
there are some fields of peat. Hollow draining would be 
highly beneficial to these townships. That excellent 
foundation for good farming has, however, been but par- 
tially attended to here, and it is rather rare to see a neat 
garden, a choicely stocked orchard, or trimmed fences, all 
of which are indicative of right taste and correct rural 
management In Rotton, Crompton, Butterworth, 
Castleton, and some other adjoining townships there are 
many freeholders. The surface of this district is very un- 
dulating and the soil various, with little, however, that is 
naturally fertile; still there are some grass lands in a high 
state of cultivation. The farms are small, and mostly in 
the occupation of persons who do not consider farming as 
a business, but rather regard it as a matter of convenience. 
The manufacturer keeps his milch cows principally for the 
use of his family, his horses to carry goods to market 
and bring back raw materials. Hay and straw here ge- 
nerally command a better price than in any other locality 
near Manchester. The town of Rochdale is supplied with 

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milk from these and other neighbouring places. Some 
milk farms are to be found here, but not on so ex- 
tensive a scale as those near Manchester. Rochdale is 
well supplied with milk, and the farmers retail to the in- 
habitants in summer at 2d. per quart, and in winter at 2|d. 
The townships of Thornham, Hopwood, part of Heap 
and PiLSWORTH are chiefly agricultural. The principal 
proprietors are the Earls of Derby and Wilton, Lord 
Suffield, and R. Gregge Hopwood, Esq. The farms are 
generally from fiAeen to fifly acres in extent, but there are 
a few of eighty or upwards. This district comprises many 
descriptions of soil — little that is by nature fertile. Hollow 
draining has been introduced into some of the townships 
on a liberal scale, and the land has been thereby much im- 
proved; some of the proprietors provide stone or tile for 
their tenants; about one-fourth of the land is in tillage, 
and under the four-course system. The produce of the 
district is sent to the town of Rochdale and the neigh- 
bouring manufacturing villages, whence the farmers 
obtain a good supply of manure. In Heaton, Crump> 
BALL, Prestwich, Cupton, Pendlbton, Pilkington, 
and some other adjacent hamlets, the land is well culti- 
vated. The principal landed proprietor is the Earl of 
Wilton, who occasionally resides at Heaton House. On 
the domains are about forty milch cows — a most useful 
stock, selected from the best specimens of the short4iom. 
The surface of this district is rather uneven, the soil 
various, but chiefly a light silicious mould on sand or 
gravel. There are many exceedingly neat villas and coun- 
try houses in these townships, which are occupied by 
gentlemen connected with the Manchester trade, many of 
whom cultivate a small farm for their own convenience. 
The extent of farms in the holding of persons who make 
agricultural pursuits their chief employment is from fifty 
to eighty acres; about one-fourth of the land is in tillage. 

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There is a considerable quantity of timber here; the 
fences are very neat, and the husbandry altogether is of a 
description inferior to none in the neighbourhood of Man- 
chester. About AiNswoRTH, Great and Little Lever» 
with some other townships lying east, north and west of 
Bolton, the soil is not so fertile as on lands south of that 
town. In Farnworth, Little Hulton and contiguous 
hamlets, the soil is principally a strong loam, recumbent 
on clay. There is in some parts of the district little land 
in tillage, and few persons make farming an entire business. 
The gentlemen and master manufacturers have the lands 
of their respective occupation in good order, but a great 
breadth in the hands of small farmers is in many respects 
very poor, and consequently admits of great improvement. 

Lands average a high rental in the districts of which we 
have given the foregoing hasty survey. In Stretford and 
the neighbourhood, it ranges from £6 to £7 per annum 
for the Lancashire acre ; around Heaton Norris about the 
same prices are obtained ; in the district of Ashton-under- 
Lyne the lowest price is about £2 10s. and the highest 
£6; about Oldham it ranges from £3 to £6 ; in the neigh- 
bourhoods of Chadderton, Moston, Alkrington, Crompton 
and Roy ton, it runs from £3 to £4; in Hopwood, Heap 
and Pilsworth, the prevailing rents are from £2 10s. to £3; 
in Worsley from £4 to £5 is obtained ; in Farnworth it 
varies from £2 to dC5 ; and about Bolton the rentals range 
from £4 to £6. Generally speaking these are not high 
prices, when the advantages and facilities furnished by the 
manufactures of the vicinity are taken into account No 
such prices, however, are obtained in the southern 

For a considerable extent of country round Manchester, 
the carriages used for the purposes of husbandry are carts, 
weighing from ten to eighteen hundred weight. The 
ploughs and other implements are chiefly made of wood, 

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Hud shod with iron, though there are many iron ploughs 
and harrows used in Pilsworth and the neighbourhood. 
The farm-houses are of a good size, and are sufficiently 
strong for any purpose. They are well attended to, and 
with some fanners an object of much consideration and 
honorable rivalry is, who can send the best team to market. 

The cow stock is of the short-homed breed. Man- 
chester, and a circuit of about ten or twelve miles, are 
supposed to require weekly two hundred cows in readiness 
to calve or newly calved, in order to fulfil the demands for 
milk, and yet comparatively few are bred in the district. 
The cattle dealers who attend the town market with milk 
cows make their purchases principally in the West Riding 
of Yorkshire. They procure the very best stock, and 
in no part of England are there to be seen finer herds of 
cows than those of the milk fanners about Manchester : of 
sheep there are scarcely any kept, except in the parks or 
domains of gentlemen. 

A considerable breadth of laud has been greatly iai- 
proved by hollow draining, and this work is conducted in 
various modes. Some land has been most effectually 
drained, and at a little cost, by cutting the trenches about 
twenty-two inches deep and filling them with ten inches 
of coarse ashes from the fires of steam-engines. The main 
carriers of these were cut lower than the branch drains, 
and either walled and covered, or laid with large tiles. 

A considerable degree of attention is paid to the roads, 
and all have foot-paths on one or both sides. The majority 
of the foot-paths are flagged for several miles out of Man- 
chester. Some idea of the traffic on these may be estimated 
^ by the fact, that upwards of £7000 per annum is raised by 
two toll-bars on one line of less than four miles, although 
the charge on each single carriage is very moderate. The 
parochial roads and bye-lanes have also been latterly very 
much im()rovcd. 

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All sorts of manures are employed for fertilising the 
land, but chiefly putrescent matters, which are collected in 
great quantities. The immense importations of cotton, 
hemp, bones, tallow, raw hides, potash, &c. &c., in going 
through various necessary processes, to prepare them for 
their ultimate use and destinations, give employment to 
hundreds of thousands, and they also afford a residde use- 
less to the manufacturer, which can be applied to raising 
the capabilities of the soil, thereby not only relievhig our 
present wants, but affording better means of subsistence to 
generations yet unborn. 

The Manchester Agricultural Society was instituted in 
the year 1767, and has now a large number of members, 
each contributing one guinea per annum. They hold 
their general meetings in Manchester, on the last Tuesday 
in September, or the first Tuesday in October, and the 
meetings are regarded with considerable interest on account 
of the high premiums which are given. Stock is frequently 
brought forty or fifty miles, and the rewards for general 
improvements have given rise to a spirit of rivalry and 
enterprise amongst farmers. Although the vicinity of 
Manchester, with some exceptions, can not be considered 
an agricultural district, yet the commercial gentlemen, 
and others not particularly interested in rural business, 
with that liberality, public spirit and patriotic purpose for 
which they are so distinguished, not only support this 
Society with their presence at the annual meetings, but 
many of them enrolled as members. Yet with all these 
advantages, a survey of the agricultural aspect of this dis- 
trict, forces the conclusion, that the interest is still capable 
of great extension. A considerable portion of arable land is 
at this time under very indifferent cultivation, arising prin- 
cipally from the want of effectual drainage. Even in the 
best parts there is much land suffering from an overcharge 
of water. It is really surprising that this ancient and im- 
u 2 

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portant art should so often be left to the managemeot of 
persons, in the capacity of land-stewards, who are compara- 
tively unacquainted either theoretically or practically with 
agriculture. t''or the direction of commercial concerns, 
persons are almost invariably selected who have a general 
knowledge of almost every particular branch of trade, but 
the same principle is too seldom acted on when an 
appointment is made for the superintendence of landed 

That there is a most extensive field for improvement, no 
one who is practically acquainted with the subject, and who 
has turned .his attention to the presexit state of the land in 
many counties of England, will deny. A correct observer 
cannot subscribe to the erroneous doctrine, that the British 
dominions are too sterile or too limited to produce bread 
for our people. The soil of Great Britain would in fact, 
supply food for double her present numbers. Let not the 
farmer, then, be told that agriculture has arrived at its 
stationary point. The soil offers inexhaustible re- 
sourses, which, when properly appreciated and employed, 
must increase our wealth, give abundance to our popula- 
tion, and augment our physical strength. The powers of 
cultivation may, for ages yet to come, be accelerated in a 
ratio quite equal to the increase of population, and the 
most inhospitable and cold situation in a commercial dis- 
trict might be made profitably fertfle, if its prominent parts 
were covered with thriving timber. We possess advantages 
in the us^ of machinery, and the division of labour such 
as are enjoyed by no other nation, and the same energy of 
character, and the same extent of resources, which always 
distinguished the people of the British Islands, and made 
them excel in arms, commerce, letters and philosophy, 
apply with the happiest effect to improvements in the 
cultivation of the earth. Scarcely any thing is impossible 
to labour aided by ingenuity. Let Englishmen then, as 

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it is their duty, seek rather to find food at home than 
expatiate themselves in the hope of obtaining it more 
abundantly abroad. Let the agriculturist and the trader 
mutually sustain and encourage each other. The true 
objects of the agriculturist's pursuit are likewise those of the 
patriot Men value most what they have gained with effort. 
A just confidence in their own powers results from success. 
They love their country better because they have seen it 
improved by their own talents and industry; and they 
identify with their interests the existence of those institu- 
tions which have afforded them security, independence, 
and the multiplied enjoyments of civilized life.'*^ 

The greatest undertaking of modern date in the history 
of our provincial agriculture is the reclamation of Chat 
Moss, and though in strictness, perhaps, the subject does 
not pertain to the province of the historian of Manchester, 
it is one of so much importance, and withal so little is known 
of it, that it has been considered a sketch of the novel work 
could not be without value and attraction. 

CflAT Moss is situated on the North side of the turnpike 
road leading from Manchester to Liverpool, its Eastern end 
being about five miles from the former place. It is nearly 
five miles in length from East to West, and contains no less 
than 6,000 statute acres. Its quality is identical with what 
in Ireland is called red bog, and in Scotland bears the 
name of white flow moss. 

It is not necessary here to inquire into the circumstances 
which produce such morasses, further than to say that the 
now generally received opinion is, that they are created by 
a stagnation of water, which engenders a certain description 
of vegetable organization. This vegetable matter so pro- 
duced dying, becomes a nidus for another series, which, in 
its turn, is succeeded by another, until, in the course of 
time, the mass becomes of great extent and depth. Some 

• sir H. Davy. 

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parts of Chat Moss are 40 feet deep, resting, of coarse, on 
what was the original surface. So iar, therefore, as altitade 
is concerned there is little difficulty in effecting the drainage 
of Chat Moss, but the vegetable mass retains the water by 
somewhat of a sponge-like quality. Every fibre contains a 
portion of water, and Uie tenacity with which it continues 
to hold it gives to the whole a semi-fluid quality not always 
free from danger to the neighbouring land. Leland relates 
that " at one period Chat Moss had grown to such a height 
that a considerable portion of it became moveable, and 
falling into Glazebrook was thence carried into the Mersey." 
And Cambden says, " A considerable portion of the Moss 
was in the memory of our fathers washed away by a river 
flood, not without great danger, causing also a corruption 
of the waters, which destroyed a great part of the fish in the 
rivers Irwell and Mersey.'* 

Such an event is not, however, likely again to occur on 
Chat Moss — the drainage necessary to the formation of the 
Liverpool and Manchester Railway, which traverses this 
morass for nearly five miles — and the outlets for water 
which have been made on those parts which are re- 
claimed and cultivated prevent the possibility of any such 
surcharge of water. 

It is impossible to state at what period the first attempts 
to reclaim small portions of this waste were made. The 
neighbouring inhabitants have been accustomed from time 
immemorial to cut away the edges of the Moss and dry it 
for fuel, not only for the use of their own houses, but for 
sale in Manchester and other places. The ground so cleared 
has, in some instances, been Cultivated with more or less 
success, according to the industry, skill, or means of the 

The first attempt on a large scale^ however, was made by 
the late Wm. Roscoi*, Esq. This gentleman, in the year 
1805, obtained from John Trafford, Esq., of Trafford Park, 

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a lease of about 2^500 acres of Chat Moss, for a term of 92 
years, at a progressive rent, the ultimate amount of which is 
£150 per annum. 

Mr. Roscoe says, that "at that time this tract was 
wholly unproductive, and was unsafe to pass over except 
in long continued droughts in the summer season." When 
now in the year 1836, we witness trains of carriages, of 
150 tons weight, passing along the entire length of this 
Moss, at the rate of perhaps twenty miles an hour; there 
is ample room for congratulation on what may be effected 
by the skill and industry of man. An account of Mr. 
Roscoe's doings will be found in Steele's History of Peat 
Moss — and they are noticed also, in the Treatise on Moss, 
by Mr. Acton, of Strathaven, from whose remarks Mr. 
Roscoe says, he derived considerable advantage. The 
operations of Mr. Roscoe were on a very extensive scale. 
A road three miles in length was formed, by making two 
large drains parallel to each other, at 12 yards asunder — 
and throwing the stuflf taken out of the drains into the 
middle of the intermediate space. Smaller drains at 50 
yaids distance, were cut to divide upwards of 1000 acres into 
fields; but it seems it was not until 1809, that the first 
crops were sown, and these were confined to 20 acres of 
oats and turnips. 

Mr. Roscoe's exertions were continued for many years 
with great zeal — but from some cause or other, or from a 
variety of causes, no profitable result was arrived at, and 
the property passed into other hands. The most important 
of the new proprietors, (for the 2500 acres became divided) 
were Edward Baines, Esq., of Leeds, the present M. P. 
for that town, and J. A. Borron, Esq., of Woolden-hall. 
Each of these gentlemen pursued his own plan of improve- 
ment, and brought an increased quantity of the Moss into 
productiveness, for be it observed, the amount of surface 
actually brought under cultivation by Mr. Roscoe, was by 

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no means commensurate with his first extensive operations. 
Mr. Baines built a house, with farm buildings to a naode- 
rate extent — planted a considerable number of trees, chiefly 
larch, fir and poplar — which thriving tolerably well now, 
afford at once shelter to the crops, and an agreeable relief 
to the monotonous flat surface. The capabilities of the 
soil too were further developed by means of attentive 
and libera] cultivation, proving beyond all doubt the fact 
that by judicious treatment crops of almost any description 
may be grown on such surfaces. The first step to this de- 
sirable end is, of course, draining. Experience has taught 
a plan of doing this in an effectual manner, (but which our 
limits do not allow us room to describe) at an expense of 
about £2 per acre. The next process is to break up the 
surface and destroy its fibrous quality, which is done either 
by the spade or the plough — and the third is to bring on 
to the surface a quantity of earth to mix with the vegetable 
matter of which the moss is composed, and thereby give it 
the consistency — the mechanical and chemical qualities of 
a soil. In the instance of Chat Moss, this has been done 
by conveying on to the surface, the clay marl by which 
the Moss is surrounded — a tenacious earth, being, in fact, 
clay mixed with a small portion of carbonate of lime. 

Mr. Roscoe says, in the account formerly alluded to 
<< he is thoroughly convinced that there is no method of 
improving moss land, but by the application of a calca- 
reous substance, in a sufficient quantity to convert the 
moss into a soil, and by the occasional use of animal and 
other extraneous manures.*' This opinion b confirmed by 
the practice of those who have subsequently essayed in 
these improvements, particularly by Mr. Reed, who was 
professionally engaged, about eight years ago, by several 
gentlemen, who subscribed a capital for the improvement 
of that part of the Moss which agreeably relieves the eye of 
tlie traveller along the I jverpool and Manchester Railway, 

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by presenting him with corn, clover, &c., in exchange for 
the barren appearance of a still considerable quantity of 
this morass. 

To the north of these last-named improvements, are 
those effected by the Trustees of the late Duke of Bridge* 
water, and chiefly directed by R. H. Bradshaw, Esq. Here 
is a considerable extent of wood, called " Botany Bay,'' 
and also some very superior pasture, meadow, and arable 
land, of exceedingly good quality. Other improvements, 
in different parts of the Moss, are being made by various 
persons. Habitations are rising; and it is to be hoped, 
that the time will arrive, when this ** desert shall blossom as 
the rose." Whether, indeed, the present low price of agri- 
cultural produce on the one hand, and the high price of 
labour in this manufacturing district on the other, will leave 
sufficient remuneration for capital so employed, it is some- 
what difficult to determine. Labour — ^human labour — 
forms a very considerable part of the outlay for such im- 
provements, (even although the quantity required has been 
reduced on Chat Moss by the application of moveable rail- 
roads, for conveying the marl, manure, and crops, to and 
from the land,) the relative prices of labour and produce, 
may therefore retard the progress of improvements on this 

We earnestly recommend, however, the well-wishers to 
what is ignorantly called over populated Ireland, to examine 
these improvements, and those at Ashton-under-Line Moss, 
and we would say to the wealthy of that country, " Go and 
do likewise," 

It is difficult to close this chapter without offering a 
brief remark upon the advantages which Manchester pos- 
sesses in her physical position. No county in England, 
perhaps, is so rich in water navigation as Lancashire, and 
certainly no town in Lancashire participates so abundantly 
as Manchester the advantages thence accruing. Surrounded 

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by populous and thnviug commuuities, to which ready 
approach is afforded by river, or caual, or excellent roads, 
having similar means of intercourse with all the counties of 
England, and with Wales, she has Liverpool, the most 
growing mercantile out-port in Great Britain, through which 
to pour her manufactures into Ireland, and Scotland, and 
the four quarters of the globe. These causes alone might 
sufficiently account for her pre-eminence in conmierce; bat 
the secret of her manufacturing greatness is best explained 
by a reference to her position in a geological point of view. 
Manchester lies in the very heart of the great coal-field of 
England. The town stands almost in the centre of that 
magnificent range of mountains which begin as it were at 
Alderly Edge, in Cheshire, and end at Rivington Pike. 
Within the crescent of hills some of the best coal strata 
of England are to be found, rising from this point as 
a centre, and cropping or bassetting out at the base of 
the mountain chain. The dip of the strata is found very 
nearly to correspond with the course of the main rivers, 
or in other words to follow the inclination of the land in 
the same way as does the water. Thus, the rivers which 
are navigable serve to carry coal to the manufactories, 
and to convey back the manufactured produce; whilst the 
minor streams are made tributary to the canals, which, in 
the same way, convey and re-convey goods and manu- 

The coal strata have never been found, except lying 
between the magnesian lime-stone and the mill-stone: the 
former crops out at Ardwick, on the south-east, and the 
coal stratum commences in the adjoining township of 
Bradford. Taking the line of the Rochdale canal as a 
guide, the various coal strata crop out one after another, 
until, in the neighbourhood of Littleborough, the last valua- 
ble seam, appropriately called the " Mountain Mine," is 
discovered. Under this there is no mine of val ue. Taking 

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the direction to the right or left, the same facts present 
themselves — towards Oldham, Bolton, Bury, Ashton, and, 
indeed, round the whole circumference of Manchester. 
Beyond this boundary, there is another extensive field in 
the Wigan district; so that Manchester has, in her own 
immediate vicinity, a copious supply of coal from the 
mines of Pendleton, Pendlebury, Worsley, Ashton, 
Duckenfield, Oldham, Rochdale, Middleton, Radcliife, 
Tonge, Great and Little Lever, Darcy Lever, Hulton, 
&c. ; and travelling beyond this circle of about ten miles, 
there is the second or Wigan coal district, embracing the 
districts of Hindley, Abram, Leigh, &c. Somewhat more 
out of the line, there are the Haydock, Huyton, Pemberton, 
St Helen's, and other collieries; but, the facilities of con- 
veyance being greater towards Liverpool than towards 
Manchester, the coal of those mines goes almost wholly 
to supply the former town. Wigan is the ultimate point 
from which coals are now stnt to Manchester. The 
weekly consumption of the town and neighbourhood is 
estimated at about 26,000 tons,* aud it is believed that 
of this quantity only about a thousand tons are derived 
from the Wigan district Until within the last three or 
four years, when the trade was encouraged by a re- 
duction of about a shilling in the ton on the Duke of 
Bridgewater's canal, no coal whatever came from that 
quarter, but as the mines more immediately contiguous to 
Manchester begin to fail, the remoter places will of course 
come to aid the market At present Bolton and Oldham 

* It has been calcntoted, that in London each indiTidnal consomet a ton of 
coal in the year. In these districts the consumption will, no doabt, be greater. 
A witness before a recent Parliamentary Committee estimated the con- 
sumption of coal in factories, after the rate of three quarters of a ton per week 
for every hone power. In a calculation for Manchester, however, a very treat 
addition must be made for the consumption in dye-woriis, bleach- works, foun- 
dries, &c. &c., which are said to use double as much coal as the cotton factories. 
Taking the consumption of the town at 90,000 tons weekly, and the price at 
only 7s. M., Manchester pays above half a million yearly for coals. It must 
.be remembered, however, that coal for private bouses is much higher priced 
than that for factories. 

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supply the great bulk of coal : it is stated that forty boats, 
each containing twenty tons, are sent from one colliery 
only in that district Pendleton,^ in point of situation, 
has the superiority .over other collieries, inasmuch as the 
mines are within two miles of the centre of the town. 
Other coal-owners, however, are compelled to lower their 
prices to meet this advantage. At present from 7b. 6d. 
to 8s per ton is the rate at which coal is laid down at the 
engine-houses of factories, whilst for private consumption 
it is charged as high as twelve shillings tlie ton. In 1831 
engine coal obtained 10s. per ton, but the opening of new 
or the extension of old collieries at Pendleton, near Roch- 
dale, and at Worsley, brought down the price to 6s., and 
since that time it has gradually recovered. 

The carriage of coal to Manchester is chiefly by cart 
and canal; the railroads do comparatively little in this 
district§ By canal the charge is about 5d., and by cart 
about 8d. per ton per mile. All coal lying at a greater 
distance than twelve miles is carried free of cost to that 
point, twelve miles being the limit beyond which it is 
considered the coal could not be got so as to defray the 
charge of carriage as well as the cost of getting. The 
cost of conveying an article which sells for so small a price 
as coal being equal to the charge for an article of infinitely 
greater marketable value, the supply is in fact limited 

* A shaft, njt hundred yards deep, is now being sank here. 
( Railroads have one disadyantage In the carriage of coal for manofoc- 
toriea, which appears likely to give the canals a permanent soperiority over 
them in this branch of traffic. The baaks of the latter being generally studded 
with manufactories (to which such a supply of water as canals aflbrd Is indis- 
putable); cold conveyed In boats is lodged without any second expense* at their 
very doors. The railroads are otherwise circumstanced. The coal is necessa- 
rily deposited by them regularly at the " stations," whence it must be anted 
to its destination, at an expense in no case amounting to less, perhaps, than 
ten per cent, on the price of the commodity. Again, coal is not an article 
requiring great speed of conveyance ; the rate of tonnage, too, on the canab 
is low (only three ha]f-pence\ and one horse, attended by two men and a boy, 
are sufficient for the conveyance of a load of twenty or twenty-five tons. It is 
questionable, therefore, whether the now heavy expense of locomotive power, 
and the other imavoidable ouUay, can ever be so reduced as to enable railroads 
to compete successfully In this article with water conveyance. 

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almost to the district within twelve miles; but as these 
mines become exhausted, the price of the coal will rise, and 
an inducement will thereby be offered to more distant coal- 
owners to bring their produce to the market 

At present no such prospect is opening, nor is it likely 
soon to offer if the calculation of a noted geologist, (Mr. 
Elias Hall) as to the extent of the Lancashire coal field, be 
coiTect. The following is his estimate : — 

like flnt cottl-fleld contains one hnndred and thirty-eight square miles, 
twenty.six yards thick, ten miliions nine hundred and fifty-four miUions of 
tons, one cube yard to the ton. like second coal-fldd contains one hundred 
and thirtr-four square miles, of two yards thick, and one hundred and twenty- 
nine millions of tons, considered to be equal to two millions four hnndred and 
forty-three thousand tons, and he supposes the coal wlU last, at the present rate 
of consumption, three thousand 3rears. 


At Oldham and neighbourhood. ai feet 

Middleton 19 „ 

Leigh and Hindley 19 „ 

Wi^ui 37 „ 6 inches. 

Ashton and neighbourhood. 30 „ 

Anotlier writer* says, •* The great Lancashire coal field, 
stretching from Manchester to Colne towards the North, 
and from the former place to Liverpool towards the West, 
is of an exceedingly irregular form, and running out into 
vast branches, one of which extends from Ashton-under- 
Lyne to Macclesfield. From the zig-zag character of the 
outline of this field on Arrowsmith's map, it is difficult to 
compute the area of the whole : it cannot, however, be less 
than from four to &ye hundred miles, including an insulated 
portion, at Hornby, near Lancaster." 

It is considered that about 2,000 persons are employed 
in supplying coal to Manchester. Colliers' wages vary from 
78. 6d. to 3s. 6d. per day. Their system of working the 
mines differs materially from that pursued in the northern 
collieries, and whilst it is in evidence that the latter lose in 
the getting (that is, leave ungot) about 36) per cent of the 
coal, it is known that the former lose only 10 per cent. 
The same system (said a witness before a late Parliamentary 

• History and description of FossO Purl. 

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Committee) has " succeeded very well so far as obtaining 
the greatest quantity out of the mine/' but he adds, that it 
produces a greater proportion of small coal, which, in the 
north, is considered of so little value that it may almost be 
had for the cartiug, whilst here it is, for manufactures, as 
valuable as the large coal. 

It may, indeed, safely be said that the north, thoogh 
more of a mining district, is inferior in its mode of operation 
to this. All the expenses are heavier. The original oatlay 
in sinking the shaft is immensely greater, and all the 
charges for getting appear to be at least twenty per cent, 
higher than in Lancashire. The northern collieries, how- 
ever, obtain a price for their coals in London which renders 
it unnecessary to economize. 

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Id enteriDg upon a task like that which we have planned 
for ourselves in the present department of our work, many 
difficulties arise which are so very formidable in their 
appearance, at first sight as to impress us with the 
notion that they are altogether incapable of removal. So 
much of prejudice has to be encountered — so many opinions 
are to be combated — and so overwhelming a proportion of 
the cavillers to be propitiated — that it is not to be wondered 
at if a novice should fall short, where so many of the " older 
scribblers'* have been found wanting. 

The early history of a town like Manchester is essentially 
he history of its early benefactors ; and those who have 
been most active in promoting its Institutions, and con- 
tributing by their talents to the spirit of its importance and 
popularity, are they whose individual biography ought to 
throw the clearest light upon the history of the town itself. 
But with us this has not been the case ; — for although, " if 
they have writ our annals true," there has been no dearth 
of mind in the composition of the town's inhabitants durinfi: 
the past few hundred years'; and although the wealthy in 
means have not failed frequently to be the bountiful in 
heart, but have built for themselves a memory in the 
foundation stones of our churches and our charities that 
cannot be done away with until the monuments that record 
them have become fragments; yet there has been so 
scanty a supply of historical facts handed down to us re- 
lative to these personages, and even those are so inseparable 
from the mercantile spirit that would seem to have con- 

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nected them with their little immortality, that except in 
the few iDstances of men who have immortalised themselves 
by their scientific attainments or their learned compositioDs 
and have thus become rather the inhabitants of the world 
at large than of one town in particular, we have nothing 
beyond the mere circumstances of their birth, their bene- 
factions and their decease upon which to set forth the many 
excellencies of character which they must publicly hare 
possessed. And even concerning the " illustrious few," the 
most that can be known is comparatively nothing; because 
on all those points, which in this day would be most instmc- 
itve and interesting, the biographers of a former day appear 
studiously to have remained silent, thinking doubtless it 
was of more importance that posterity should know at what 
schools a man was educated, what were his writings, aod 
how great were the persecutions he was subjected to, than 
that they should be told how he thought and acted, 
and what influence his life had upon the cotempo- 
raries surrounding him. For ourselves we are fond of the 
little gossipping of biography — ^the small talk, as it were, 
of a man^s existence ; we like to sit upon his hearth-stone 
and listen to him when he is unconscious of our presence, 
and when his talent is as idly occupied as if, like the foolish 
man in the parable, he had wrapped it in a napkin; we 
like to lay hold of his honest truths, and to take him when 
he is " not i'th' vein," and when consequently there can 
be no design or premeditation in his little sayings and 
doings. Why should men have only the perfections of 
their nature pourtrayed ? — As if perfect humanity were not 
an incongruity ! 

Moreover, in a provincial town, the materials for a 
general biography are particularly scanty, because those 
individuals whose lives wonld seem to be the most fitted 
for publicity invariably contrive to migrate as soon 
as they perceive their own real importance in the 

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world of letters ; disdaining to '' waste their sweetness on 
the desert air/' they seek a more congenial abode within 
the heart of the great city of the plains. It is therefore 
only in a sketchy manner that we can speak of them^— we 
must prate of their whereabout with all the humility of a 
>i mere story-teller; and having made believe that we are 
only writing another series of the gossip of " our village/' 
we must entice our reader into a belief of its probability, 
and by little and little persuade him to give full credence 
to the truth of our rehearsal. We confess that in our 
" great mercantile city'* (as strangers emphatically term it) 
we can offisr no inducements to the ramblings of the mere 
enthusiast who seeks in our streets temples dedicated to 
the muses — in our church-yards catacombs of heroes — and 
in our ancient cathedral effigies of the learned men and 
martyrs who have once made this space their habitation; 
we can tempt him not by the ruins of an ancient castle, or 
the sight of a tesselated pavement ; we have no remnant of 
a prstorium, nor even a shapeless market-cross, with 
quaint inscriptions, rendered illegible by the hand of 
time — nothing of this antiquarian nature have we in our 
parish — yet will we not altogether disclaim those calls upon 
his imagination which a knowledge of our town's classical 
importance will naturally excite. Though we cannot say 
of our streets " here rode King Lud/' — there did Jack Cade 
assume the royal state — yonder did a Ridley and a Latimer 
suffer martyrdom — and here in Eastcheap did Shakspeare 
and those good fellows of his day make their hearts "righte 
merrie." Yet can we point out scenes of interest equally 
exciting — though in a different degree. Kings have passed 
over our pavements; imposters have flourished in our land; 
a Ridley and a Latimer have preached within our houses; 
martyrs have perished amongst us ; and the great revivifiers 
of Shakspeare's impersonations have been of us and amongst 
us, and have feasted and made merry in our play-houses 

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and our taverns. There did the ancient Romans fix their 
camp — from this spot did the descendants of the Cssars 
dispense their law ; here dwelt the famous Dee, to whom 
English Nobles and Foreign Potentates bowed with reve- 
rence — in yonder building did he converse with spirits, and 
beneath the shadow of that roof did he perform his divina- ** 
tions; there flourished that imposter — alas ! that we should 
use so harsh a term — ^the famous Booker ; here, where now 
stands this green-grocer's shop, resided one of the proud 
Earls of Derby; and in that huge hotel, whose front some 
twenty years ago had an aq>ect so uncouth, rerelled the 
merry sous " who danced our infimcy upon their knee,** 
whose names are called into remembrance whenever that of 
Shakspeare is spoken, and who will have a sigh of regret as 
long as memory can retain a thought of George Frederick 
Cook, and his glorious tribe of " true companions.'* Such 
are the retrospections our trading city can afibrd — such 
is the lore that will repay those who may search into its 

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There is a Ustory in aD men's Ures, 
Fi8:uring the nature of the times deceased ; 
The -which observed* a roan may proi^ecy. 
With a near aim, of the main chance of things 
As yet not come to life ; which, in their seeds 
And weak beginnings, lie intreasored. 



One of the earliest of our men of note of whom there exists any- 
available account was Thomas West, Lord d« la Warre, who was a de- 
scendant of the Grellejs, the ancient Lords of Manchester, and who 
(according to Hollingwortb,) ^was the last bciremaleof that familye." 
He was Rector of Manchester during the latter part of the fourteenth 
and the commencement of the fifteenth century, and claims notice 
principally on account of having been the founder of the Collegiate 
Church. To those who are fond of a reminder of the pages of 
Shakspeare, there may be something interesting in the fact, that 
Roger de la Warre, (the father of our present subject,) and the Duke 
of Lancaster, ''Old John of Gaunt, time honoured Lancaster,** had 
some rather serious altercation and difierences relative to the right of 
tyrannizing over the poor inhabitants of Manchester, and that this 
same *^ warlike Oaunt" did order his bailiffir to collect monies from 
them to which he had no right, very much to the prejudice of our 
natural and liege lord, and for which a trial was held in Preston, 
A.D. 1S59, when it was decided that Roger de la Warre, and he only, 
had authority to gather money of the townspeople. Restitution was, 
therefore, made; and the renowned sire of the ** cankered Bolingbroke" 
was compelled to acknowledge, for once, that right conquered might 
Often has it been matter of wonder to us, whether John of Gaunt might 

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not possibly have the remembntnee of this transaction upon his mind 

when he so earnestly desired to see King Richard previously to his 

death, sending a message in all haste by Bushey, one of the servanu 

of the King — 

'< Old John of Oannt is crievoos side, my Lord, 
Soddenlj taken; and hath sent post haste 
To entreat your Majesty to visit himj-— 

And whether he might not, also, have some (aint allusion to it when 

be said, 

*<0h, would the scandal vanish wUh my life. 
How lu4>py then were my ensuing death.*' 

For although, perhaps, the context (Shakspeare is our historian) may 
not substantiate this hypothesis, we can readily imagine that, with so 
great a weight upon his conscience, such might in reality have beeo 
the old man's reflections. This is merely a passing observation — but 
if Hamlet could sufier << imagination to trace the noble dust of 
Alexander, till he found it stopping a bung hole," why may we not 
trace the thread of our own history, till it is found having reference to 
that which has so essentially the charm of poetry in its truth. 

Lord de la Warre was Rector of St Mary's Church, which, in his 
time, was situated in the present St Ann's-square; and so assiduously 
devoted was he to the interests of his charge, that he resided almost 
wholly in Manchester, that he might the more completdy superintend 
the work of the Rectory. And this is no trifling praise; for in those timas 
not only were the duties of a Rector arduous in themselves, but in the 
instance of the Parsonage of Bfanchester they were peculiarly so. ''He 
was," says Whittaker, <<common confessor to the clergy of the Deanery. 
He had a settled jurisdiction over all the clergy and.lai^, and wms 
invested with a coercive authority over the goods and persons of 
ofltendera among the former. He visited the clergy statedly, his 
object being to examine their demeanor, and the conduct of the laity, 
and to promote the important interests of religion in both; also to 
inspect the state of the structure, and the condition of the furniture in 
the churches, and keep the ecclesiastical house in good repair." And 
this was not a mere nominal duty, which might be left unperformed 
at pleasure, or entrusted to a deputy to fulfil; it was required to be 
discharged to the letter, and circumstances rendered it, at this period, 
particularly obnoxious, because the increasing civilization of the 
times had introduced habits of luxury among the priesthood that had 
been formerly altogether undreamt of, that body of men whose motto 
had hitherto been mortification and humility, having now assumed 
ideas of ease and sensuality to which even the greatest of the Barons 

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were almost, if not altogether, strangers. Whether this was owing 
to the multiplying revenues of the Church, which naturally gave an 
impulse to the growing pride of the Clergy, or to that somewhat 
eftminate spirit, disguised in the garb of refinement, which had kept 
advancing every year upon the rising orders of that body ; or whe- 
ther, in fact, it may not be attributed to the knowledge of the pow^r 
which they possessed over the minds of the laity, which power they 
knew would be increased in proportion as they maintained their 
appearance of luxurious and intellectual superiority, it is difficult to 
determine. Certain it is, this spirit had crept in amongst the Clergy 
who were under the immediate cognizance of the Baron de la Warre; 
their ministerial duties were neglected; and, although the increasing 
population of the town required extra labour at their hands, they 
deserted their posts without a moment's consideration, pleading, in 
excuse, that the apartments and style of living at the Parsonage-house 
were inferior to that arrangement to which they were entitled. Men 
may smile in this day to learn that a class, whose minds they would 
imagine to have been so highly cultivated, and whose desires might be 
supposed to rise superior to the mere things of time and sense, should 
plead, as a ground of their exculpation from a charge of desertion of 
truth, anything so resembling the frail pretences of a truant schoolboy. 
But it was nevertheless the case, and it was partly on this account that 
Lord de la Warre was induced to attempt to found another church in 
Manchester. For this purpose he called a meeting of his parishioners ;" 
at the sound of the bell they gathered themselves together — nobles, and 
knights, and 8quires,and working men in goodlyarray — and to them he 
laid down his plans and his purposes, how he meant to carry intoeflfect 
the pious design which he had originated. And how meant he to effect 
thisf Not by saying to Sir John le Byron and to Sir John de Rat. 
cHfi^s, "Subscribe your thousand pounds, and present me, each, 
with a rood of land to help on my undertaking;** — not by soliciting of 
Edmund de Trafford, and John de Hulton, and Ralph de Prestwich, 
and Otho de Redditch, and James de Strangeways, and those ** profii- 
sion of squires*' by whom he was surrounded, five hundred pounds to 
assist in raising up the edifice; — not by asking of Geoffirey de Hopwood, 
and William de Birch, and Hugh de Highfield, and Lawrence de 
Barton, and the stout yeomen whose veneration for the church was 
only equalled by their determined zeal in giving it their defence, 
" Buy me each your pews and chapelries, that I may have the 
money wherewith to erect my pulpit" All these, and more whose names 
are handed down, were present, yet he asked them not for money, but 
at his own charge, and in the benevolence of his own good heart, did 

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be ofl^r to erect the noble pfle which has become the living moini-' 
ment of his piety, and which will enshrine his memory within its 
aisles so long as one stone of the Collegiate Church shall be left stand- 
ing upon another. We can imagine our warlike ancestors met together 
within the ancient walls of St Mary's on this peaceful and important 
occiuion, their honest foces turned assentingly towards the noble priest 
and baron, who had sought their approval of an undertaking so void 
of the common selfishness of humanity — ^we can fancy ourselves pre- 
sent at this primitive *^ vestry meeting," and by a little stretch of the 
imagination can hear the spurs of the nobl^ and esquires elank 
along the pavement as they retire from the scene, and we can dis- 
tinctly see the honest satis&ction of the yeomen as they form them- 
selves in little groups to discuss the bounty of their Rector on their 
way homewards. 

But there were other moti vevthan those of piety to which the enenMes 
of Lord de la Warre attributed his munificence in founding the Col- 
legiate Church. Nor can this be matter of any grreat surprise. Id 
all ages and countries there are men, the malevolence of whose dis- 
position is such that upon the mere principle of self4efence they 
must traduce the good intentions of the worthy and virtuous amongst 
them; because in the lives of such they read that which puts a con- 
demnation upon their own evil practices. There were revilers upon 
the earth in those days — there was an outcry even at that eariy period 
of its history against the institution of the church — but luckily, the 
cavillers were then to be found only amongst the narrow-minded and 
the noisiest of the populace. The motives which these men imputed 
to the Rector were, that being the last mole of bis house he grieved 
at the desolation which was come upon it, in the prospect of being 
with him extinct for ever, and that having a secret wish to perpetuate 
his line he covertly sought to obtain a dispensation from the Pope 
permitting him to marry, the price of which apostatizing (as it might 
be termed) was to be the foundation of a chureh and college in the 
parish over which he was Rector, with suitable accommodation fbr the 
residence of the clergy, and an endowment that should place them in 
possession, not only of plenty, but of affluence. This slanderous 
report was passed from one to another amongst the then railers; — 
currency was given to it by repetition; — and in the pages of an old 
historian the fact is handed down to after times.. Not only, however, 
did Lord de la Warre remain unmarried, but the very extensiveness 
of his bounty proves that at least in so far it was voluntary. Be that 
as it may, to him Manchester is indebted for the magnificent 
pile which is designated the ''Old Chureh," since, although it was 

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Bot originallj the immense structure which it is now seen, the design 
a&d the partial execution of it sprung from the mind of this most 
benevolent man. He, alas, lived not to see his plans completed,— « 
being seized, in the year 1427, with an illness that speedily carried 
him to his grave. But he died ** like a shock of com fully ripe," — 
he bad spent his years upon earth not idly and unprofitably, for in 
a time when the knowledge of the Gospel was confined to a few, and 
the practice of its iiyuncUons to a still smaller class, he made himself 
an ensample of the truth of that precept which says << it is good to be 
zealously afiected in a good canse," and throughout the whole of his 
career whatever his hand found to do he did it with all his might. 
Of his private life little or nothing is known, for he had no Boswell ' 
to perpetuate his truisms. If, however, any estimate may be formed 
from that which is known, he was one of whom it might truly be said 
that, take him for all in aU, we shall not look upon his like s^ain. 


Claims notice amongst the ancient worthies of Manchester by reason 
of his having been the founder of the Grammar School; but as he 
has already been mentioned in connexion with that institution, little 
more than an allusion will be made to him here. He is supposed to 
have been bom either in Manchester or Oldham — and as two towns 
dispute the honor of his birth, so two Universities may claim that of 
his edueatiott, for he studied both at Oxford and Cambridge, but took 
his degree of D.D. at the latter. He was patronized by the Countess 
of Richmond, whose ehi^lain he was, and who appears to have felt 
greatly interested in him; for, after presenting him successively to 
several valuable livings, she ultimately obtained his advancement to 
the see of Exeter, in which he remained until his death on the 15th. 
inne, 1519. He was a great patron of learning, and an extensive 
benefactor of Corpus Christi College. 


One of those victims to religious rancour so numerous in the reign of 
Mary, was bom in Manchester, during the early part of the reign of 
Henry the Eighth. He received a tolerably good education in his native 
town, and was considered so very clever in accounts that he obtained 
the situation of Secretary to Sir John Harrington, Treasurer and Pay- 

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master of the English forces in France. Some little scandal is involved 
in the occasion of his resigning this employment, as it is scarcdj 
f robable he would have left so lucrative and honoorable an occupalion 
to study the dry intricacies of the law, (which for a time he afterwaids 
did) unless there were something not altogether creditable connected 
with it According to the most partial of his Biogn^hers, he had 
imbibed the principles of the Reformers, which were inconsistent with 
the duties of a military vocation; but others opine (and this is the 
most truth-like solution) that having allowed a species of dishonesty, 
in the shape of overcharges and little embezzlements, to creep into the 
office of his employer, in which he had himself participated, whilst he 
connived also at the participation of others, his conscience (at all times 
remarkably tender) would not let him any longer retain in peace the 
situation he held. In proof of this, it is recorded that he refunded the 
sum of five hundred pounds, of which he confessed the Government had 
beed defrauded by errors of his own. Such peccadilloes seem to have 
been of rather frequent occurrence; so much so, that Bishop Latimer 
preached a sermon upon the subject, from which the following pas- 
sage immediately in point is extracted: — 

** I have now (says he) preached three Lents.— The first time I preached 
BestitutioD : *< Restitution I** quoth some* what shauld he preach of Restita- 
tton t let him preach of Contribution, quoth they, and let Restitatioa alooe***— 
Then saf I, *' if thou wilt not make restitntioo thou shalt goe to ttie devil for 
it— now choose thee either restitution or else endlesse damnation.**— At my 
first preaching of Restitution, one man took remorse of conscience and adcnow- 
ledged to me that he had deceived the King, and willing he was to make resti- 
tution; and so the first Lent came to my hands twenty pounds to be restored to 
the King's use.— Well, the next Lent came three hundred and twenty pounds 
more; I received it myself and paid it to the King's Council; so I was asked what 
he was that made this Restitution.— But should I have nameri him f Naye, they 
should as soon have this weasand of mine!— Well now. this Lent came one 
hundred four score pounds ten shillings, which I have paid and deilvoed this 
day to the King's Council; and so this man bath a godly restitution." 

Upon leaving the army, Bradford entered the law; but in a short 
time turned his attention to divinity. — He went to Cambridge in the 
year 1548, where he took his degree of M. A., and was chosen Fellow. 
Bishop Ridley was particularly fond of him, and lost no opportunity 
of evincing his reg^ard. He not only lodged him in his own house, but 
presented him also with a Prebend in St Paul's. — ^The modesty and 
diffidence he felt in his own powers prevented him for some time from 
taking orders; but immediately on his commencing to preach, bis 
populari^ became such that he was appointed one of the Chaplains of 
the King. On the accession of Queen Mary, however, this exaltation 
became a sore trial to him, for it attracted the attention of the Govern- 
ment and ultimately brought him to the stake. Nevertheless, he per- 
severed in his public preaching, and used every means in his power to 

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keep alive that Protestant religion which appeared to be so fast sink- 
ing beneath the more gorgeous ordinances of the Popish faith. — In 
Lancashire, the mass of Papists seems to have been so enormous and 
80 greatly exceeding all that were to be found in other parts of the 
kingdom, that Bradford thought himself especially bound to labour 
for a time almost exclusively in this district ; and the speedy recon- 
ciliation of a great portion of the people to the Reformed religion is 
attributed solely to the soundness of his arguments and the zealousn^ 
of his preaching in favour of a creed of which, till he came amongst 
them, they knew not the beauty. It is said that whilst in Manchester, 
in the early part of his career, the people being not very ready in em- 
bracing the word of God, he deprecated in the warmth of his energy 
the indifierence they displayed, and prophesied that, as a punishment 
for their lukewarmness, the Jlfosf should be again said in the Collegiate 
Church, and the profane mummeries of the past age of superstition 
again be enacted within its walls. And when, on the death of Edward, 
Mary ascended the Throne, and Papistry became again the State Re- 
ligion, Mass was celebrated in that Church, and the pageantry of 
Robin Hood and Maid Marian was enacted as of yore within its 
chancel, men looked upon Bradford as a prophet, and many hundreds 
became secretly converts to his creed. But alas ! the fnultUude were 
not turned, but adopted rather the precept of Jeroboam — it was too 
much for them to go up to Jerusalem. 

The Queen soon found means to stop the good this zealous preacher 
was effecting in her dominions, and she failed not to employ them. 
Accident however seems to have assisted her, for Bradford was caught 
in the snare of his own generosity and magnanimity. On the 13th. 
August, 1555, one Gilbert Bourne, a Papist, was preaching a sermon 
in the open air, in the course of which he took opportunity of traduc- 
ing the late King, which so enraged the mob, by whom Edward had 
been beloved, that they immediately commenced a furious attack upon 
the preacher, who, espying Bradford in the crowd, called out to him 
for protection. This the Reformer not only gave him, but he also 
harangued the mob in his favour, assisting him at the same time to 
escape, and <* shadowing him from the people with his gown,'* while 
passing through the streets to his house. 

In three days after this generous interposition on the part of Brad- 
ford, he was publicly accused of sedition and of preaching heresy, for 
which he was committed to the Tower. He lay imprisoned there for 
the space of eighteen months; but he continued to spread forth his 
doctrines, both by preaching in his prison and by writing letters to his 
friends who were without ^ This at length attracted observation ; he 
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was again broofht up for trial, the ranilt of which was a rt-ecnfbte^ 
ment in prison and a strict reftisal to allow him the use of his pen. 
SdU be bad the means of disseminating his religioas opinions. The 
soavitjT of bis manners and the general mildness of his dispomCioii were 
such as to win over the hearts of his keepers, and oompletelj to nullify 
the sereritj of his judges, so that ** his arguments disefaai^gcd oat of 
prison did their caose more hurt than all the terror of their lyraiinical 
treatment did it good!** He preached twice a daj in his prison, his 
room being always filled with hearers— some who csone to listen to the 
heresies be d&redto promulgate even in defiance of the law— othen ont 
of mere curiosity, to behold one who was so zealous undo* afflictioB — 
but the minority from motives of pure and pious devotedness to idigioo, 
and a burning desire to imbibe knowledgee from the lipa of one who 
bad so entirely the power of teaching it 

Atter a third examination he was at length condemned to die, but 
was kept several months longer in prison, in order, if possible, that so 
sound a theolog'an and so important a champion should be gained 
over to the Papists. For this purpose the Catholic Bishops and Priests 
visited him almost daily, conversing with him upon their respec ti ve 
points of doctrine; but, true to his master, he sworved not firom the 
cause— choosing rather to perish at the stake than belie the fixed senti. 
ment of his heart, by flying from ^ the faith once delivered to the 
Saints." As the flames were rising around him he held up his hands 
and face to heaven, and exclaimed aloud, ^ O England, Bnglaadf 
repent thee of thy sins! Beware of idolatry, beware of AntiehristB, 
lest they deceive thee!** 

In personal appearance, we are told, Bradford was **tall and spare, 
and somewhat macerated in body — of a Ikint sanguine complexion, 
with an auburn beard — and his eyes, through the intenseness of bis 
pious contemplations, were often so solemnly settled that the tears 
would silently gather in them, till he could not restrain them fimn 
overflowing their banks and creating a sympathy in the eyes of his 
beholders. He was of a most gentle nature^ and even his < 
wished for the preservation of his life." 


Concerning this remarkable man, much has been already written. 
He was bom in London, July 13, 1527, and fixed his residence in 
Manchester in February, 1596, having been presented to the Warden- 
ship of the Collegiate Chureh on the resignation of Dr. Chaddeiton, 

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who was made Bishop of Chester. In the early part of his life, Dee 
was noted ibr his great acquirements; and he has himself said that he 
** was so vehemently bent to study, that for three years I did inviolably 
keep this order — only to sleep four hours every night; to allow to meat 
and drink, and some refreshing after, two hours every day; and of the 
other eighteen hours, all except the time of going to and being at the 
divine service was spent in my studies and learning." With so close 
an application as this, and a mind so immense in its capability as was 
his, it can excite no surprise that he acquired universal fame for him- 
self— nor, considering the age in which he lived, can we greatly won. 
der at misfortunes resulting from a knowledge so imattainable by 
those even who were deemed the wise men of the day. Before he left 
Cambridge (to which University he was sent in his sixteenth year) his 
claims to notoriety had made themselves somewhat more prominent 
than was altogether pleasant to him; for, having whilst there enacted 
a Greek comedy in which by a piece of machinery a sort of legerdemain 
trick wasexhilnted, and the Cambridge divines having in the profundity 
of their ignorance attributed this extraordinary performance to an un- 
lawfiil acquaintance with the black arts, poor Dee was so persecuted by 
the eharges brought against him in consequence that he hastily left 
England for Louvaine, in the year 1548, where, although he was only 
in his twenty-first year, he so greatly distinguished himself that per- 
sons of the first rank and of the highest talents paid homage to him. 
He was in intimate friendship here with the Dukes of Mantua and of 
Medina; and Queen Elizabeth's &vourite, Sir William Pickering, 
became hu admirer and pupiL He was also sought alter, as he men. 
tions in a letter to the Emperor Rudolph, of Germany — by two empe- 
roiByCharies the Fifth, and Ferdinand his brother and successor; and 
many of the scions of royalty seemed desirous of connecting his name 
in some way or other with their own. One of his biographers relates 
that, whilst in the University of Louvaine, the degree of LL.D. was 
conferred upon him ; but the statement is contradicted by others; and 
in £act there is considerable doubt whether he possessed any claim 
to the title, he himself never having assumed it, but always styled 
himself simply John Dee, which it b scarcely probable he would have 
done had he possessed any right to the honour conferred by the title of 
Doctor of Laws. On loiving this place (which he did in the year 
but one following) he went into Paris, where for some time he 
gave lectures upon Euclid, which gained for him not only applause 
but an ofier of a Professorship in the Univerrity of Rheims. He 
thought proper, however, to refuse it In 1561 he left Paris and 
returned to Englandr— was introduced to King Edward, and received a 

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peaskm of one liwiidred enmiis per aiuiiuB, wbich was titenvwit em- 
changed for the grmnt of two rectoriet. During the latter part of tbc 
reign of King Henry, he luffered much pertecntioD, and was -veiy nearly 
pot to death in eonsequence of having carried on a oorrespoBdenee 
with tome of the lervants of the prineeai Elizabeth at Wooditoek, the 
nature of which correspondence being unknown, it was stated he was 
practising enchantment against the life of the Qneen Maiy. For this 
offence he was thrown into prison, but was ultimately liberated in 1555. 
On the accession of Elizabeth, Dee, for a time, et^o^ somewhat more 
of tranquillity than had fallen to his lot during the past f<rw yean; 
indeed, he was held in such high &vour by the Queen, that she not 
only consulted him as to the most fit day for her ooronatioD, but en- 
trusted him afterwards with secrets of the greatest moment and im- 
portanoe. She paid him a visit at his houK at Mortlake, in Surrey, 
where he bad a very extensive library, consisting of more than fenr 
thousand volumes, one thousand of which were in manuscripts, besides 
a number of mathematical instruments, and a laiige collection of seals 
and other curiosities. Unfortunately, however, this visit was ill-timed. 
Dee's house being then one of ^mourning," so that the Queen would 
not go in. Two jrears afterwards she sent for him to Court, again to 
consult him, and was so delighted with his talents that she promised 
him in ftiture her royal protection, although the vulgar reports to his 
prejudice had not failed to reach her ear. She employed him also, 
in ascertaining her title to several newly ^scoveied countries in distant 
parts of the globe. She likewise, on occasion of her illness, sent him 
into Germany to confer with the most scientific of the physicians 
there respecting her case, and so great was her confidence in him, that 
she gave the most perfisct obedience to his advice and instructions. 
In many other employments she made use of him — amongst the rest, 
in the reforming of the calendar, which we are told was <<one of his 
best performances, and did him great credit;" and when in the decline 
of his fortunes he applied to her (or relief, she appointed two commis- 
sioners to inquire into his circumstances, and to report faithfully to 
her, in order that she might know in what manner to render him more 

Thus far the pursuits of Dee seemed to have confined themselves to 
the level of this earth; at least they had given no indication of that 
sudden change to the speculative which so deteriorated from their use- 
fulness. But the current of his life was altered — he became a '< dreamer 
of dreams" and an enthusiast— and where, as hitherto, he had given 
his mind to the study of that which was scientific only, he now gave 
himself up to researches into «)iat which was not alone scientific, but 

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esaeatiaUy spiritual also. And with this study commenoed the real 
soiTows of his life— with this rising into the ideal began the bitter 
aAictions of the aetuaL In th